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ITulla reeordanti lux e$t tVi^a/a.— Mabtial. 




ft » kw .. 

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I -. 


At the -dose of a volume we are permitted in a preface, or, to speak exactly, in a few after-words, to 
address our readers in a more direct and personal manner than on other occasions ; in a manner some- 
what similar to that of a Parliamentary representative, who meets his constituency at the close of a 
session, to review briefly his labours in the past, and renew his pledges for the future. 


A glance through the pages of .the volume we have just completed is suggestive of some very 
pleasant thoughts, as to the present position and future prospects of the Art of Photography* At no 
former period has its practice been so wide-spread, or its results so perfect ; iio former period has 
witnessed so much mental activity amongst its devotees, or so much commercial success amongst its 
professors generally ; at no period has the Photogbaphio News been in communication with so large 
a circle of correspondents, or addressed such a numerous body of readers. Photographic journalism has 
indeed boroe . a singular position, in being so essentially a cause and a consequence of photographic 
progress. It is in no spirit of self-laudation, but simply for the purpose of mentioning a noteworthy fact* 
we make the remark, that in its literature Photography occupies a position unparalleled by any of the 
older Arts and Sciences. We know of no branch of Science or Art which has been or is so largely 
represented, which has its every fact and phase so completely recorded as Photography ; of no exclu- 
sive or technical literature which has been so readily appreciated and freely encouraged as that of 

We feel at once pride, pleasure, and encouragement in recognizing and contemplating these facts. 
We feel it a privilege to conduct a Journal for a circle of readers so enthusiastic and so appreciative. 
But we also feel a great responsibility. With each accession of readers — and during the year we have 
had many hundreds of accessions — ^we feel that responsibility is increased. 

In the volume now in the hands of our readers, we have aimed primarily to present a perfect 
chronicle of one year's Photographic Progress, in every quarter of the world : a record of scientific 
experiment and investigation, of growing art-culture, of ever-expanding economic development. 
Whatever experimentalists in every branch have discovered or confirmed ; whatever artists have achieved ; 
whatever society discussions have made clear ; whatever new scope or fresh applications commercial 
enterprize has unfolded ; whatever, in short, has conduced to the advancement of the Art, or the 
advantage of all classes of its adherents, we have endeavoured to chronicle with exactitude and frdness. 
Our second aim has been to aid the progress we have recorded, both by initiating improvements and 
giving impetus to those commenced by others. To this end we have been aided by a staff of 
contributors which has included some of the most able writers, skilled experimentalists, profound 
chemists, and accomplished photographers and artists who have been associated with the Art. To 
this end we have been aided by a highly intelligent and liberal circle of correspondents, to whose hints 
and suggestions our readers are largely indebted. And to this end our own energies, by constiant 
experiment, observation^ and research^ have been entirely devoted. 


We have the satisfaction of believing that we have not entirely failed in our aims. The 
encouraging communications we receive, and the rapidly increasing circle of readers we address, 
afford the best evidence that we have to no small extent succeeded in our efforts ; and we here take 
occasion to offer our hearty and appreciative . tha^iks to contributors and correspondents for their 
valued sympathy and aid* 

So much for the past. For the future we need not many words : we prefer to be judged by fulfil- 
ment rather than promise, by results rather than pledges. Wherein we have done well we will continue 
in well-doing. Wherein we can do better, we shall omit no opportunity or occasion of improvement 
which may be conducive to the interests or Pleasure of our readers. The continued expansion of the 
art involves ever fresh demands upon its representative literature. We shall always endeavour to meet 
these demands. And whilst we shall hope to maintain for the Photoobaphic News the position of 
f;he guide and referee of the student ; the registrar and text-book of the scientific experimentalist ; 
the counsellor and encourager of the artist and operator, we shall endeavour also to meet the requironent^ 
of the art in its rapidly widening applications as an important branch of Industry. In abort, 
whatever relates to the advancement of the position of Photography as an art, a science, or a 
profession, we shall endeavour to uphold, and to worthily sustain the position of the exponent of 

Photogri^hy and representative of Photographers* 

We conclude by wishing our readers a Merry Christmas and a Happy New Tear. 

82, Patbbnosteb Row, December 2Ath^ 1868. 

(/if^. ^/. 9>^-f'^ 


Vol. VII. No. "2^.^.— January 2, 1863. 


Another year of steady improvement has passed. No great 
or specific change in the general practice of the art, no 
^Tcat discovery or invention, has been added to the record. 
The year has, nevertheless, been one of decided activity and 

At the commencement of the year the advent of the 
International Exhibition, and the position of photography 
therein, was a topic of all-absorbing interest. The Exhibi- 
tion has come and gone, bat its influence on photography | 
has been comparatively unimportant. The relations be- 
tween the two commenced with misunderstanding, and 
ended withont satisfaction. It is true that in this Exhibi- 
tiua photography for the first time received definite recog- 
nition as a distinct and independent art ; and it is true 
that it fully maintained, by the excellence of the various 
contributions and variety of its applications, its claim to 
sQch a position. In one point alone, so far as photography 
and photographers themselves are concerned, did the con- 
tributions come short of what might have been hoped and 
anticipated. We refer to the question of permanency, 
ilany prints which were subjected to the influences of 
(limp walls, and some which were not, faded very palpably, 
even whilst hanging in the Exhibition. That some prints, 
even when hung on the same walls, did not fade, proves, 
however, that none need have done so if the conditions of 
permanency were well understood and carefully observed. 

Printing, without doubt, still continues to be the chief 
photographic difficulty. Processes for the production of 
nenratives by different methods continue to improve, and 
little seeuLS left to desire in this respect ; but printing 
still progresses with slow and uncertain steps. It is true 
that, in skilful hands, despite the difficulties arising from 
imperfect knowledge and bad paper, very beautiful prints 
are produced. Still very little is understood of the rationale 
of the process, and very little certainty exists as to the 
permanency of the results. The attention which the sub- 
ject has excited during the year it is probable may lead 
to some good results. Mr. Spiller's important discovery of 
the presence of free nitrate in the whites of finished prints, 
and !Mr. Cooper's experiments with resinized paper, will 
tend, it is probable, to the diminished use of albumenized 
paper ; ana, in our conviction, thus to the removal of one of 
tht' causes of fading. 

Setting aside the question of permanency, no branch of 
the art has been the subject of gi-eater trouble and anxiety, 
even to skilled photographere, than the method of producing 
tine and brilliant prints; but the various researches and sug- 
i,'ef»tions of the year have, we believe, contributed largely to 
reduce these difficulties. If all the causes of mealiness or 
want of brilliancy arc not wxll understood, at least the 
means of overcoming such difficulties arc more familiar. The 
u>e of an ammonia-nitrate bath for albumenized paper has 
l".'en found in many hands of immense value in this respect. 
Tiiming the excited paper before printing is stated to have 
jwcn found in the United States to give excellent results, 
i'he use of a bath of acetate of soda prior to toning has been 
lound useful by many, and in others the perfect washing 
and soaking of the film of albumen, prior to immersion in 
the toning solution, has been found effectual in preventing 
mealiness. In all cases the use of toning baths, mixed long 
enough to have attained maturity, and moderately slow 
toning, have been found of the utmost value. The efficiency 

of various remedies indicates the fact that various causes for 
evil exist. A common opinion has prevailed to the effect that 
to the bad quality of the paper most of the causes might be 
traced. Mr. Sutton has proposed, by rendering the paper 
itself waterproof, to confine the image solely to the mm 
of albumen on its surface. The same idea, in modified 
forms, has been proposed before, but not extensively carried 
out. Fi-om what we have seen of the results of the new sug- 
gestion, we hope much. But we shall see. 

Associated with the question of permanent printing is the 
subject of photo-lithography, which has excited much interest 
during the year. For the purposes of reproduction of all 
subjects in which gradation is secured by artificial means, 
such as stippling or hatching, the processes of Col. James, Mr. 
Osborne, and others, seem to have attained perfection. The 
attention of the two gentlemen we have named has been 
almost solely confined to the reproduction of maps and simi- 
lar subjects, and not to the securing of half tone. Recently 
Col. James has given some attention to that part of tho 
question, and has favoured us with some examples which are 
full of promise. More recently we have been favoured with 
the examination of some specimens by the process of M. 
Asser, amongst which are by far the finest specimens of half 
tone we have seen. 

The year has been prolific in modified dry processes. 
The tannin process has maintained its ground, or increased 
its popularity. Mr. England's modification, by the addition 
of honey, has proved very successful in many hands. Hot 
development and alkaline development have aided materially 
in shortening exposures with these plates, and, in some 
cases, in permitting the production of instantaneous pictures. 
Neither method of development is yet sufficiently well 
understood to give certainty to the processes, but the results 
of both are sufficient to indicate the fact that rapidity 
depends upon development as much or more than upon the 
preparation of the plate. The value of a full proportion oi 
bromide in dry plates has been well-established on all hands. 
Mr. Sutton has proposed equal parts of bromine and iodine, 
as an imperative condition for rapid results. Mr. Kecne 
has long prepared collodion for dry plates with such pro- 
portions, and, in his recently published interesting investiga- 
tions in rapid dry photography, has had opportunity of 
fully confirming its value. Mr. Bartholomew has also 
added some valuable suggestions for dry plate photography, 
which have not been very extensively carried out, but have 
been nevertheless very successful. Messrs. Ilislop, Ward, 
Window, and others, have offered valuable hints on the 
simplest of all dry processes — ^simply washed collodion, 
without preservation. In these hands plates thus prepared 
have been very successful. As to the simplicity and value 
of such a process, there cannot be two opinions. 

We have reason to believe that, in portraiture at least, this 
year has been one of very great commercial success, especially 
amongst skilful photographers. We are glad to believe that 
a process of purgation has to some extent been going fonvard. 
What have Dcen termed " Photographic Dens " have become 
more scarce, and able photographers more plentiful and 
successful. We have heard, with much satisfaction, of a 
large number of instances in which the number of portraits 
taken during this year have been more than douole that 
of the preceding year. 

In landscape photography we fear that there has been 
less activity. One of the most distinguished dry plate pho- 
tographers informed us recently that he had not taken one 


[January 2, 1863. 

landscape during the summer, bo absorbing have been the 
demands of portraiture. Nevertheless, we hope that the 
forthcoming Exhibition will not bo wanting in good 
examples of landscape photography. 

Instantaneous photography has excited much attention 
during the year, and its conditions seem to bo better under- 
stood as consisting in simplicity rather than complexity. 
Good chemicals, good lenses, and good light ; bromo- 
odized collodion, and iron development, are generally 
known to be the main requisites. Breose's wondrous in- 
stantaneous transparencies have excited so much admira- 
tion, that he has been induced to appoint London agents for 
their sale ; and his moonlight pictures, at one time regarded 
by many as a hoax, are now received as veritable results. 
Wilson, lUanchard, Kibble, Harman, and others, have all 
added their quota of instantaneous results during the 
year, whilst England has not been less usefully engaged in 
producing many thousands of charming souvenirs the art 
treasures in the Exhibition. 

We have had the pleasure of chronicling various minor 
improvements during the year, which do not need specific 
mention here. Although there still remains much room for 
improvement, there has bjen unquestionable progress in the 
art aspects of photography. The appliances of photo- 
graphy have been improved, its applications extended, and 
increased activity generally been manifested. Photographic 
societies generally have not been progressing. The London 
societies have, it is tnie, increased in numbera, and some of 
the provincial societies have also been prosperous; but there 
has been a general declension on the whole, many of the 
societies having either died, or sunk into a torpor which 
resembles death. 

One of the most important and satisfactory events of the 
year was the passing of the new Copyright Act, which 
gives to the photographer the sole rignt to reproduce his 
own pictures, and checks piracy by the prompt enforcement 
of penalties. 

We confidently anticipate, in the coming year, continued 
progress, and hope for all our readers renewed and increased 


The I'ccent experiments in ammonia development are likely 
to suggest many valuable theoretical conclusions, both 
regarding the nature of the process of development, and the 
operation of preservative preparations. It is clear, for in- 
stance, from recent experiment, that the use of the coating 
of tannin is not merely of a mechanical character. It is not 
simply a varnish helping to render the desiccated film 
permeable by aqueous solutions, as has been suggested by 
some authorities. If this were the case, a solution of am- 
monia would be sufficient to develop plates prepared by other 
methods. We recently tried the effect of ammonia on 
plates simply washed and dried without preservative. No 
perceptible result whatever followed ; but on the addition 
of a little pyrogallic acid to the solution, an image rapidly 
appeared. The negative was not a satisfactory one, as, on 
intensify' ing, fog and irregular deposit ensued. We had not 
time then to repeat the experiment, only having a sinele 
plate at haTid. A letter recently received from Mr. Leahy 
confirms this result, and adds the interesting fact that car- 
bonate of soda answers the same purpose as ammonia. He 
writes as follows : — 

Sir, — Since my former communication on the subject of 
developing by ammonia, I have been trying some experi- 
ments, with the view of finding out whether the develop- 
ment was due solely to the ammonia or to the tannin and 
ammonia combined. For this purpose I prepared plates by 
the ordinary tannin, the Fothergill and Sisson's (borax and 

fum) processes. The pictures taken on the plates, prepared 
y either the Fothergill or the borax and gum process, 
could not be developed by ammonia alone, but were rapidly 
brought out by a mixture of tannin and ammonia. The 

proper proportions seem to be, froan 10 to 15 drops of strong 
ammonia to an ounce of the ordinary 15-grain tannin solu- 
tion. The plates prepared by the borax and gum process 
gave beautiiul results, when treated with the foregoing 
mixture of tannin and ammonia. The pictures were of a 
reddish brown, and very sharp and vigorous, even before the 
application of the pyrogallic acid and silver, the principal 
use of the latter (with pictures developed by the abovc( 
^ being to intensify, almost all the details being visible 
before its application. I have also tried a solution of 
common soda for developing tannin plates, and with almost 
as much success as the ammonia. A solution of tannin, 
with the addition of a little soda, will develope either the 
Fothergill or the borax and gum prepared plates, but 
rather slowly. The foregoing modes of developing would, I 
should think, succeed with any of the dry processes, but I 
have tried them only with those mentioned. 

The development seems to be owing to some decomposi- 
tion of the tannin, as, in its absence, neither the ammonia 
or the soda produced any effect. — Your obedient servant, 

Thomas M. Leaht. 

Dublin, Uth December, 1862. 

In a recent letter. Major Bussell adds some interesting^ 
remarks, which we subjoin. He says : — 

" With regard to the ammonia development, I have had 
no failures in the way of working I have described, except 
in a few of the earliest experiments, before I had found out 
the proper proportions of ammonia, and the necessity of 
thorougn washing before intensifying with the ordinary 
developer. When these points were attended to, there has 
never been in my hands the slightest tendency to fogging 
or irregular action. My plates, I may observe, were all 
thoroughly freed from nitrate, sometimes by immersion in 
strong solution of salt, and always were soaked for hours in 
common water. I have found, by careful experiments, that 
the ordinary mode of development can be made to bring 
out an image after nearly as short an exposure as the am- 
monia and pyro, by using at first a very strong solution of 
pyro, with a mere trace of silver and acid ; but in cases of 
short exposure, the ammonia treatment, besides economising 
the pyro, appears always to have its advantage in brightness 
and cleanliness. 

" You are not satisfied with my idea as to the manner in 
which the ammonia acts. I put it forward with diffidence, 
as very little is known on the subject ; but if it is not the 
true one, it, at any rate, seems the most probable explana- 
tion. Ammonia, added to tannin or pyro in solution, causes 
discolouration of the same kind as is produced by the ad- 
dition of nitrate of silver ; and if this action takes place on 
an exposed plate, the appearance of the image takes place 
in a very similar manner, and is of the same colour. The 
chief difference is, that tannin and ammonia develop much 
more energetically than tannin and nitrate of silver. 

"The difference between the energy of ammonia and 
nitrate with pyro is not so great ; gallic acid with ammonia 
is intermediate in effect between tannin and pyro, when all 
are used with ammonia. In Mr. Leahy's experiments the 
development was produced by the action of the ammonia on 
the tannin. Mr. liurst's theory that the ammonia only acts 
in making the developer penetrate cannot be right, as, with 
the collodion I use, tne strongest solution of pyro will pro- 
duce scarcely any trace of an image — usually no perceptible 
trace, in a quarter of an hour — ^the liquid containing enough 
alcohol to make it completely penetrate and whiten the film 
immediately, whilst the addition of one thirty-second of a 
drop of ammonia will cause the image to start out in all its 
details in a few seconds, 

" The subject is rather obscure ; I do not understand the 
action of heat with tannin alone ; heat will discolour pyro- 
gallic solution, but I think not tannin." 

Regarding the question of development, we differed from 
so careful an observer as Major Russell with considerable 
diffiilcnce; but we felt that his view of the theory did not 

Januaey 2, 1868.] 


account for all the known facts. At present we offer no 
theory, but wish for further evidence. The subject is a new 
one. and may prove wider in its suggcstiveness than at pre- 
sent appears. 

Exhibition oe Coloused Flames to an Audience. — Illu- 
minating A Laboratort with Yellow Light. — Estima- 
tion OF Organic Matter in Water. — Keadt Formation 
op Binoxidb of Utdrooen. — Examination of Coloured 

\s easy way of exhibiting to many persons at once the 
striking phenomena of coloured Aamcs, has long been 
wanted. Some metallic compounds need simply to be placed 
in a colourless gas-and-air flame on a platinum wire, for them 
to evolve the characteristic colour in sufficient copiousness 
to be plainly visible to a large audience ; of these, sodium 
and its compounds, must be first mentioned, the readiness 
with which they give rise to the well-known yellow light 
being often painfully antagonistic to other experiments of 
this character; next follows lithium, the vividness of whose 
rt^l light (when not eclipsed by the accompanying soda) is 
almost equally striking, and then perhaps may be ranged 
bariam, strontium, &c. By employing, according to Mr. 
Crookes' suggestion, the various metallic chlorates, conside- 
rably hotter results may be obtained, but for demonstrations 
to an audience this plan is hardly applicable, in as much as 
the light, very vivicT though it be at tne time, is too much 
of a flash. What is wanted is some means of evolving a 
steady uniform light from each peculiar metal, unmixed 
with any other colour. Messrs. Wolf and Diacon have 
lately proposed a plan which seems to fulfil all the desired 
conditions in a very perfect manner. They state that on 
passing a current of hydrogen through a slightly bent tube 
containing a volatile body in the lower part of the bend, 
and heating this strongly, the gaseous jet escaping at the 
open extremity is charged with the vapours of this body, 
increasing in quantity with the increased heat applied to 
the tube. By igniting the hydrogen a coloured name is 
produced, which in some instances oecomes dazzling, when 
the combustion is stimulated by a jet of pure oxygen. 

^iany metallic chlorides, but especially alkaline metals, 
and their volatile compounds, produce, under these condi- 
tions, perfectly distinct, and very lasting coloured flames, by 
placing in the tube a sufficient quantity of material. Upon 
examining these flames in the spectroscope very curious 
 appearances are produced. A globule of sodium heated in 
an iron tube, through which a hydrogen current is passed, 
^ivin an intensely bright jet, in the spectrum of which 
&PP -ar six well-defined rays, all being clearly marked upon 
a Hiqhtly coloured grouna. This ground is not continuous, 
but has two sudden variations in intensity ; the first of these 
tintrt ig remarkable for its correspondence with a green 
line, which appears to depend upon the existence of an 
excc-sa of sodium vapours. By raising the temperature of 
the iron tube so as to increase the quantity of metallic 
yaponr carried off by the hydrogen, the green band makes 
its appearance, limited by a very fine green line between 
fi of calcium and 9 of barium, and at the same time is 
ob^rved the effect, remarked by Fizeau, the reversing of the 
brilliant yellow ray, due to the sodic vapours, surrounding 
tbe flame. Potassium, slightly heated under the same con- 
ditions gives a mag^ficent flame, which can easily be main- 
tained for a long time by the successive addition of metallic 
globolcB. The rays composing the spectrum of this metal 
are ten in number, and have for the most part been des- 
cribed by MM. Qrandeau and Debray. When potassium and 
^liumare introduced together intothMiube, the spectrum of 
tbe potassium at first appears alone, but as it fades the 
wdium rays appear with glowing intensity. By observing 
the two spectra thoa superposed, it is easy to decide upon 

the relative position of the rays of the two metals. It is 
then seen that the blue lines of sodium and potassium in 
no way coincide. In tiying their experiments they had no 
metallic lithium, but the same method applied to the 
chlorides of the preceding metals having given very clear 
spectra, though not so brilliant as with isolated metals, 
these experimenters were enabled to replace this metal by 
one of its volatile compounds. Instead of the iron tube, a 
small tube was used formed of platinum plate rolled round 
on itself; by heating in it pure chloride of lithium, four 
characteristic and veiy brilliant lines are obtained, one of 
the lines, a blue one, corresponding almost exactly with the 
faintest of the two blue caesium lines. Numerous experi- 
ments made upon these various bodies, and particularly on 
sodium, yielded identical results, whatever method was cm- 

Sloyed to volatilize either the metal or one of its compounds. 
y using sodium electrodes in Ruhmkorfi'^s induction appa- 
ratus, the sparks exhibit all the above-m> ntioned rays, on 
which is superposed the spectrum of the circumambient gas 
whenever the spark is accompanied by a luminous atmos- 

Volatilisation in a hydrogen current seems to be appli- 
cable generally. It has been successfully applied to chloride 
of calcium ; and though with chlorides of stroutivfu and 
barium, which are not sufficiently notable, the results are 
not superior to those obtained by the ordinary method, it is 
very successful with the chlorides of copper, zinc, &c., which 
give spectra so distinct and intense as to render the study 
of them exceedingly easy. With some metallic compounds 
this light is so brilliant that it may be advantageously 
employed for the projection of the phenomena on to a screen 
for lecture demonstrations. 

To the photographer these results possess considerable 
interest. The hydro-sodium flame is luminous enough to 
illuminate a laboratory with brilliancy, whilst its actinic 
power is absolutely niL It would thus be invaluable in the 
photogi'apher*s dark room; the only drawback would be 
the alkaline character of the vapours arising from the com- 
bustion. These could, however, be easily removed by a 

Organic matter in water is always a serious impurity, but 
few suffer so much from its presence as photographers. 
Dr. Woods has recently devised a very simple method of 
determining the amount of organic matter so present, which 
appears likely to be useful. The method is based upon the 
reducing action exerted by the organic matters dissolved in 
the water upon permanganate of potash, employed as a 
standard solution. A litre of water is mixed with a decided 
excess of pure sulphuric acid, and warmed in a porcelain 
basin to a temperature of 140^ Fahr. ; the solution of per- 
manganate is then added, drop by drop, from the burette, 
until the pink tinge is permanent for half an hour. The 
" chamelion solution" contains one millegramme of crystal- 
lised permanganate in a cubic centimetre of distilled water ; 
with this strength, the water supplied to Chatham requires 
from 2*4 to 7*5 cubic centimetres to produce a permanent 
coloration. It is necessary to exclude the interfering influ- 
ence of iron in the state of protoxide, so that when this 
constituent is present the water should be evaporated to 
dryness, the residue ignited, dissolved in sulphuric acid, and 
reduced by sulphurous acid, when the same standard solution 
will give the amount of iron, and a deduction can be made 
accordingly. Thus in possession of a method of deter- 
mining the amount of organic matter of a transitional nature 
or reducing chai*acter, it becomes necessary to institute a 
standard of comparison, for it would be practically impos- 
sible in each instance to identify the kind of organic im- 
purity. Dr. Woods selects for his standard oxalic acid, and 
with weighed quantities he estimates the volume of per- 
manganate required to destroy it; the results of analysis 
are therefore stated directly in accordance with this standard, 
and can at any future time be translated whenever the specitic 
character of the organic matter present in any other samplo 
shall have been ascertained. As instance of the kind of 


[Januaey 2, 1863* 

results obtained by this method sewage water, and a sample 
drawn from a pump in the neighbourhood of a cesspool have 
been tested by this method ; the latter was found to contain 
no less than nve grains of organic matter (oxidisable) in the 
gallon. Photographers would do well to practise this 
simple kind of test occasionally, for oxidisable organic im- 
purity is especially injurious in their operations. 

Somewhat alliea to the subject of purification of water 
is the formation in a ready and cheap manner of binoxide of 
hydrogen, which has just been accomplished by Mr. Duprey. 
By passing a very rapid cuiTent of pure carbonic acid into 
distilled water, and adding at intervals binoxide of barium, 
perfectly pure oxygenated water is obtained. When the 
quantity of carbonate of baryta is sufficiently large to 
obstruct the passage of the gas, the clear liquid containing 
all the oxy-water must be decanted, and the current of car- 
bonic acid again passed into it. 

As soon as more binoxide of barium is thrown in, a fresh 
quantity of oxygenated water is formed. In this way we 
obtain water strongly charged with perfectly neutral and 
pure oxygenated water, which can be concentrated under an 
air pump. Care must be taken to maintain a sufficiently 
rapid current of carbonic acid so as always to be in excess of 
the small and gradually added binoxide of barium, which 
must, moreover, be finely powdered, as large pieces escape 
decomposition. The carbonic acid must be washed care- 
fully by passing through flasks containing carbonate of 
lime. The best re-agent for oxy-water is decidedly perman- 
ganate of potash which, poured into water containing even 
a very small portion of oxygenated water, disengages all its 
oxygen. This body serves, therefore, to estimate oxygenated 
water as well as organic matter, the phenomena of decolora- 
tion being very apparent. 

Three samples of glass have been sent for examination in 
the spectroscope. No. 1 (S) is of a brown colour, and admits 
of the passage of several active rays. It is, therefore, inap- 
plicable for photographic purposes. No. 2 (F. Lane) is of 
an orange colour, and, in the instrument, appears almost 

Serfect. Some few actinic rays, however, stniggle through. 
[o. 3 (Mr. Wilkinson) is similar in colour to No. 2, but a 
trifle darker. As a photographic screen, it is excellent, the 
whole of the active rays being cut off by it. 



Considerable interest is at present excited in certain circles 
in America by the alleged production of photographic por- 
traits of disembodied spirits ! We alludea to the subject in 
a recent paragraph, as a canard. We now find a good deal 
of matter on the subject, collected from various sources, in 
the Spritual Magazine ; and as photographers generally will 
be concerned in preventing their art being made the vehicle 
of imposture, we give some copious extracts. It is scai'ccly 
necessary for us to say that the presence of additional ghostly 
images on the plate, besides that of the real sitter, is easily 
compassed. The evidence fixing the identity of such 
phantom images, and as to the mode of producing them, 
we leave without comment to the good sense of our readers. 

The facts, as narrated by Dr. H. F. Gardner, of Boston, 
are as follows : — 

" Mr. W. H. Mumler, an amateur photographer and practical 
chemist of Boston, was engaged on Sunday, October 6th, at 
the photograph gallery of Mrs. Stuart, at No. 258, Washington 
Street, in adjusting the chemicals, which had become dis- 
arranged. Having prepared a plate, and placed a chair near 
the focus of the camera, by whicli to adjust it, he proceeded to 
take his own photograph, card size, by quickly jumping into 
position and standing still the required time. The picture — a 
copy of which we have seen — represents Mr. Munuer ns an 
active, rather athletic-looking man, standing with his coat off, 
and the black cloth, used to cover the camera, in his hand. 
Upon the back of this card appears the following statement : — 
* This photograph was taken of myself, by myself, on Sunday, 
when there was not a living soul in the room beside me — ' so to 

speak.' The form on my right I recognise as my cousin, who 
passed away about twelve years since. — ^W. H. Mumleb." 

" The form referred to is that of a young girl apparently 
sitting in the chair, which appeared on developing the picture, 
gfreatly to the surprise of the artist. The outline of the upper 
portion of the body is clearly defined, though dim and shadowy. 
The chair is distinctly seen through the body ami arms, also 
the table upon which one arm rests. Below the waist, the 
form Twhich is apparently clothed in a dress with low nock 
and snort sleeves) fades away into a dim mist, wiiich simply 
clouds the lower part of the picture. Mr. Mumler alllrms that 
this form bears a likeness to a spirit cousin, and its apix^aranco 
was eoually unexpected and startling to the artist, who was 
not a oeliever in spiritualism, though perhaps Bomcwhat in- 
terested, and had no reason to suppose himself a medium. 

'• Since this accidental discovery, we are assured by Dr. Gard- 
ner that at least a dozen similar photographs have been taken, 
a new spirit form appearing at the side of each subject. Tlio 
artist experiences a loss of strength in the process that limits 
him to three or four sittings per day. The forms are not as 
distinct as we could desire, yet they are sufficiently marked to 
prove individuality to friends. Dr. Gardner kindly left with 
us two specimens of photographs taken subsequently to tho 
one we have described. They are card photographs of a 
gentleman and his wife, residents, we believe, of Chicopee. Oa 
the picture of the lady stands beside her a female form, re- 
cognised by both parenta as the likeness of a spirit daughter. 
The upper portion of tho form is quite distinct, but the lower 
fades out in the form of flowing skirts, partly covering tho 
mother's dress, till quite indistinct at the floor. The other has 
a less distinct form, yet one recognised by the gentleman as 
that of his mother in the summer land. A peculiarity about 
this picture — ^less distinct though it is — renders it one of the 
most interesting we saw. Tho upper portion of the shadowy 
figure alone has a recognizable form, and this is so large, that 
were the figure to be completed in due proportion, tho feet 
would be carried some distance below the floor. It is a magni- 
fied image of a human (or spirit) head, hardly possible to have 
been produced from any visible object within range of the in- 
strument. And the arm of tho spirit seems thrown about the 
neck of the subject f^her son), tho hand resting like a little 
cloud of mist upon tne opposite shoulder. Witnesses were 
present, in all cases except the first, to testify that only ono 
person sat for each picture, and yet we are assured that in 
some instances three additional forms apjiear. Similar results 
to those mentioned above can perhaps be produced by any 
skilful photographer, by introducing forms during a portion of 
the time a phite is exposed, or reflecting an image w\yon tho 
sensitive surface in the dark room. We trust scientific and 
truth-loving photographers will experiment, that, if possible, 
the fraud or accident, if either exist, may be exposed, or the 
means made use of by spirits to project an image upon the air 
exposed to the line of vision of the camera be discovered." 

We next hear that Mr. William Guay, a practical photo- 
grapher, had undertaken to test and verify this matter. He 
thus writes on the subject to the Banner of Lights a Boston 
paper : — 

'"'Boston, Nov AH, 1862. 

" ' Mr. Editob, — ^Having been informed by Mr. William H. 
Mumler that you desire to publish the results of my investiga- 
tion into the possibility and genuineness of Mr. M.'s photo- 
graphic impressions of spirit forms, it gives me much pleasure 
to detail to vou what I have seen. As I have been commis- 
sioned by Alessrs. A. J. Davis and Co., you can rest assurccl 
that I was resolved, if permitted, to allow nothing to slip my 
utmost scrutiny. Having had ten years' continual practice in 
this particular branch — ^that is, negative on glass, and positive 
on paper from negative — I felt competent to detect any form 
of deception. 

" * Having been permitted by Mr. Mumler everjr facility to 
investigate, I went through the whole of theoperation of select- 
ing, cleaning, preparing, coating, silvering, and putting into 
the shield, the glass upon which Mr. M. proposed that a spirit 
form and mine should be imparted, never taking ofl' my eyes, 
and not allowing Mr. M. to touch the glass until it had gone 
though the whole of the operation. The result was, that there 
came upon the glass a picture of myself and, to my utter as- 
tonishment — having previously examined and scnitinizcd every 
crack and corner, plate-holder, camera, box, tube, the inside of 
the bath, &c. — another portrait. 

January 2, 1863.] 


" ' Having since continued, on scTeral occaBions,my investiga- 
tions, as described above, and received even more perfect re- 
sults than on the first trial, I havo been obliged to endorse its 
legitimacy. — ^Respectfnlly yours, Wm. Guay.' 

'* In a letter of the 26th November, after having made a full 
and minute report^of his visits, Mr. Quay reports to Messrs. 
Davis and Co. as follows : — ' The weather has been too un- 
favourable since Saturday to print from the negatives, on one 
of which I perfectly recognise the likeness of my father. The 
picture of my wife is very faint, but sufitcient for mo to re- 
cognize the features. It is impossible for Mr. Mumler to have 
procured any pictures of my wife or father.' Ho also says that 
whilst he sat for the two pictures he mentally desired that the 
likenesses of his father and of his mother should bo produced. 

"Another photographic artist, Mr. H.Weston, of 31, Province- 
street, Boston, writes that after making a full examination of 
t)ie process, he found a spirit-figure on the negative. He also 
says that he cannot conceive of any process by which imita- 
tions could be made without his detection." 

{To be etmtinued.) 

pared and preserved in closely-stoppei-ed bottles, on account 
of its tendency to become humid and decompose in damp air. 
After that add 35 ounces of water, filtor, and then add 5] 
pints more water, and preserve in stoppered bottles. When 
this bath loses its toning properties through age, without 
having been exhausted, it may be restored by the addition 
of about four drops to the pint of a ten per cent, solution of 
chloride of gold. When tne bath has lost its smell, it may 
be restored by adding a few drops of a fi^esh solution of 
chloride of lime. Either this or a few drops of solution of 
chloride of gold wiil restore its action after it has been par- 
tially used, and has grown inert. 

On immersing the print in the hypo bath, the tone of the 
proof changes at once to a violet brown ; but, as soon as it 
is properly fixed, it returns to a bluish black. Finally, the 
I prints are washed, as before described. The hyposulphite 
bath should only be used once. 




The tone of French prints is often very much admired, and 
we believe they are in the majority of instances produced by 
a bath containing lime in combination with the gold. We 
are indebted for the following formula to Mr. Parkinson, of 
Dieppe, who showed us some very exquisitely toned prints 
proQuoed by it. He informed ns that it was almost uni- 
versally used among French portraitists. It is by M. 
Ommeganck, and originally appeared, we believe, in the 
BuUftin Bdge ; but as wo recieve it in French MS., we are 
a little uncertain of its origin. The tones are a rich deep 
black, quite free from mealiness, blueness, or slatiness in the 
shadows, and have warm tint in the half-tints, which 
is very valuable and flesh-like in portraiture. The formula 
stands thus : — 

Chloride of gold 15 grains. 

Carbonate of lime 150 

Chloride of lime 23 

Water 7 pints. 

Dissolve in aqua regia (nitric acid one part, hydrochloric 
acid two parts), metallic gold 90 grains ; after solution, add 
30 grains of common salt to prevent decomposition during 
evaporation ; evaporate by a gentle heat, until the saline 
mass contains no excess of water. It is not necessary to 
posh the evaporation to complete dryness ; a trace of acid is 
not of much consequence. Dissolve the salt of gold thus 
obtained in three ounces and a half of rain or distilled water, 
and you have a solution containing about 45 grains of 
chloride of gold to the ounce of water. It is not, with this 
preparation, necessary to weigh every time small quantities 
are required, nor is it necessary to preserve it from moisture. 
This salt of gold, generallv called chloride, is a hydro- 
chlorate of chloride of gola ; the formula stands thus :— 
AnCljClH, in round numbers, metallic gold 200, chlorine 
and hydrogen 140, together 340 ; reducing we shall have 
10-1-7=17 ; multiplyingby C we shall have gold 60, chlorine 
and hydrogen 42, together 102 ; then 90 grains of gold will 
yield about 150 grains of the hydrochlorate in question. 
Two drachms and forty minims of the solution are taken and 
triturated in a porcelain mortar with 150 grains of carbonate 
of lime. If it be intended for immediate use, the preparation 
►honld be left in contact for one hour ; if on the morrow — 
and this is best — ten minutes will be found sufficient. By 
thU treatment the chloride of gold abandons its acid and a 
certain portion of its chlorine. The whole of the operations 
should be conducted by the heat of a water bath, in winter, 
at a temperature of between 70® and 80® Fah. Carbonate 
^t lime being nearly insoluble, a slight excess of it is not so 
iraportant as an excess of carbonate of soda. The reaction 
Wiiig completed, 28 grains of chloride of lime (hypochlorite 
of lime) are added ; this latter salt should be specially prc- 

* Vrom an article on " Methods of Toning" In our Tiab Book op Photo- 
ciAfHT rot 1863. 


BT M. MC. A. OAXn>IN.* 

[We are glad to find that M. Gaudin has been following up 
and verifying our experiments on the coagulation of dried 
albumen. His further suggestions may be valuable if they 
prove tnie in practice.] 

The familiar fact of the coagulation of albumen, manifested 
every day in the cooking of eggs, has probably greatly con- 
tributed to lead chemists, as well as photographerB, to be- 
lieve, that dried albumen possesses the same property of 
coagulation ; hence the directions given, and doubtless fre- 
quently followed, of passing a hot iron over albumenized 
papers before sensitising them on the nitrate of silver bath. 
The precaution of ironing the paper is taken to coagulate 
the albumen, and prevent it from leaving the paper and 
mixing with the bath. 

During the past few months many articles have appeared 
in the photographic journals tending to prove that albumen, 

Previously dried, no longer undergoes coagulation by heat ; 
ut this absence of coagulation, which means that albumen 
continues easily soluble in water, was not in this way clearly 
explained; and this it was that decided me to prove the 
truth by experiment. 

I took white of eggs dried spontaneously, having* the ap- 
pearance of dry transparent scales of a straw colour; I 
dissolved a portion in warm water. The solution soon 
formed a viscid liquor, and was quickly converted into froth 
by beating. I wrapped another portion in paper, and ex- 
posed it for an hour in an oven heated to the temperature of 
boiling water, where the portion previously dried had be- 
come a solid mass. The dried albumen thus heated became 
entirely dissolved, forming a frothy liquid, exactly as if it 
bad not been exposed to neat, consequently, dried albumen 
loses none of its solubility by being exposed to the (dry) 
temperature of boiling water. 

In order to ascertain whether the result would be the same 
if the albumen were exposed to a higher temperature, I 
wrapped another portion in paper and placed it in a sand- 
bath, so hot as to scorch the paper and the albumen enclosed 
in it. At the close of the experiment the greater portion of 
the albumen was scorched, emitting the odour of burnt t^g. 

In this instance warm water dissolved the nnscorched f^gf^, 
leaving the scorched portion intact ; and upon heating the 
liquid to ebullition, it remained limpid, even ceasing to 
froth, immediately absorbing its bubbles as soon as the 
vessel was withdrawn from the fire. From this we must 
conclude, that albumen, previously dried, remains entirely 
soluble in water, whatever the temperature to which it has 
been submitted, providing this temperature is not high 
enough to acorch it, or cause decomposition to commence ; 
and albumen, intact, but burnt, ceases to bo coagulated by 
heat even after it has been dissolved again. 

Dried albumen, dissolved without being submitted to heat, 

• Lb Lumier^ 



[jANtriBT 2, 1863. 

is coagulated by heat; but I have noticed that, by this 
■imple desiccation, it does not dissolve as ready as albumen 
fresh from the egg^ which compels me to conclude that any 
degree of desiccation weakens the faculty of coagulation. 

From this it results that the passing a hot iron over paper 
covered with dried albumen produces no effect, and that the 
presence of water is essential to obtain coagulation. In all 
probability, a minimum quantity of water suffices to pro- 
duce this phenomenon ; as to the paper, if already dry, it is 
sufficient to place it in a cellar, or other damp place, for a 
time, for the albumen to become coagulated by the passing 
of a hot iron over it. 

To render albumen in the dry state insoluble, we must 
have recourse to chemical actions. Dry albumenized paper 
immersed in absolute alcohol, abandons its albumen to water 
as soon as the alcohol is evaporated ; concentrated gallic 
acid no longer producing an}* effect on it. It is different 
with the metallic salts : the salts of silver and of mercury, 
for instance, produoe insolubility. With the albumen- 
ized papers in a dry state this is an essential point, as they 
must always be sensitized on the silver batn before they 
can be used, only it would be preferable for the albumen to 
be coagulated in advance ; ana if, heretofore, the passage of 
a hot iron over the dry paper was in reality without effect, 
it is now certain that on performing the same operation at 
the proper moment, that is, while the coating of albumen is 
still moist, or is rendered so by exposing the dried paper in 
a damp place, an excellent effect will result, which abso- 
lutely prevents the separation of the albumen, which so fre- 
quently spoils the silver baths. For the preparation of 
albumen on glass, it will be also useful to take this ezperir 
ence into account by submitting the coated plates to a degree 
of heat suitable to coagulate the albumen, before they become 
completely dry, so as not to take this trouble in vain, inas- 
mucn as the introduction of albumen into the bath is much 
more mischievous in this case than in the other. 

Albumen is an organic substance, the complexity of which 
has remained hitherto impenetrable to chemical investiga- 
tion : in all probability its molecule is composed of a great 
number of atoms, (since sulphur forms a part, yet cannot be 
separated, because its proportion is so small,) then its weight 
is considerable ; and it is this that induces me to say that a 
very smaU proportion of water suffices to promote its coagu- 
lation. This useful proportion is actually disengaged only 
when the desiccation nas arrived at its last limit, and we can 
be certain of succeeding in coagulation only when the paper 
appears not quite dry to the touch. , 

[The amount of moisture necessary to secure the condi- 
tions for coagulation is an interesting subject for inquiry. 
Mr. J. W. Osbonie recently remarked to us, that in the pre- 
paration of his photolithographic transfer, he has observed, 
that when the paper, coated with gelatine and albumen, was 
floated on boiling water, face upwards, no coagulation of the 
latter took place at boiling heat until the whole had become 
thoroughly permeated with moisture, and that, by observa- 
tion and experience only, could the proper time be deter- 
mined. — Ed. p. N.] 


Photoobapht and photographers have recently been figuring 
in the police court. Besides the recent copyright infringe- 
ments, there have been, within the last week, two or three 
criminal cases, which we give as reported in the daily papers. 
The first was before Mr. Elliot, at Lambeth, and stands as 
follows : — 

Robbery at the Cbtstal Palace. — Oeorye Reatall, a young 
man, who has been manager of the business — ^in the Crystal 
Palace — of Messrs. Negretti and Zarabra, was charged with 
stealing thirteen lenses of the value of £60, the property of his 

Mr. H. Kegretti deposed thai the prisoner was employed by 
his partner and himself to conduct their business at the Crystal 
Palace, at a salary of £8 a week, and about a fortnight since 

he came to them and said he had missed as many as nineteen 
lenses from his stall in the palace, and mentioned the name of 
a party whom he suspected. He (witness) told him at once to 
communicate with the police at the palace ; but instead of 
doing so, he gave information of the alleged robbery at Scut- 
land-yard, giving OS his reason that the police of the palace 
were too friendly with the suspected party. Three of the four 
lenses produced were the property of witness and his partner, 
and were a portion of those missing. 

A shopman to Mr. Blizzard, pawnbroker, in the Borough, 
produced the four lenses, and said that they had been pledged 
with him by the prisoner, who described them as his own pro* 

Sergeant Palmer, a detective, said that about a fortnight 
ago he received instructions to make inquiries respecting 
thirteen lenses stolen from the Crystal Palace. He saw the 
prisoner on the subject, and in his account about the lenses ho 
said they were safe about three weeks ago, though in his 
information he mentioned that they had been gone six 
months. He asked him if he pawned them, or either of them, 
when he not only positively denied having done so, but de- 
clared he had never been in the shop of a pawnbroker in his 

The prisoner, who denied the charge, was remanded to a 
future day. 

On Tuesday last the case was again heard, when Mr. Sleigh 
appeared for the defendant, and Mr. Lewis, jun., for the prose- 

Mr. Negretti said that since the last examination he dis- 
covered other lenses missing, and requested a further remand, 
to give time for tracing the other property, and which, with 
that produced, was of the value of from £90 to £100. 

Mr. Sleigh represented the prisoner as a person of high re- 
spectability, and, he felt quite sure, incapable of committing^ 
the offence attributed to him, and examined the witnesses at 
some length, after which the prisoner was again remanded, but 
admitted to bail. 

We sincerely hope that at a future hearing Mr. Restall 
may be able to prove his innocence, as we know him to be 
a skilful photographer, and should be sorry to think him a 
dishonest one. The next case was heard at Marlborough 
Street, before Mr. Tyrwhitt, and stands thus in the report : 

The Majob and the Photoobapheb. — Winter Thompson, 
photographer, Oxford-street, was summoned before Mr. Tyr- 
whitt for assaulting Major Lister. 

The evidence of the major went to show that he went to 
the defendant's with his wife and child, six years of age, to 
have the latter's portrait taken, and there saw a female, who 
said that if the first portrait taken was not approved of, a second 
should be taken, there being also a notice up to a similar efiect. 
A portrait was taken, but as the child's head, owing to the 
position in which the child was placed, was sunk between its 
shoulders, he objected, and asked for another ; but the artist 
rudely objected, said it would do very well, and on his going 
down stairs, declining to go on with the transaction, a man 
(Mr. Thompson, jun.) rushed out of- a door on the left hand 
side of the passage, and pushed him back, threatening to knock 
lum down. Another man (the defendant) then rushed out of 
another room and seized him by both hands. The defendant 
then retired, at his son's request, and an alteration of a violent 
nature on the younger Thompson's part ensued, in the course 
of which he said that ho was justitied in detaining him (the 
major), and taking his life. The cost of the portrait was to be 

Mr. Edward Lewis, of Great Marlborough-street, for the 
defence : The major said that he had been to the Messrs. 
Southwell's, the photographers, previously, but was perfectly 
satisfied with the reception he there met with. Mr. Thompson 
did not say that if he pointed out any fault he would do another. 
He did not wait for the photograph, and only was reluctantly 
shown the negative. 

Mr. Thompson, jun., was called as a witness for his father, 
and said the complainant would not point out any fault in the 
negative, but peremptorily refused to have the portrait, and re* 
fused to give his name and address, or to pay the 2s. 6d. for it. 

A young woman named King, in the employ of the defendant, 
said that the major wished to arrange the child himself, and 
would not let the artist do so. Mr. Thompson, jun., did not 
push him, and Mr. Thompson, sen., rushed out of the room, and 
said the major should not strike his son. 

Januakt 2, 1863.] 


Robert CoubIds, artist to the defendant, said that he told the 
major that he was not a judge of a negative, as he was not a 
photographer, and the major then went oft' in a tiff. 

Major Lister said he should like to ask the artist if thero was 
not a notice up, stating that if the first portrait was not 
approved of a second wouldbe taken. 

The witness said that was the case, but the portrait had not 
been shown the complainant, only the negative. 

Mr. Tyrwhitt said he thought the complainant had been too 
hasty in the matter. He did not see, until the positive was 
taken, how any person could be a judge of a portrait. lie 
thought there was a misunderstanding altogether, and should 
dismiss the summons. 

On the same day, at Guildhall, there was another case, with 
no further photographic interest than that it was a robbery 
in a photographic establishment. 

Cash Robbery. — George Bates, a porter, lately in the employ 
of Mr. Newcombe, of the London School of Photography, 103, 
Newgate-street, was charged before Alderman Humphrey with 
breaking open his master's cash-bos, and stealing therefrom 

Inspector Wilson, of the C division, said the prisoner sur- 
leadered himself at the Vine-streot Polico-station ; and after 
receiving the usual caution, he was told that the chargo against 
him wds for robbing liis employer of £1G0. He then stated 
that he broke open the c;ish-box and took away the money, 
but that while proceeding to Bristol he was robbed of the 
greater portion of it. He also said he had twice contemplated 
suicide, but that he could not muster up courage enough to 
destroy himself. 

Wm. Joseph Anderton, the manager of Mr. Newcombe's 
estabhshment in Newgate-street, said the prisoner had been in 
their employ about twelve months, first as porter, and after- 
wards as assistant in preparing the materials for the use of the 
artist. His wife was also housekeeper in the same establish- 
ment, and lived with the prisoner on the premises. On the 
night of the 25th of November last he put £150 into the cash- 
box, and put the key on the top of the safe, and when he 
arrived on the following morning he discovered that £157 
19a. 4d. in gold and silver was gone, but that a large amount 
in notes, cheques, and postage-stamps, had been left behind. 
The ca8h-lx)x had been forced, and, as the prisoner absconded 
very suddenly on that day, suspicion fell upon him. 

Mr. Martin, the chief clerk, said a warrant was issued from 
this court on the 27th of November, for the prisoner's appre- 

Alderman Humphrey asked what had become of the pri- 
soner's wife? Witness said she and her two children had 
been in the Bow Union ever since the prisoner went away. 

Alderman Humphrey asked the prisoner what he had done 
with all the money? — ^The prisoner replied that he did not 
wish to answer any questions, as he admitted he was guilty. 

Alderman Humphrey inquired what sort of character the 
prisoner had previously borne f — Witness said he came from 
Mr. Greer's, the cutler, in Newgate-street, with an excellent 
recommendation. He had also held tho situation of engine- 
keeper and organ-blower at Christ Church, Newgate-atrcet. 

The prisoner was remanded. 



TBI present Igatheriu? of works in Chuss XIV. of the International Exhlbl- 
ti«m will mark an epoch in the history of photography. Vot the first lime, in 
the crescent of all the arts and 8cience.s, it is recognized as an inde- 
pendent art. 

la the London Exhibition of 1951, sun pictures were grouped with philo- 
nhpkal instrumeatfl ; in the P.iris Exhibition of 1855, with printing and 
*Pl»Ucd design ; so that, in the firat, a photographic landscape was supposed 
to baa; in its proper place, behind a sextant or a voltaic battery : in th« 

• The following gentlemen!tatcHl the Jury :— Hugh W. Diamond- 
a-D., F.8.A., Secretary, Lond^in ; A. J^. J. Claudet, F.R.i?., London, Photo. 
gnpher ; Baron Oros, Chairman, France, Senator ; Lord Henry Lennox. 
M.P., DepatT Chairman, London ; C. T. Thompson, London, Official P.ioto- 
S^l^er, Science and Art Department : assisted by B. Delessert, Fraice ; 
Ueot-Colonel Demanet, Belgium, Member of the Department of Fine Arts 
n Ut &071I Aoademj of Belgium, as Aflsociates. 

second, among paper*hanglngs, candlestiolu, and childrens' toys. That em 
of confasion has now been passed, and photography has obtained a distinct 
place in the arts — it is admitted to rank as a separate class. 

As this public reception of photography into the great sisterhood of the 
arts will close the first period of its existence, and open a new and larger 
field of endeavour, it may be well to recall verv briefly a few leading facts of 
its public history up to the state at which the present report will have to 
make a more minute and technical record of its efibrts. 

Photography, as a practical art, only dates, as it were, from yesterday, 
though some of the natural laws through which it worla were subject to 
investigation and speculation in ancient times. 

Three hundred years before Christ, Euclid appears to hare observed the 
principle of the stereoscope, and Oalen, subseauently, in his work " On the 
Use of the Different Parts of the Human Body," has fiillv described tho 
various phenomena which occur when viewing any body with both eyes, and 
then, alternately, with the right and left. Mr. Hunt has tcmced, with much 
seal, in his '* Jdanual of Photography," the progress of the discoveries of the 
various minds by which the art haa been built up, and describes the 
researches of Licetus and Kircher, in 1646, on the phosphorescent inflaence 
of the sun's rays. Tliat Petet, In 1722, foand that solutions of nitrate of 
potash and muriate of ammonia cnrstallized more readily in light than in 
darkness. In 1777, the illustrious Scheele gave, in the following account, 
the first philosophical examination of the peculiar changes in the salts of 
silver, and shov.-ed the dissimilar power.'i of the different rays of light in 
effecting their change. He says :— " It is well known that the solution of 
silver in acid of nitrate poured on a piece of chalk, and exposed to the beams 
of the sun, becomes black. The light of the sun reflected from a white wall 
has the same effects, but more slowly. Heat, without light, has no effect on 
the mixture. Fix a glass prism at the window, and let the refiracted sun* 
beams Call on the floor ; in this coloured light pat a paper covered with luna 
comua, and you will observe that this horn-silver grows sooner black in the 
violet ray than in any of the other rays." Senebier repeated and extended 
similar experiments in 17ul. Fischer added to our knowledge in 1795. Count 
Romford published, in the "Philosophical Transactions" of 1706, "An 
Inquiry Concerning the Chemical Properties which have been Attributed to 
Light ;" but Mr. Robert Harrop pubUshed, in "Nicholson's Journal," in 1802, 
a communication in which he negatived the experiments of Count Romford, 
and proved that the actions described by him were due to light, and not 
to heat. 

In June, 1802, Sir Humphry Davy published, in the " Journal of the Royal 
Institution," an "Account of a Method of Copying Paintings upon Olass, 
and of Making Profiles by the Agency of Light upon Nitrate of Silver." Sir 
Humphry Davy had conjointly experimented with Mr. Thomas Wedgwood, 
considerable success attending their researches, and Sir H. Davy concludes 
with this observation : — " Nothing but the preventing Uie unshaded parts of 
the delineations from being coloured by exposure to the day is wanting to 
render the process as useful as it is elega«t." Wedgwood and Davy Called 
entirely to fix the produced image; and, with the exception of some 
further contributions to pur aid from Drs. Toung and Wollaston, no great 
step was made until 1814, when Joseph Nicephore Niepce made the first per 
manent successiful result. He named his process " Heliography," and in 
1827 he presented a paper to the Royal Society on the subject ; but as he 
kept his process then as a secret, it was not received. The memoir was 
accompanied with several specimens of his success on plated copper and 
pewter, and were afterwards distributed amongst his friends in London. By 
the favour of Mr. Joseph Ellis, of Brighton, an opportunity has lately been 
afforded to closely examine one of these specimens. It is tlie copv of an 
engraving produced by the action of light in a camera on a Uyer of bitumen 
covering a silvered plate of pewter. It is not altogether in effect unlike a 
Daguerreotype, but wanting in the unpleasant metallic brilliancy, and 
having considerably more depth of tone in the shadows, which, it is stated, was 
produced by a subsequent application of the vapour of iodine. This specimen 
had been given by Niepce to his landlord, when he resided at Kew, and is so 
inscribed. The patient and persevering endeavours of Mr Ellis, who is the 
author of an instructive work, " The Progress of Photography," to procure 
this specimen, and save it from oblivion, are well worthy of praise. 

The processes of M. Niepce were afterwards published, and he appears to 
have entered Into a sort of partnership with M. Daguerre, who, In 1824, 
began a series of experiments with a view of fixing the pictures which had 
beeh taken in the camera ; but it was not until the 7th of January, 1838, 
that Daguerre made his communication to the Academy of Sciences of his 
invention of the process known as the " Daguerreotype." 

Mr. Fox Talbot, of Lacock Abbey, who had experimented since 1833 in 
photographic researches, on January 30th in the same year, 1839, commu- 
nicated his discovery to the Royal Society of his process for multiplying 
photographic impressions, and which were then generally known as photo- 
genic drawings. The investigations in France, by M. Daguerre, and of Mr. 
Fox Talbot, in England, were perfectly independent of each other. 

The Rev. J. B. Reade, in April, 1839, took pictures of natural history by 
means of the solar microscope. Nitrate of silver was employed to sensitise 
the paper, and a solution of nut-gall washed over Just previous to use : the 
paper being used wet, considerable sensitiveness was thereby secured. In 
the same year, 1839, on the 29th of May, Mr. Mungo Ponton made a commu 
nication of great importance to the Ro]ral Society of Arts of Scotland, on the 
use of bichromate of potash. Sir John Uerschel also used glass plates at 
this period, and published several valuable papers on the progress he had 
made towards the development of photography. 

It was not until February, 1848, that Mr. Fox Talbot patented the process 
which, for a long time, bore his name, and which was subsequently cnanged 
to that of Calotype. 

Recording merely the names of Mr. Hunt, Dr. Draper, M. Becouerel, 
M. Claudet, M. Bayard, M. Niepce, Mr. Cundell, Dr. Wood, Professor Wheat- 
stone, Sir David Brewster, and others, wc come to that of Blr. Archer, who, 
in 1S51, Just before the opening of the Exhibition in that year, published his 
collodion process. Although albumen had been extensively used, it never 
became popular, and, with the exception of Ross and Thomp.son, of Edin- 
burgh, some few in England. M. Martens, M. Ferrire, and a limited number 
in France, it did not maintain Its position, chiefly from its great want of sen- 
sitiveness, and the greater fbcilities afforded by collodion. Previous to th>^ 
Ureat Exhibition of 1851, it will be recollected that no collodion pictures 
were publicly exhibited ; and we are exclusively indebted to the late Mr. 
Frederick Scott Archer for his application of collodion. Although very many 
details have been perfected, and many labourers have devoted hours In suc- 
cessful improvements, it must not be forgouea that Archer pobiished his 



[January 2, 1863. 

coUAdion prooess— a trulf uMtal and praotical one. which, even np to the 
present time, cannot be nid to have received tnch aid from any tingle con- 
tributor as to detect from the greatness of his first application. At what 
date Mr. Archer first used collodion is unknown ; but this much is certain, 
that he first explained the process to his firiends on the 21st September, 1850, 
at which time he was as well acquainted with its valuable properties as he 
was at the time he published it in Blarch, 1851, in The Chemist 

Mr. Archer had been brought up at a silversmith's, but, not liking his 
occupation, some ftriends succeeded in placing him in a position more con- 
genial to his feelings. Ue commenced as a sculptor, and wishing to preserve 
for himself records of the works which he had executed, induced him to 
study photography. For some time he had used the calotype process of Mr. 
Fox Talbot, to which he was the first to app!y the pyrogalUc acid ; but he 
complained of the difficulty in procuring paper suitable for his work, and, 
with a view to form a finer sur&ce to the paper, he first covered this iodized 
paper with collodion, and afterwards sensitized the paper by entire im- 

The next thought was to combine an iodide direct with the collodion, and 
apply the collodion to glass. In his early instructions and practice, the col- 
lodion film was always removed by Mr. Archer from the glass on which the 
picture wu taken. 

It has been stated by some that M. Le Oray, in Paris, about the same 
time, and quite independently, also conceived the idea of improving the sur- 
face of paper with collodion. Whatever question there may be about this 
application of it, there is none whatever that the application of collodion to 
glass alone was an original and prior thought and application of Archer's. 
Mr. Archer, although possessed of many gifts, did not possess that of delicacy 
of manipulation, and. at the same time, he was always more anxious for 
research than the taking of photographic pictures ; hence some of his friends 
succeeded far better than himself in obtaining satisfactory results from the 
process he had invented. It is satisfactory, as clearly establishing how little 
success had attended M. Le Gray's practice, that Mr. Archer applied to a 
firiend, in the early part of 1852, for some specimens to forward to Paris, to 
prove what good results might be obtained with collodion under ordinary 


(To be continued.) 




Paris, Zlst December 1862. 

At the last meeting of our Photographic Society, a com- 
munication from Dr. Sabattier was read, on the means of 
obtaining direct positives on glass. He says : — " At the 
meeting of the Society in July last, when my note on direct 
positives obtained by the aid of diffused light was read, 
the President remarked, that in order to be able to judge 
of a process, an essential condition is to have its products 
before our eyes, and invited me to send some proofs in 
support of my communication. In reply to this invitation, 
I now send the Society a dozen of my pictures. It would 
have been easy for me to have sent a much greater number, 
but as it is sufficient to have well defined the circumstances 
under the influence of which is manifested a phenomenon 
which can bo repeated indefinitely, it seemed to me that 
this dozen pictures will establish, indisputably, that we 
can constantly and regularly, by flooding it with light, 
convert a negative, sketched in the darkness of the operating- 
room, into a positive. 

" These pictures, are, it is true, not free from defects ; but 
the competent judges to whom I now submit them, will 
redily percieve that the defects must bo attributed to the 
operator, and not to the process. 

" In the hands of an operator better acquainted with photo- 
graphic manipulations, the process will satisfy all the 
requirements of the art. A very few experiments will serve 
to convince the most sceptical. 

" I cannot too often repeat, that nothing can be easier and 
simpler than to make a direct positive, while at the same 
time nothing can be more curious. As the materials and the 
manipulations remain the same, without any new baths or 
washings, by merely giving access to diffused light at a 
certain moment, we suddenly convert the faint negative into 
a positive. 

" In my previous communication, I announced three condi- 
tions as indispensably necessary to the manifestation of 
this phenomenon. 

" Ist. To give access to diffused light before the negative 
arrives at its perfect state. 

" 2nd. To sensitize with a perfectly neutral bath. 

*• 3rd. To develop with pyrogallic acid, to which acetic or 
other acid, not too energetic, is added. 

*• Recent experiments have shown me that the second of 
these conditions, deduced from misinterpreted facts, is not 
indispensable ; that we can as easily obtain positives with 
an acid sensitizing bath, as with one that is neutral, which 
latter, however, gives the best results. 

" Two conditions only are therefore essential, and they are 
easily fulfilled. For every photographer, who is not preju- 
diced, but sensible of the attractions of the art or science he 
cultivates, can experiment, see with his own eyes, and touch 
with his hands, the most surprising phenomenon his art can 

The pictures sent by Dr. Sabattier excited much interest, 
and the thanks of the Society were awarded to him for his 

M. de Poilly exhibited to the Society a new system of ap- 
paratus, permitting the working of wet collodion without 
exposing the plate to light. He remarks that — 
1 i" Collodion, the basis of the photographic processes called 
instantaneous, has not yet received its full extension outside 
the operating room : hence it follows that a tent has hitherto 
formed an indispensable piece of photographic luggage. 

" To be able not only to lessen the material, but also to 
simplify photographic operations, so that the merest tyro 
may operate with the same certainty as the experienced 
artist ; to be able to operate without a dark room of any sort, 
as well at home as abroad — such ai'e the advantages pre- 
sented by my apparatus. 

" Hitherto travelling photographers have been obliged to 
operate under tents, and to carry with them a load which it 
is not always easy to transport from place to place, or suitably 
dispose of at the scene of operations. With my system of 
apparatus, wherever the camera can be planted, my new 
dishes find their place, and the operations proceed mecha- 
nically, so to speak, and with remarkable celerity. 

" To be able to operate without labaratory or tent, I have 
invented for each puotographic operation a compound appa- 
ratus, in as many pieces as there are operations to perform in 
obtaining a picture. *^ Sensitizing ApparcUus. — This is a 
bath employed in sensitizing the collodion film with nitrate 
of silver. Its form gives it many advantages over vertical and 
horizontal baths, without possessing any of their inconveni- 
ences. Thus, it requires only the liquid of an horizontal bath 
while the plate is covered with nitrate, as instantaneously 
as with a vertical bath, and this is done with the aid of a 
handle which suspends this bath under the base of the 
camera obscura, and admits of its turning, so as to a»sumc 
the necessary positions : — 1st, for introducing the plate ; 
2nd, for its immersion ; 3rd, for draining it ; 4th, for re- 
moving and conveying it into the slide ; all without auy 
loss of liquid, and without its having received any photo- 
genic lignt. In this and the succeeding operations the 
are not soiled, or stained by the solutions. This bath is 
suspended by its handle beneath the base of the camera, in 
an horizontal position ; before immersing the plate it 
is placed vertically, and is fixed in this position by a hook. 
The quantity of solution judged necessary to introduce 
into the bath — a quantity which must never exceed that 
requisite for an horizontal Dath— collects at the lower end of 
the bath. While it is in this position the collodion jplate is 
introduced, the collodion side towards the o^yerator; the 
bath is then shut, the hook unfastened, and the bath imme- 
diately resumes its horizontal position. The solution col- 
lected at the bottom of the bath covers the collodion plate 
in an instant. The bath is then rocked, to allow the ether to 
evaporate, and when the plate is supposed to be nitrated, 
the bath is again placed in a vertical position, and held 
there by the hook. The solution now flows to the bottom 
of the bath again, and the plate is found in its first position, 
which permits it tc drain before being passed to the slide. 

" Tlie slide. — In this position the slide of the camera 
is adapted to the bath by the aid of grooves; this done, 
the slide and the ^bath are opened, and unhooked ; the 

Jancaky 2, 1863.] 



vLole reyolves towards the operator. By this movement 
the plate places itself in the slide, and the liquid flows into 
the resenroir. The slide is then closed, the bath removed, 
and the plate is now ready for exposure in the camera. 
When it is desired to shut the bath hermetically, the 
vnlcanized cover is screwed on, as in ordinary vertical 

'* Apparatus for Devdaping Baihs. — Upon leaving the 
camera, the picture, as is well known, exists only in the 
lati'nt state. I have therefore been led to construct a 
bath made so as to receive the plate from the slide, after 
its exposure in the camerai; without its being attackable by 
the external photogenic rays ; to develop and watch the 
appearance oi the image in its different stages ; and lastly, 
to wash it, and allow it to be withdrawn only after its com- 
plete appearance. Upon removing the slide from the camera, 
it is adapted to this bath by means of grooves, and the quantity 
of developing solution introduced requisite to cover the plate ; 
the covers are then opened, and the plate slides into the 
bath. As soon as it reaches the bottom, it is rocked, as 
generally done ; and upon opening the bottom of the bath, 
emplojring a reflector, and examining it by light admitted 
through a yellow glass, we follow the operation step by 
step. When satisfied with the result, the liquid is rejected ; 
the picture is then washed, withdrawn from the bath, and 

M. de Changy presented to the Society hb new arrange- 
ment for positive printing frames. 

These frames differ essentially from the ordinary ones, 
inasmuch as the screws and springs usually employed to 
press the negative and printing paper together, are sup- 
pressed. To replace these, the inventor has placed under 
each bar of the back of the frame four india-rubber springs, 
arranged perpendicularly to the bars, and which, by their 
elasticity, assure an equable, gentle pressure. In another 
system of frames, the bars, furnished with the same kind of 
india-rubber springs, are armed on their upper part with an 
excentric lever, which, upon being turned, permits of the 
gradual exercise of a strong pressure upon the glass. 

M. Stephen Geoff ray communicated some observations 
upon the employment, as recommended by himself some 
yc'ars ago, of the iodide of carbon in the solutions of spirits 
of turpentine and of benzine, of which some photographers 
make use in the preparation of negative paper. This sub- 
stance possesses great advantages, for it is soluble in these 
two venicles, which the alkaline or metallic iodides are 


The President, while recognizing that the organic iodides 
might be advantageously employed in this case, feared that 
M. Geoffray was in error with regard to the nature of the 
compound sold to him under the name of iodide of carbon^ 
for hitherto the iodides of carbon have only been prepared 
in the laboratory. 

M. Geoffray said, that the product in question was in the 
form of a yellow powder, sligntly crystallized. 

From this description the President thought it must be 

The President then reminded the Society, that on the 1st 
of May, 1863, the bi-annual Exhibition of the Fine Arts 
would be opened. Without beincf able at present to state 
what would be the conditions of this exhibition, the Com- 
mittee of administration is already in a position to inform 
photographers that, according to the practice adopted in 
former years, the exhibition of the French Photogi-aphic 
Society would figure side by side with that of the Fine Arts. 
The President considered it his duty to invite the members 
of the Society to make their preparations at once, and 
unite all their efforts to represent the French Photographic 
Society worthily at this Exhibition, to which the best pro- 
ductions of foreign artists will be admitted. 

Sia, — ^I was somewhat surprised to see, from your last 
weeks ** News," that our talented friend Mr. Sutton is about to 

patent a process for the pi-eparation of caoutchouc-albumen 
paper, when, from what 1 can learn as to his method of pre- 
paration, the system has been in operation amongst many 
eminent photographers for four or 1^Ne years at least, and 1 
believe was invented by my old friend M. Gaum6 of Mans, 
who obtained a prize from M. Le Due de Luynes, through 
the Societe Photograph ique de Fran9aise in 1857 or 1858, 
I remember not which year. M. Gaumo prepared his paper 
in a solution of gutta-percha, or india-rubber and benzole, 
and sensitized it in a bath which contained alcohol. Again, 
M. Durer, of Paris, used india-rubber solution regularly, and 
1 believe, uses it now. Herr Carl Sholts has used it for seve- 
ral years, I am informed and M. Von Monkhoven, 1 believe, 
published a fonnula for the use of it three years ago. 1 
have used a solution of gutta-percha since 1858, both in 
Paris, in New York, and in Bremen Haben, and now use 
it in England ; and should you think my formula worth 
the notice of your readers, I shall be happy to send you the 
details in the course of a few weeks, as I do not hold with 
those narrow-minded people who would patent for self-grati- 
fication that which of propriety belongs to the whole photo- 
grahic profession. I admire Mr. Sutton, and give him all 
honour for his valuable works and suggestions ; but I cannot 
help expressing my extreme surprise and regret that he 
should seek to monopolize to himself the honour to which 
M. Gaum6 is entitled, and the profits which ought to be the 
common property of the profession. With many apologies 
for the length of my letter, and the indifferent English in 
which, as a foreigner, I am compelled to express myself, 
I remain, yours most respectfully, Anoelo Biahchi. 

Art Studio, Zetien Ilall, 22nd December, 1862. 

[The use of waterproof solutions for preparing photo- 
graphic paper is not new ; but, until the publication of Mr. 
Sutton's specification, we cannot state the precise amount of 
novelty it may embrace. We remember repeated occasions 
on which such preparations have been proposed ; but there 
are none, so far as we know, which are precisely the same as 
that of Mr. Sutton. M. Gaum6, for instance, used gutta- 
percha prior to albumenizing ; others have used gutta-pereha, 
india-rubber, &c., without albumenizing. Regarding the 
right to patent such things, it is a wide ai\d difficult ques- 
tion. Whilst we desire to sec the utmost liberality in every- 
thing connected with the art, and are convinced that much 
of its progress is due to the prevalence of this liberality, we 
cannot overlook the fact that there are occasions when it is 
due to the experimentalist that he derive some substantial 
profit from his labours. Few men have contributed more 
valuable suggestions, appliances, and improvements in the 
art of photography than Mr. Sutton — few with so much libe- 
rality. And of this we are assured, that he would not will- 
ingly appropriate either the credit or the profit due to others. 
If it should turn out that the idea has been so far forestalled 
as to make the patent of doubtful validity, we believe Mr. 
Sutton would be the first to propose that his process should 
be given freely to the public. We shall be glad to receive 
practical details, and the results of any analogous process, 
and give them the utmost publicity. — Ed.] 


Dear Sik, — Being a constant reader of your valuable 
publication, I have received great advantages from your re- 
marks and suggestions. I have practised the art, as ama- 
teur, for the last ten yeai-s, and I found that the great desi- 
deratum is good paper, without that high gloss which is 
obtained on albumen ized paper. In that direction I have 
for some time made experiments, which seemed to me satis- 
factory ; but I still postpone to make it public until I shall 
have obtained the opinion of others. I have shown some 
prints to photographers in the neighbourhood, yet I in- 
tended to wait till fine weather. Reading your last number, 
I was taken by surprise to see that Mr. Sutton has taken a 
patent for albumenized paper, by rendering the paper water- 
proof. This is just the process that I pursued. He does it 



[January 2, 1868. 

with india-rubber. I discai'ded it, finding that I obtain 
better results with gutta-percha. Having rendered the paper 
waterproof, 1 iodise and excite. The two proofs which I 
enclose I have finished in a very short time. They print 
quickly. I have only washed them in several waters for the 
space of a quarter of an hour, that you may see if they 
undergo a change by light and moisture. You will kindly 
make some remarks about it in your next number, if space 
permits. I beg you to pardon this hurried note, having been 
in haste for the post. If you find the paper of any value, I 
will continue to experiment, and will send you, by your per- 
mission, specimens. I beg you also to remark if it will in- 
fringe Mr. Sutton's patent-right. — Yours respectfully, 

Alex. ARSvrMa, 
Ambleside, Dec. 22, 1862. 

[Our correspondent is experimenting more especially in 
the direction of Mr. Cooper than Mr. Sutton. If we under- 
stand him rightly, he proposes the use of gutta-percha or 
india-rubber in place of albumen ; Mr. Sutton as a prepa- 
ration for albumen. The prints enclosed are very pleasing, 
and we shall be glad to hear further from our correspondent. 
We do not think he is tranching at all on Mr. Sutton's 
patent-right. See note to a preceding letter. — ^Ed.] 


Dbab Sib, — ^I beg to correct a few errors in my letter of the 
26th of July, published in your issue of. the 26th September, 
and 13th of October, 1862, just arrived. 

Page 467, column 1 : " ]3ut Mr. Blanchard's experiments 
appear to have," &c., should be, " appear at first sight to 
have," &c. 

Page 467, column 2 : " to solve the question of increase of 
sensitiveness," &c., &c., and a third portion, " with iodide of 
cadmium, 3 grains," &c., should be, " with iodide of cadmium, 
3 to 4 grains," &c. 

Page 479, column 1 : " introducing cadmium as a com- 
ponent of the iodiser, &c., and that inferiority increased with 
the increase of cadmium," &c., should be, " and that superi- 
ority increased," &c. 

I hope you will give me space to make some further re- 
marks on the present subject, and to record in your journal 
also, in a comprehensive form, the manner oi my experi- 

A. — Cadmium Iodized Collodion. 

Istly. Superior in durability and sensitiveness, and equal 
in chemical intensity, under iron development, to the same 
with pyro. 

2naly. Whether under iron or pyro development, su- 

Eerior in durability, sensitiveness, and intensity, to any 
romo-iodised collodion developed with iron or pyro — that 
superiority being reciprocally as the quantity oi bromide 
present in the bromo-iodide. 

B. — Iodide of cadmium, 3 grains, iodide of ammonium, 
1^ grains, compared with iodide of cadmium, 3 to 4 grains, 
bromide of ammonium 1^ to 2 grains, both under iron develop- 
ment. The simply iodized collodion, superior in every re- 
spect to the bromo-iodized, reciprocally as the quantity 
of bromide present in the latter. 

C— The same with cadmium and potassium, but with 
somewhat modified results and proportions; for in the case of 
the bromo-iodized, there is the usual limit to the introduc- 
tion of bromide, when of the potassium salt. 

D. — And in all cases of like combinations between cad- 
mium and ammonium, or cadmium and potassium, whatever 
the proportions, provided that the cadmium salt did not fall 
below half the total quantity used, the simply iodized-coUo- 
dion was : 

Istly, Superior in every way under iron, to the same under 
pyro development. 

2ndly, Under pyro, superior to the corresponding bromo; 
under iron only, when the amount of bromide was large. 

3rdly, Under iron, superior to the corresponding bromo ; 
under iron, reciprocally as the quantity of bromide present. 

Thus, the collodion, iodised only with cadmium, under 
iron development, stands first ; and iodized collodion, with 
not less than half of cadmium in it, and with iron develop- 
ment superior to itself when under pyro development. 

All these experiments, be it remembered, were made with 
one collodion, with a bath very slightly acid with nitric 
acid; developers, pyro and proto-acetate of iron. They were 
all conducted as carefully as possible, and the results recorded 
are those obtained from each collodion in its best serviceable 
condition, and this, a little reflection will show, can only be 
done by repeated simultaneous trials of all the collodions on 
one and the same subject every tvv^ or three days, or every 
day (the latter the best plan), taking the best results of each 
up to its deterioration, and over the whole period of experi- 
ment (as the highest attainable excellence), for comparative 

Only this method could enable me to tell, or rather ascer- 
tain, which collodion stood the longest without deterioration, 
which gave the best detail, which the most vigorous in 
action, and which the most sensitive, &c. 

And this now brings me to record the result of other ex- 
periments, not, like the last mentioned, exactly intended to 
show the comparative merits of iodides and bromides under 
iron or pyro development, but to define the quality of the 
salts best suited for any one sample of collodion which may 
be required for early use, or be available in its least service- 
able condition withm a given time. 

A universal iodiser, or one suited for all collodions of 
reputable manufacture, is compoundable of equal portions of 
cadmium and ammonium, or cadmium and potassium, pre- 
ferring the former combinations from its greater durability 
and power of conferring intensity. From this, as a standing 

Soint, it is not difiicult to determine, by a few trials, in re- 
ucing one salt or the other, the iodiser best adapted .for any 
collodions against the day of requirement, whenever that 
may be ; and we can defer the day, or shorten the period of 
ripening, by the knowledge that we can confer keeping 
properties by increajtiing the proportion of cadmium, or 
injure them by the augmentation of ammonium. The first 
defers the age of ripeness or sensitiveness, but gives it greater 
duration; the second accelerates the said age, but makes it 
temporary — the more temporary when the ammonium is 
used as a bromide instead of an iodide. 

And now, with this information, we may compare any 
number of collodions differently prepared and salted, whether 
only iodised or bromo-iodiscd, and determine the degree of 
their respective nature, properties of sensitiveness, durability, 
density &c., and cultivate any one or t'ivo, or all of these 
properties in the subsequent manufacture of other collodions, 
when intended to be particularly salted, which is probably 
the plan followed by most manufacturers. 

If, however, with such different samples of collodion, 
salted so as to put them in the best serviceable condition 
against a certain day, comparative exceptions were made to 
determine the qualities of the salts employed, it would be 
an error, something similar to Mr. Blanchard's, for the 
result would not be a solution of the questions of iodides 
and bromides, but simply a comparison of the different 
degrees of sensitiveness &c., of several collodions particularly 
salted, when in their best serviceable conditions — a matter 
particularly of importance to those who manufacture collo- 

A sensitive plain collodion, with decided organic re- 
action, is, I think, well adopted for rapid work. By reason 
of those organic reactions, the decay of the collodion will 
be rapid ; but it is a great help to rapid work to be able to 
extemporise, at a moment's notice, as it were, in quantities 
suitable for temporary requirements, instead of having 
several pints of cadmium collodion ripening on their shelves, 
and which may not be available in their best serviceable 
condition when most needed.'' 

With such a collodion a large quantity of bromide is 
admissible. As intensity accompanies organic reaction, 
the bromide can be made a regulator of it, although the 

jAIHTiRT 2, 1868.] 



dnratioa of the lednction effected will vary wirh the energy 
of the organic reactions, eventually yielding to the latter, and 
to the r&-establishment of the density, and its increase. 

As I suppose such a collodion— because of its not keeping 
well in its plain state, but sensitive while it did keep — to be 
made up in small quantities, and salted with ammonium 
and caomium, the most sensitive combinations I know of, 
which stands next to cadmium collodion ; which admits of 
the free use of bromide, and which can bo modified in 
Hensitiveness, and in its effect upon the said collodion by 
the increase of one salt or the other, I am led to infer that 
some such case has made successful operators believe that 
the presence of the bromide in large quantities has played 
the important part of sensitiveness, when indeed it was 
rather attributable to the combination, including an alkaline 
salt, to the excitation caused, and to the collodion having 
been employed while that excitation lasted. 

If, however, the bromide was the cause of it, any bromide 
should answer ; and if the bromide was ammonium, it should 
be replaced by bromide cadmium, and a trial given. If 
the collodion were fit to beffsalted with iodide and bromide 
cadminm conjointly, the sensitiveness would be deferred 
appreciably, although more durable when reached. But if 
not of it, insensitiveness and destruction of the collodion 
would ensue, I do not say it would be impossible to make 
a collodion fit for salting with equal parts of iodide and 
bromide of cadmium ; this would, however, be makmg a 
collodion to salt in a particular manner, and it cannot there- 
fore effect the result of my experiments, establishing that 
bromide causes insensitiveness in proportion to its presence, 
for the different iodised and bromo-iodised collodions, from 
one sample, were used by me throughout their various states 
of sensitiveness, past their age of ripeness, and into their 
period of deterioration, and the best results of each re- 
corded. Nevertheless, I say that wherever bromide can be 
introduced it is an advantage, as regards the reduction of 
excessive density, and in its capacity for faithfully rendering 
foliage, &C. 

But that it is impossible to work rapidly without the 
ue of large quantities of bromide, is, in my opinion, an 
error, the dissemination of which will cause, and nas caused, 
many disappointments. The system of parading success, 
and attributing it to particular causes which are not the 
whole truth, is, to say the least of it, disingenuous. If the 
rapid operaton, instead of attributing their success to the 
nse of large quantities of bromide, were to explain how their 
collodion was made, the treatment it should receive, and its 
proDerties of keeping &c., and give a detailed method of 
votxing, it would then be the whole truth, and nothing 
bat the tnith. Until this is done, which no one need expect, 
it behoves us to accept their statements and proofs with much 
caution, especially when the results of careful experiments 
and extended experience are opposed to them. For in your 
own columns you have recommended infinitessimal doses of 
bromide, improperly ridiculed by Mr. Sutton, while many 
eminent photographers reject the salt altogether. To 
the mass of beginners, it is as well to point out that 
the use of large quantities of bromide, on which rapid 
operators claim their success, has, doubtless, some favour- 
sole conditions in the collodion for its presence, and 
in such case is a necessity of the particular method of 
working adopted — ^not the resuscitation, or successful applica- 
tion of a long neglected principle, applicable under every 
ordinary circumstance. In other words, the practice is not a 
ndical photographical, but local necessity; and that, when- 
ever followed witnout a perfect knowledge of the working of 
the ranid operator, disappointment and failure are always 

The next mail will arrive a fortnight hence, and I hope to 
read the oommenoement of the discussion on this bromide 
Uid iodide question, and eventually the decision which mil 
W arrired at by wiser heads than mine. — I am, yours truly, 

AcorsTTs Webb. 

'^^aioQxix^lgit Bottn nvii (^ntmn. 

To Secube Clouds in Landscapes. 

Sib, — Aa the desire for securing natural clouds and proper 
atmospheric effects in landscapes is now happily' increasing, I 
beg to acquaint you with a small instrument which I have 
lately been endeavouring to construct for facilitating this object, 
and would feel greatly obliged by your opinion as to its prob- 
able utility, through the medium of your answers to correspon- 
dents, as you will be, no doubt, better able to judge than I am. 
In the cose of instantaneous views, or those taken over water, 
where the horizon is a straight line, I suppose an excess of 
exposure may be given to the foreground quite easily, by the 
ordinary flap shutter ; but in the majority of landscapes, where 
a much longer period of exposure is requisite, and the horizon 
is seldom a straight line, the light cannot well be cut off 
from the sky by these means, without the more elevatod 
portions of the foreground suffering from want of exposure. 

The small instrument I have constructed, with the view of 
remedying this evil, consists of a folding hood placed on to the 
end of the lens-tubes, in front of the camera, and carrying in 
front a frame filled with a number of small slips, wluch fit mto 
each other ia such a manner as to form a light-proof covering, 
and admit of sliding up and down with a small amount of 

To use this the operator has simply to put his lenses in focus, 
and while he is looking at the image on the ground glass, to 
run his finger along the tops of these slips, and gently press 
them down till they form such an outline as to exacUy cut off 
all the light from the sky ; and then, when the foreground has 
had sufficient exposure, the frame is removed out of the way, 
and an instantaneous exposure given over all the plate, just 
sufficient for the sky and clouds. 

The outline these pieces make is slightly serrated, but that 
assists in softening off the light more mdually. 

The light may be still more graduaUy cut off, if need be, by 
gently lifting up the frame, or turning it round some time, 
during the exposure of the foreground. As the latter part of 
the afternoon is the onlv time when I can attend to photo- 
graphy, and as this neighbourhood is always enveloped in mist 
and smoke at this season, I have not had an opportunity of 
giving this contrivance a fair trial ; but such trials as it has got 
lead me to think that only conditions favourable for photo- 
graphy are required for success. The enclosed, which I 
certainly cannot call pictures, were taken in the evening, and 
are sadly blemished by mist, smoke, and wind. The foreground 
was exposed about a hundred times as long as the clouds. 
The contrivance could be combined with the instantaneous 
shutter, so as to form one instrument. 

It seems to me to make a considerable difference to the fore- 
g^und, especially with a prolonged exposure and compound 
lens, as it cuts off in such cases all the light from the sky 
during the exposure of the foreground. This difference is most 
striking when the lenses are pointed towards the sun. Even in 
that case all sorts of haloes seem to be prevented. Perhaps, in 
cases where there are no clouds to take, it might be found use- 
ful for improving the foreground of the picture, and producing 
a sky of any desired density, to admit of painting in clouds — or 
in the case of dry plates. — I am, sir, your obedient servant, 

Bruce Castle, 29th December, 1862. Alpha. 

[If we remember rightly, the late Mr. Scott Archer was in 
the habit of using a method of securing a short exposure to the 
sky by a meth(^ similar in principle but different in detail. 
A piece of paper was torn or cut, with an edge following the 
outline of the horizon. This was fixed in a frame inside the 
camera, in such a way as to screen the sky during the greater 
part of the exposure, and turned down or removed for a few 
seconds at the close, so as to give a brief exposure to the sky. 
The object is so good that we hail every effort to facilitate it 
with pleasure. If there be oae purpose we have more steadily 
kept before us than another, during the last few years, it has 
been to aid in the abolition of the unmeaning patch of white 
paper which has so long done duty as a sky in photographic 
landscapes, to the destruction alike of atmosphere, breadth, or 
real briUancy. The two examples enclosed very satisfactorily 
illustrate that the contrivance of our correspondent wiU ad- 
mirably facilitate the production of natural clouds in conjunc- 
tion with a foreground requiring long exposure. — ^£d.] 



[January 2, 1863. 

DiSTsiBUTioK OF Medals. — It appears that the medals 
awarded by the jurors in the International Exhibition will bo 
dolivered to the proper claimants, on personal application, at 
the Exhibitioh building. The following letter has been for- 
warded to medallists : — 

Exhibition Building^ South Kensington^ TT., Dec.^ 1862. 

Sib, — ^I am directed by her Majesty's Commissioners to 
inform you that the medal which was awarded to you by the 
International jury will be delivered on presentation of tliis 
letter at the Jury Offices, Western Dome, any day before the 
10th of January, between the hours of ten a.m. and four p.m. 
If you cannot yourself conveniently attend, any person whom 
you appoint to act on your behalf may receive the modal for you 
on presenting this letter, countersigned by you. This letter 
must be produced to ensure admission to the building at the 
"Western Dome, Prince Albert Road, and will have to be left 
with Mr. Iselin, the secretary of the juries, as an acknowledge- 
ment of the medal having been delivered. The certificates of 
honourable mention will not be ready for delivery till a some- 
what later day. — I am, &c., 

(Signed) F. R. ^akdford. 

Photoouaphy and this Lancaskibe Fund. — We have 
pleasure in stating that Mr. Meagher, Camera Maker, of Coppice 
Row, has forwarded to the Photographic Exhibition a very hand- 
some and large trunk camera, which formed a chief attraction 
in his case at the International Exhibition. The price of the 
camera is £25, and he has requested the Secretary of the Society 
to devote the proceeds, when sold, to the fund for the relief of 
our distressed countrymen in Lancashire. 

" Photography' in its Application to the Maoic 
Lantern Educationally Considered." — This is tlie correct 
title of the paper to bo read by Mr. Samuel Higliley, F.G.S., 
&c.. at the meeting of the Photograi)liic Society, on Tuesday 
evening next, at King's College. 

M. Asser's Process op Photolithography. — We have 
been favoured by Mr. Toovey, of the firm of Simonan ct 
Toovey, lithographers, of Bnisscls, with some very fine ex- 
amples of M. Asser's process of photolithography. These for 
half-tone, far transcend anything of the kind we have Ijefore 
seen. Several architectural subjects are very fine, and one of 
a portion of the Town Hall, in Brussels, which was quite un- 
touched, leaves little indeed to be desired. It is full of detail, 
with every gradation of half-tone down to the deep pure black of 
the shadows. In general effect it is strikingly suggestive of a 
drawing by Prout. There are also copies from oil painting, and 
life size head from a statue, with quite sufficient half-tone for 
the subject, and is wonderfully bold and fine in drawing. An 
excellent effect is produced in some by printing in, with a 
separate tint, a sketchy suggestive sky ; in others there are the 
graduated tints from warm brown to the blue sky, which gives to 
some Egyptian scenes from rather hard negatives an exceed- 
ingly fine effect. M. Asser adheres in the main to the formula 
described in his specification. For reproductions starch and 
abichromate are used, for negatives from nature, requiring the 
preservation of half-tone, a paste of wheaten fiour with bichro- 
mite is used. It is probable that some specimens will be 
exhibited at the forthcoming exhibition of the Photographic 

8^0 (^mxt%^m^txA%. 

GoBKisn CnouGB.— You will find Informatioa on the subject of ma^ric lan- 
terns in many of our back numbers, wc may cspeciallj mention Nos. 84, 87, 
88, 89, 00, 120, 127, and others. Perliaps 126 will an&wer your purpose 
best. Photographic slides and other apparatus for the lantern you may 
doubtless procure of Bland and Co., Home and Thoruthwaitc, Murray and 
Heath, Cox, Samuel Highley, and othcn. 

Vais}sibr bt Yerkt.— We have enquired of Mr. Fry as to his yellow glass, 
and haro received confirmation of our remarks last week. The dealer 
linppcned to have a sample of yellow glass, which proved non-actinic ; but 
\u\A not been able to supply with certainty subsequent applications for the 
Hnmo article. 

T. M. Lbaiit.— In speaking of paper prepared with the rcsinate of silver, 
Mr. Cooper means, a.s you conjecture, paper prepared with the rci^iu, with- 
out chloride, and then floated on the silver solution. We have been much 
interested in your experiments with ammonia. The Almaxao was sent. 

Haverfobdwbst.— Benxole will dissolve a coating of ^dia^rubber fr<>m glass 
Probably boiling water and friction will make it peel off. 2. So far as our 
own experience is concerned we prefer the tannin and honey dry plates to 
any others ; except, perhap.s, the collodio-albumcn, and they are more 

troublesome to prepare. Perhaps the best mode of washing is that prac- 
tised by our American con*c:jpondcut. He uses six dipping bathi, re- 
moving the plate from one to another, after remaining long enough in each 
for the coating, &c. , of another plate. Sufficient washing to prerent itaixia 
is thuii secured without much trouble. 3. There may be some danj^r of 
unequal scnsitivencsiiii in Mr. KecneN method, but we cannot say irith cer- 
tainty, iis we have not yet had the opportunity of trying. We are glad to 
hear you find the News so useful, and thank you for the additional aub- 
.scribers you have secured for us. 
Jambs Stoddard.— Where Mr. Warner has not given a formula, he Is doubt- 
less referring to that already given by Mr. Cooper, on pa^ 637, VoL VI., 
of the Photoqrapiiic News, which stands thus : 

Pure frankincence 10 grains 




Chloride of calcium 16 „ 

Spirit 1 ounce. 

We do not understand Mr. Warner as proposing any new proportioaK, but 
describing the method of manipulating, which in his hands has been 

Amicus.— Mr. Osborne's papers on photolithography appear in Noa. 214 
and 221 of the PiiOTooaAPiiic News, pages 484 and 570 of VoL VI. A 
notice of Col. James' system of photopapyrograpliy appears on pa^e 164 
of the|sanie volume, or No. 187. It is based on the same principle a^ 
photozincography and photolithography, but the transfer itself is used to 
print from instead of putting it ou stone or zinc 

JusTiTiA. — The streaky background arising from a new bath we have gene- 
rally found to disappear on ueutraliztng, sunning, and adding sufficient 
acid. Sometimes the presence of actinic light In the dark room will caui>e 
such streaks. Wc have known sucW streaks disappear after using the 
bath a sliort time : and sometimes wc have found the addition of a little 
tincture of iodine to the collodion sufficient to remove them. Moving the 
plate laterally whilst in the bath, will sometimes prove a remedy ; and 
sometimes chan;^ing the po:;ition of the plate, immersing it crosa-^ilae 
%vhen about half-excited in the vertical po:?ition. Tr^ these remedies, and thejbath a little. It is a pity to put the bath a.side as useless when it 
is working so well in other respects. 

A Lady Am.vteur. — You will find full iustructinns for recovering the silver 
from hypo buths, kc, on pa:.;c 50 of our fifth volume, or No. I'JO. Any 
gold remaining in old toning baths may be precipit^ited as dark powder by 
adding solutiou of protosulpliate of iron, the quantity or strength is unlm- 
])ortant, so long as you add until no mure precipitate is thrown down. 
Tlie brown powder uiay be converted into chloride of gold by dissolving 
in (fina rcjia. 

C. P. W. states that ou hi» alburacnir«.d paper, excited on a lOO-graln silver 
bath (•immonia-nitrate, or rather oxide of silver di.ssolved in nitrate of 
ammonia) when hun^ up, the silver solution collects in drops as if repelled 
by die paper. We liavc never met with such a difficulty, and cannot well 
underslaud it ; poi^ibly the paper has not been floated sufficiently long to 
form the p)x)i»er combination ; possibly too much nitric acid has been 
added to the bath. Possibly the paper is defective in some way, or h:is 
been handled and become greasy. 

C. V. W.— We have no means whatever of knowing whether the advertise- 
ment in question is bond fide or not. 2. So far as we can ascertain, the 
IciLses of the maker referred to are very variable, some good and some bad. 
We prefer the last-mentioned as being most trustworthy. 3. Portraits can 
be taken with a view lens, but it ia not the best iiistrument for aach 

C. W. S.— You will be able to obtain all information of Mr. Alfred Harman, 
3, Albert Cottages, Hill Street, Peckham, the Secretary. The next meet- 
ing is held at the City of Loudon College, Leaden hall Street, on the 
evening of Thui-sday January 8th, when, if you choose, you can attend. 
We shall have pleasure in proposing you. 

D. Wkston. — Wc are not sufficiently familiar with the lenses of any of the 
makers you name to speak with certainty of their qualities, or advise you 
sati^ifactorily. We believe the first mentioned permits buyers to test the 
lenses, an arran;;emcut which ought to lead to satisfactory results. 
Whether the others do so or not we do not know. 

T., A New Scbscridbr. — We regretr that we cannot charge the back 
numbers at a reduced price. Many of them wc will willingly i>ay full 
price for ourselves. The figures are accidentally omitted, you will find 
them, however, half a dozen lines above. 2. The printing process used 
by Mr. Fountainc in his printing-machine is that by development. The 
pa^er is jirepared with an iodide and bromide, and a condensing Icdm is 
u.sed to concentrate the light. By these means instantaneous or very rapid 
]>rinting is not impossible. 

J. H. — The enlarged prints from America, exhibited at the meeting to which 
you refer, were printed out ou ammonia nitrate paper. We were not 
present ourselves, and did not see them, but we learn from trustworthy 
authority, that they were very poor indeed. We have not yet heard par- 
ticubirs of Mr. Stuart's new apparatus, but the prints he has already pro- 
duced by the old one, are, a.s nearly as possible, perfect. 

Novice. — A good glass positive cannot be converted into a good negative. If 
it be good as a positive, it will bo insufficiently exposed for a negative. 
Negatives may be produced by means ot iron only, but not always so con- 
veniently as with pyrojrallic acid intensifying A collodion, giving a some- 
what dense image, developed with acetate of iron, is fre<|ueutly sufficiently 
dense, without further intensifying. Varnishing ia only necessary for the 
protection of the negative. If it have been well wa.shcd, and the excitei* 
paper be quite dry, no danger arl^oj from the two surfaces coming into con 
tact. If the paper be damp, however, a brown stain may result, especially 
if the slightest trace of hypo remain In the film. Varnishing Ih always 
.safer, but where one or two prints only are re<iuired, it may be dispensed 

A pRiNTBR.— If clouds are well painted at the back of the negative, or If they 
be well printed in separatelv, wc think they are quite permissible. Wc 
have often s<iid tliat in such subjects success U the touchstone of legiti- 
macy. It is only when the thing is l>adly done that It challenges criti- 
cism. The object Ls to produce really good pictures ; this done, the means 
will not often be cliallenged. 

Several correspondents in our next 

All Letters, Works for Review, and other Communications for 
tlie Editor, should be addressed to tlie Office, 32, Patebnoster 
liow, London. 


Vol. VII. No. 227.— January 9, 1868. 


The work of Col. James and Captain Soott, on photo- 
zincography, 18 one of the most interesting hooks which 
have heeu published in connection with the art, not simply 
as a complete and detailed statement of the processes and 
formulae used at Southampton, but for the variety of 
fine reproductions in printer's ink with which it is illus- 

Referring to the latter first, we are enabled to endorse the 
opening remark in Col. James's introduction, as to the high 
state of perfection to which these processes have been brought 
at Southampton. For reproduction of engravings and 
t^imilar subjects, we have before said, that both the process of 
Col. James and that of Mr. Osborne have reached a pitch of 
excellence which leaves little to attain or desire. Amongst 
the dozen photographic illustrations given in this book are 
exquisite copies of engravings, some of which have a great 
deal of fine, close work, which is most perfectly rendered. 
We may mention amongst these a reduced copy of a fine 
engiaving from a painting by Raffaelle ; two of Piranesi's 
engravings of antique vases of rare design ; and a reduced 
copy of one of Volpato's engravings of a panel in the 
Vatican, painted by Kaffaelle. There are also fine specimens 
of hill shading, and fine detail in maps ; a reduced copy of 
an indenture ; a page of Domesday Book ; and a page of 
the folio edition of Shakespeare of 1623. Each of these are 
perfect illustrations of the value of the art for the several 
kinds of work represented. 

The technical details of the work will be read with much 
interest and attention amongst photographers. The pro- 
C'jS8« are divided for clearness into three parts. These 
consist in the production of the negative ; the preparation 
of the positive photographic print in greasy ink ; and the 
transference of the print to the surface of the zinc, or to 
stone, and the preparation of that surface for printing. 
These processes are here more fully described than in 
any previous work, and a brief resumS will doubtless be 
interesting to our readeis. 

It must always be borne in mind, that the negative most 
►uitable for giving good results on the lithographic stone, is 
one perfectly dense in the whites of the picture^ and quite 
clear and transparent in the blacks ; in short, great bril- 
liancy, intensity, and freedom from any trace of foggy 
deposit on the shadows, and as in engravings, maps, &c., 
the gradation is secured by the artificial means ot lines* 
hatching, or stippling, the gradation known by photogra- 
phers as half tone, is not required in the pictures. 

The collodion used is simply iodized, and is preferred 
about a fortnight old. The formula given stands as fol- 
lows :— • 


Iodide of cadmium. . . 
Iodide of potassium 
Alcohol sp. gr. 812 
Ether sp, gr. 725 ... 

... 80 grains 
...15 „ 
... 75 „ 
...10 ounces 
... 10 ,. 

The usual silver bath of from 35 to 40 grains to the ounce 
of water is used, slightly acid with nitric acid, in preference 
t^ acetic acid. 

* On PhohMdocographj and other photographic proceue.s employed at the 
"»'lr«nce Soirey Office, Southampton. By Captain A. De C. Scott, RE., 
•'■•ir ihe direction of CoL Sir Henry James, K.E., F.R.8, Ac London : 
iA-inxuui * Co. 

The development is effected by iron. The formula 
stands thus :— 

Protosulphate of Iron 1 ounce 

Glacial Acetic Acid 6 drachms 

Alcohol ^ 6 „ 

Distilled Water 1 pint. 

^ The imago is sufficiently developed by means of this solu- 
tion, especial care being taken to stop its action before there 
is the slightest trace of deposit on the fine lines or shadows. 
Further intensity is then securud by the application, after 
fixing, of pyro^allic acid, a grain and a half to the ounce, 
twenty-four minims of acetic acid, and a few drops of a 
solution of silver. If further intensity be required the nega- 
tive is immersed in a weak solution of bichloride of mercury 
until its surface is whitened; it is then treated with a 
weak solution of hydrosulphatc of ammonia, which gives 
the required density. To prevent lateral deposit filling 
ujp the fine lines, the last process of intensifying is effected 
after the plate has been suffered to dry, the edges being 
varnished to prevent the film slipping. 

The apparatus used for convenient copying was fully 
described in the Photographic News, Vol. III., and we do 
not find that any material alteration has been made except 
in the adoption of Dallmeyer's triple achromatic lens tor 

To produce the transfer the paper must be hard, thin, 
and tough, of even texture, and free from woolliness, and 
but slightly sized. Paper made from linen is most suitable ; 
the best results have been obtained with the ordinary bank 
post paper, slightly sized. The proportions of the bichro- 
mate and gelatine — gum has long been abandoned — vary 
with circumstances. It is necessary that the solution of 
gelatine be fluid at a temperature of 100^, and that the 
proportion of bichromate be sufficient to render the whole 
of the gelatine insoluble under the action of light, but no 
more. The quantities here stated are two ounces and a half 
of bichromate of potash dissolved in ten ounces of hot 
water, added to three ounces of gelatine, dissolved in forty 
ounces of hot water. The fluidity is maintained by placing 
the dish containing the mixture in another containing hot 
water. The paper is floated for a few minutes, and when 
dried, the process is repeated. When again dry it is passed 
through a copper-plate press, on a hot steel plate. 

The time of exposure to the negative varies, from one 
minute in the sun, to twenty minutes in dull light. When 
sufficiently exposed, the blacks appear of a brownish 

The transfer ink, is made as follows : — ^two pounds of 
chalk lithographic ink, and one pound of middle linseed oil 
varnish are ground together ; four ounces of Burgundy pitch 
are melted in an iron vessel, and to itjare added two ounces 
of palm oil, and two ounces of white wax ; these are well stirred 
together on the fire until they begin to bum. The ink and 
varnish, first mixed, are then added, and the whole thoroughly 

For use, a portion of this is thinned with turpentine to 
the consistency of thick treacle. To apply this ink to the 
surface of the print, a zinc plate or lithographic stone is inked 
in the usual method with a roller ; the bichromate print is then 
laid face down, and passed through a lithographic press. 
By this means the whole of the surface is covered with a 
uniform surface of ink. 

To remove the ink from every part but the image, the 
print is floated for five minutes on water at 90° Fah. back 



[Januart 9, 1863. 

downwards. It is then laid on a porcelain slab, and the 
surface rubbed ffently with a soft sponge dipped in gum 
water. This will remove the unaltered gelatine, and, if all 
the other operations have been rightly performed, a perfect 
positive image in printer^s ink remains. This, when dry, 
IS ready for transferring to zinc or stone. 

The zinc plate is, of course, prepared to receive the 
transfer; this is eifected by first smoothing it, and then 
giving it a g^ain by means of fine sand and muUer. The 
surface so produced has an affinity for the g^asy ink some- 
what similar to that of the lithographic stone. To effect 
the transfer the print is placed for a minute or two between 
two sheets of damp paper, and then laid on the prepared 
ssinc plate, and passed through the lithographic press. This 
done the print is moistened on the back, which causes the 
ink to leave it the more readily. On removing the transfer 

1>aper, the image is left in the transfer ink on the zinc plate, 
t IS now etched, as the next process is termed, by means of 
a mixture of gum-water, phosphoric acid, and a decoction of 
galls. Four ounces of Aleppo galls are steeped in three 
quarts of water for a day, and tnen boiled. One auart of 
this is added to three quarts of gum-water about the con- 
sistency of cream, and three ounces of a solution of phosphoric 
acid. To prepare the latter, some sticks of phosphorous are 
placed in a pint bottle, not quite full of water ; a hole is 
made through the cork to admit air; this acting on the 
phosphorous, which projects above the water, produces 
oxidization, and the water dissolves the phosphoric acid as 
soon as it is formed, and in a few days produces a solution 
strong enough for use. The etching liquid is poured on the 
plate, and allowed to remain from twenty seconds to a 
minute, fine work requiring a shorter time than coarse work. 
The plate is then washed with water, and dried. 

The transfer ink is next removed from the plate with tur- 
pentine, or with a mixture of turpentine, olive oil and gum 
water. It is then rolled up with printing ink, and is then 
ready for use. 

In the process which Col. James has termed Photopapyro- 
graphy^ the image obtained in greasy ink, on paper prepared 
with gelatine and bichromate, instead of being transferred to 
zinc or stone, is used to [produce one or more positive im- 
pressions on paper, by passing it through the lithographic 
press. The negative snould be in such cases reversed, either 
Dy being taken through the glass plate, or by means of a 
reversing mirror or prism. 

For the reproduction of manuscripts, printed matter, &c., 
the use of negatives obtained, by wet collodion on paper instead 
of glass is recommended. The sensitiveness is stated to be 
superior to that of wet collodion on glass ; and when waxed 
it yields excellent results. With such negatives the image 
need not be reversed for photopapyrography, as there will 
be but an inconsiderable loss of sharpness in printing 
through the paper. 

The volume contains an interesting account of the rise 
and progress of the application of photography to this 
branch of the public service, and of the discovery of photo- 
zincography. It is unnecessary to revive any discussion on the 
subject here. Different steps in the discovery were probably 
due to different individuals in the establishment, who have, 
from ^time to time, received due acknowledgment. The 
general control, the suggestion, direction, or permission, have 
rested with Colonel James, and photozincography very 
naturally receives public recognition as his process. 

Since the publication of this book, Colonel James, as our 
readers know, has devoted some attention to the production 
of half-tone, an accident having suggested the means, in a 



photolithographs with proper gradation of half-tone, pure 
lights, and deep shadows. This possibility has frequently 
been, doubted, on the ground that gradation in litho- 
graphy could only be obtained by artificial or conventional 
means. We find enough done to convince us that more 
may be done, and we have pleasure in learning that Colonel 
James is prosecuting his experiments in this direction. 
We have before stat-ed, that by far the best photolitho- 
aphs we have seen, as regards gradation of tone, arc some 
one by Asser's process. In these, instead of gelatine or al- 
bumen, a paste of wheaten fiour is used with the bichromate. 
The precise condition of the organic matter in combination 
with the bichromate, seems materially to affect the question 
of half-tone, and suggests a direction for experiment. A 
specimen we received from Col. James, produced by the 
bitumen process, which has recently been vaunted as giving 
half-tone, was a lamentable illustration of theworthlessness of 
that method, as the print is almost entirely destitute of any 
qualities which could give it value, and strikingly enforces 
the fact, that the process is entirely superseded by the 
method of transferring now in successful use. 

been full of promise. There is unquestionably abundance 
of half-tone, the fault at present existing being rather a 
want of deep blacks for the shadows, or a want, perhaps, 
of perfect gradation generally. Sufficient is, however, 
already produced to indicate the possibility of obtaining 

Theis Manufacture, Adulteration, and Analysis. 

Alumina Salts. — The salts of alumina are only of indirect 
interest to the photographer ; we shall, therefore, give but a 
brief sketch of their history. The earth itself is a whit<3 
powder, tasteless and inodorous, and after ignition insoluble 
in most acids. It may readily be prepared in the hydrated 
state, by adding an excess of ammonia to hydrochlorate or 
nitrate of alumina, and thoroughly washing and drying the 
gelatinous precipitate. If alum is used, the resulting hy- 
drate is contammated with sulphuric acid. Alumina has 
less affinity for acids than any of the bases we have yet 
mentioned, and forms with them compounds which have 
little stability. They are decomposed sometimes by simple 
ebullition, and deposit hydrate of alumina. When the 
earth is precipitated, either in this manner or by the addition 
of an alkali, it has a remarkable tendency to carry down 
with it organic, and especially colouring matter, which may 
be in solution ; many kinds of inorganic impurity, com- 
monly classed under the generic term mud, or dirt, are also 
carried down and removed from solutions in this way. This 
property of alumina is applied to great use in the arts ^nd 
manufactures. The colour-maker utilizes it in the prepara- 
tion of lakeSj by precipitating alumina in the presence of 
some brilliant organic dye ; and it is frequently used also for 
the purpose of decolourising solutions. Recently precipitated 
alumina has a similar property. When put into a liquid 
containing organic colouring matter, it almost invariably 
attracts this to itself, becoming tinted with the particular 
colour, whilst the solution is rendered almost colourless. 
The dyer and calico printer avail themselves largely of this 
property. When cotton goods are placed in a solution of 
a colouring matter, they refuse to fix the substance, and do 
not take the colour in the same way as silk or woollen goods 
would. The manufacturer, therefore, employs the artifice of 
precipitating alumimim into the cotton fabric before im- 
mersing it in the colouring solution. Upon now dipping it 
into the coloured bath, the alumina, acting as a mordant, 
causes the goods to take the dye readily. 

Chloride of Aluminium. — This salt has recently become 
of considerable commercial importance, being the starting 

f^oint in the preparations of the metal aluminium. It is, 
ike many other chemical compounds, very difficult and 
tedious to make on a small scale, although attended with 
no difficulty when prepared as a manufacturing operation. 
When alumina is dissolved in hydrochloric acid, it may be 
assumed that the solution contains chloride of aluminium ; 
but upon evaporating the liquid to obtain this body in the 
solid state, a residue is left containing chloride of aluminium 
with the elements of water ; and upon further increasing the 

Jaxuaey 9, 1868.] 



heat, the water ig decompoBed, its hvdrogen untting with 
the chlorine to form hydrochloric acia, which goes on, and 
its oxygen uniting* with the alaminiam to form a resi- 
due of alamina. It is not possible to avoid this decom- 
position, except by setting to work in a somewhat round- 
about way. An intimate mixture of alumina and carbon 
is prepared by thoroughly incorporating together alumina, 
powdered charooalt sugar, and oil, to the consistence of a 
thick paste. This is introduced into a crucible, and heated, 
out of contact with the air, to redness. The sugar and oil 
are in this manner decomposed, ^nd the carbon of their 
composition is left in a state of intimate mixture with the 
alamina and powdered charcoal. The mass is introduced 
warm into strong porcelain or glass retorts, through which 
a fIow current of perfectly dry chlorine gas is allowed to 
pass. When all the air has been swept from the apparatus, 
neat is applied to the carbonized mass, when the alumina is 
decomposed by virtue of the double chemical persuasion to 
vhich it is subjected : the carbon takes the oxygen from 
the alumina, forming carbonic oxide, whilst the chlorine 
unites with the aluminium to form chloride of aluminium. 
This is carried along by the caibonic oxide gas, and con- 
denses principally in the form of a fine powder, and partly 
as a solid mass at the extremity of the neck of the retort, 
which must bo very large, or it will be stopped up by it. 
The alumina must be precipitated from a solution which 
contains no sulphuric acid, as otherwise the alumina will 
carry some of this down with it, and will give rise to the 
fomiation of chloride of sulphur, which will mix with the 
chloride of aluminium. Cnloride of aluminium forms a 
lemon-coloured waxy mass, transparent, and of a crystalline 
texture resembling talc. It fuses when in large masses, a 
small quantity immediately evaporating on the application 
of heat ; it boils at about 360^ Fah., and fumes slightly in 
the air, smelling of hydrochloric acid. It rapidly deliques- 
ces in the air, forming transparent drops, and dissolves in 
water with a hissing noise and evolution of heat. In this 
state it has fixed to itself the elements of water which can- 
not be driven off again by heat, the compound splitting up, 
as we have above described, into hydrochloric acid and 
alnmina. When the anhydrous chloride of aluminium is 
beatcd with potassium or sodium (the latter method is 
always employed at the present time), metallic aluminium 
is separated from it with formation of chloride of potassium 
or of sodium. If the aqueous solution of chloride of 
alnmininm, or the liquid obtained by saturating hydro- 
chloric acid with hydrate of alumina, is allowed to evaporate 
in a warm and very dry atmosphere, crystals are deposited, 
which are very deliquescent, and very soluble in alcohol. 
They contain twelve atoms of water of crystallisation, and 
43*96 per cent, of chlorine. This salt has not been much 
used in photography ; but since chlorides which are very 
solable in alcohol are not very common, it is likely that 
chloride of aluminium could be employed for several useful 
pnr|^KHcs, especially in the collodion process. 

titrate of Alumii\a. — This is a very deliquescent salt, 
formed by saturating nitric acid with hydrate of alumina. 
Upon evaporating the solution carefully down to a syrupy 
consistency, and allowing it to stand in a cool dry place, 
the nitrate crystallises out in thin colourless laminae. It 
has been succasfiilly applied, like nitrate of magnesia, for 
the preservation of sensitive collodion plates. 

iWpAo/e of Alumina and Ammonia^ or Ammonia-alum, 
^* it is generally called. — This is the most important salt 
of alumina, and is prepared by hundred of tons at a time. 
Alum shale is boiled out in dilute sulphuric acid, and the 
solution b mixed with sulphate of ammonia derived from 
the gas residues. The solution is boiled down rapidly, and 
the salt is deposited in the form of a fine white crvstalline 
powder, known by the name of alum meal. This is rinsed 
from the impure mother-liquor by a small quantity of water, 
then dissol^ in hot water, and allowed to crystallise in 
Ivgc wooden tubs, capable of holding some tons' weight at 
s tiott. After the magnificent display of alum which our 

readers have recently seen at South Kensington, no detailed^ 
account of the appeal ance of this body is needed. A1-' 
thouffh called alum, this name strictly speaking, belongs to 
potash alum, a compound exactly similar to the one we 
have now been describing, but containing potash instead of 
ammonia. Until within the last few years, potash alum was 
always made. It was found, however, that ammonia, which 
would confer equally good crystallising powers upon the 
alumina salt, could be obtainea in almost unlimitcKl quan- 
tities from the gas-purifying liquors; and it has, tnere- 
fore, so completely replaced potash alum, that it is a diffi- 
cult matter to obtain even a small specimen of the latter 


[We are desirous of giving especial prominence to the 
appeal of Dr. Wright to photogiaphers. No more interest- 
ing or important application of photography can be made 
than that which makes it an adjunct to the art of healing. 
A collection of good photographs of all kinds of medical 
and surgical cases, placed in the library of the Medical and 
Ghirurgical Society of London, cannot fail to be of the 
utmost value in aiding the study of such cases. We feel 
sure that any of our readers possessing negatives, prints 
from which will add to the completeness of the collection, 
will gladly respond to the appeal of their brother photo- 
grapher, our friend Dr. Wright.] 

Sib, — Physicians and surgeons desirous of retaining 
lasting representations of important cases (on the accuracy of 
which might depend decisions as to life and death in 
similar cases occurring to others) were formerly compelled 
to resort to the pencil of the artist. But the reliable 
talent available for such a purpose was not readily procured, 
and when obtained involved a large expense. The photo- 
graphic art supplies a simple and cheap method of 
perpetuating the appearance presented by any particular 
form of diseased structure at any stage of its progress, or of 
its cure, and medical men are daily more and more availing 
themselves of the opportunities thus presented. It took 
hours to make an exact sketch where now it requires only 
as many seconds, and the presentment of that seen is not 
only accurate in every detail, but gives facilities for such 
comparative measurements as the hand following the eye 
would never have obtained. Hence it follows that photo- 
graphy has been of vast service in this department of its 
working, and there is scarcely a professional photographer 
who has not been called on, at some time or other, to picture 
the appearances produced by deformity or disease, or to 
perpetuate some triumph of surgical skill. Such records 
are of lasting value ; they do not tell merely of that which 
they represent ; they also afford assistance, such as no 
verbal description could supply to those who may be in 
doubt when similar cases occur. Hence it well may happen 
that the exact verisimilitude which a photograph affords 
will determine doubts on which the issues of life and 
death may depend. 

Photography is, par excdUnce, an art of exactitude, it 
neither exaggerates, or mitigates what the eye of the 
camera sees, and therefore is practically reliable even where 
so much depends on its evidence. The importance of the 

{>hotographic representations of professional subjects has 
ed the Medical and Ghirurgical Society of London to 
determine on adding to their extensive library a collection 
of photographs of subjects of professional interest. 

As a Fellow of the .Medical Ghirurgical Society, and a 
Member of the Gouncil of the Photographic Society, I have 
willingly undertaken to gather and arrange the contribu- 
tions. In the hands of professional and amateur photo- 
graphers in various parts of the kingdom are numerous 
negatives, for the most part taken at the request of medical 
men. I believe, that considering the object in view in 
making this collection, I am justified in asking your readers 



[January 9, 1863. 

to supply me with prints from any sach negatives in their 
possession — of course unmounted —with a few words of refer- 
ence to the case so photographed, or to the medical prac- 
titioner for whom it was taken. — I remain, yours obediently, 

H. Ct. Wright, M.D. 

23, Somertet Street, Portman Square, 

Photoqeaphic News Office, 32, Paternoster Row. 

For very obvious reasons, our notice of the Y ear-Book of 
Photoqeapht for 1863 must be confined to a simple descrip- 
tion or statement of its purpose and character. 

In the Almanac for the present year we have aimed at 
greater comprehensiveness tnan on former occasions. We 
have in eacn year's issue endeavoured to give, in addition 
to the various memoranda likely to be interesting in a 
Photographic Year-Book, a resume of the definite discoveries 
of the past year. But this is by no means an accurate or com- 
plete register of the advancement of the art; much of the most 
valuable progress consists in improvements arising out of the 
cumulative experience of able men, by steps so gradual, that 
they cannot easily be defined and set dovni. A record of such 
improvements is, nevertheless, of the utmost interest aud im- 
portance to the student striving after perfection, and we have, 
therefore, availed ourselves of the facilities we possess of be- 
coming familiar with the practice of the ablest pnotographers 
of the day. Guided by the information thus gained, and 
our own experience, we have given a re-statement of the 
most important processes, embodying all minor improve- 
ments, as they are successfully adopted by the best men of 
our time. It will be seen that our Year-Book thus becomes, 
not simply a collection of scraps or memoranda, but a 
manual oi improved practice for general reference. 

A simple statement of the principal contents will, perhaps, 
be the most satisfactory notice. Of course, there is the calendar, 
and usual general information of an almanac. The days of 
meeting, exhibitions, and officers of the various societies are 
given. A briefly detailed statement of the annals of photo- 
graphy for the past year follows. Then, under the head of 
Photographic Processes and Formulse, a complete statement 
of the wet collodion process, including the manufacture of 
collodion ; the preparation of the silver bath ; development 
and developing solutions; modes of intensifying, &c., &c. 
A chapter follows, containing a brief statement of au- 
thenticated formulas communicated by various first-rate 
photographers ; amongst whom we may name T. R. Williams, 
Southwell Brothers, H. P. Robinson, and others. A chapter 
on the construction of glass-rooms and lighting the sitter 
will bo found useful. A chapter on instantaneous photo- 
graphy contains a communication on the subject written by 
Mr. Blanchard for the work. Methods of printing, toning, 
and fixing follow, with chapters on printing on silk, on 
resiniied paper, on double or fancy printing, &c. ; chapters 
on mounting, on glass positives, on portraiture and card 
pictures, on enlarging negatives, on the solar camera, &c., 
follow. The department assigned to " Processes and For- 
mulas," is completed by a series of short chapters devoted 
to the DiT Collodion Processes, containing the Collodio- 
albumen Process as practised by Mr. Mudd ; the Tannin 
Process ; the Tannin and Honov Process ; the Fothergill Pro- 
cess; Dry Collodion without Preservative ; a Valuable Pre- 
servative Process; Instantaneous Dry Plate Photography; 
and Modes of Developing Dry Plates. 

The " New or Modified Processes " of 1862, are then 
briefly stated ; amongst these will be found : a New Alkaline 
Dry Process ; the Morphine Dry Process ; a Carbon Process ; 
Improved Iron Developer ; Photography in Natural Colours ; 
Alcolene, or Collodion without Ether ; a New Photographic 
Varnish; Mode of Preventing the Discolouration of the 

Nitrate Bath ; Formic Acid in the Developer ; Mr. Sutton's 
Rapid Dry Process; Mr. Keene*s Rapid Dry Process ; Photo- 
graphy on Gelatine; Fumes of Ammonia in Printing; &c.,&c. 
A variety of useful tables, a recapitulation of new apparatus, 
&c., a list of photographic patents during the year, the New 
Copyright Act, with instructions for the registration of 
photographs, and some other matters complete the work, 
the whole constituting, as we think our readers will agree 
with us, a very comprehensive photographic txide meeum. 
The Year Book contains something like twenty pages of 
matter more than on former editions, but the price remains 
as formerly, one shilling. 

Thomas Sutton, B.A. Loudon : Sampson Low & Son. 

Fsw men have the art of explaining themselves more simply, 
and writing more directly to the purpose, than Mr. Sutton, 
and, as few men have a better knowledge of photography, he 
could not fail to produce a good book on the subject, and 
one which every photographer should read. 

The work before us contains a very complete and lucid 
statement of the wet collodion process, from the manufacture 
of the pyroxylino to the varnishing of the negative; a 
general description of the dry processes, and details of the 
tannin process, the collodio-albumen process, and the rapid 
dry process, recently published by the author ; together with 
chapters on instantaneous photography, positive printing, 
chemicals, apparatus, &c. Each of the subjects is treated 
with a simplicity, and freedom from ambiguity, which is 
quite refreshing, and in the best possible style for an instruc- 
tion book. The chapter on the manufacture of pyroxyline, 
is an especially valuable one, giving a clear idea of the 
principles involved, and describing formulas which, worked 
with anything like care and attention, will yield an exoellent 
soluble cotton, without risk of failure. 

We like Mr. Sutton best in his description of manipula- 
tion, &c., there he is unsurpassed in the nappy homely sim- 
plicity, and graphic force of his style. On some points of 
theory and practice, as our readers know, we do not agree 
with him. Although with modified force, he still depre- 
ciates the value of the bromides in wet collodion, regarding 
them only as the succedaneum for pure chemicals and good 
manipulation. In the dry procebses geneitdly, however, the 
importance of a large proportion of bromide is enforced, as 
essential to rapidity. We cannot entirely agree with him 
in his unqualified condemnation of commercial collodions 
advertised, as being " improved by age." Most photo- 
graphers are familiar with the fact, that some collodions, 
especially if iodized with cadmium, do improve or ripen with 
keeping. The term " unchangeable," as applied to collo- 
dion, is probably untenable, as that implies stability for 
an unlimited period. We have in our possession however, 
collodion, we made three years ago, which we ahall 
employ as a standard, by which to test other samples, 
ana we rarely find any excel it in sensitiveness, whilst 
in cleanness and brilliancy it is rarely rivalled. The 
principle of manufacturing collodion and other preparations 
by published formulae, to enable intelligent photographers 
to understand with what they are working and what reactions 
they may expect, which Mr. Sutton is enforcing when con- 
demning the said advertised collodions, is one which cannot 
be stronglv commended, and we believe that the manufac- 
turer would, in no case be a loser by such publication. 
We had marked some portions for extract, but the pressure 
on our space forbids their use at present ; we shall probably 
give them on some subsequent occasion. In the meantime 
we commend the work to all our readers. 

Edition. London : James Newman, Soho Square. 

The fact that four large editions of this work have been 
called for in four years, is a strong argument for the excel- 

January 9, 1863.] 



lenoe of tho book, and the appreciation in which it is held 
by photographere. It is also a satisfactory illustration of 
the fact that photographers generally are interested in a 
work which, brides containing technical instructions in the 
art of applying pigments, is also full of hints on the appli- 
cation of art principles to photogpraphy, for we can scarcely 
suppose that there are many thousands of professional or 
amateur colourists, or that all who have bought the book, 
have done so simply for the purpose of learning to colour. 

The new edition contains, not only full instructions for 
every mode of colouring photographs, but a very lucid state- 
ment of the general principles of harmonious colouring, and 
of the application of those principles to photography. Fresh 
chapters are added on the retouching in crayons of enlarged 
pictures, and also in colouring such pictures in pastel. A 
very useful chapter, containing "A Few Words on Por- 
traiture/' ought to be read by every photographer, and espe- 
cially by those engaged in the production of card pictures. 




Ftkoxtuke does not appear to be a chemical combination, 
in definite proportions, of cellulose with the oxygenic ele- 
ments of nitrogen ; it appears to us too variable in its com- 
position and most essential properties, not to appear rather 
a physical modification, effected by condensation more or 
less considerable andfperfect of a nitrogenous gas, which 
appears to be the protoxide of nitrogen. 

In our opinion, the capillary fibres of the ligneous sub- 
stance operating upon these gaseous elements by an attrac- 
tive action comparable, in some measure, to tne catalytic 
force of the cellular interstices of carbon, platinum, sponge, 
and many other bodies, which present this peculiar property 
of condensing certain gaseous bodies, without in any way 
nniting with them, and permitting the disengagement of 
these gases by the action of influencing causes more or less 

Cotton, after undergoing the operations which transform 
it into pyroxyline, undergoes no change in its physical pro- 
perties ; still, in the generality of cases, it becomes less soft 
to the touch, and appears considerably disaggregated. But 
a remarkable phenomenon presents itself in this product, 
which is, that it has assumed an extremely singular passive 
condition, which renders it unattackable by chemical agents 
ai powerful as concentrated sulphuric acid, nitric acid, 
potassa, and most other substances which completely destroy 
organic matters. 

These different properties appear to us to be due to the 
fixation of a consiaerable quantity of protoxide of nitrogen 
in the organic cells, which exercise, like all capillary in- 
terstices, a powerful influence upon certain gases, which they 
condense and solidify, becoming at the same time inac- 
cesgible to the influence of other bodies, with regard to 
which the modified substance becomes less attackable, and 
then establbhes itself in a truly passive state, by a cause 
analogous, so to speak, to that which produces a similar 
phenomenon upon iron and other bodies. 

But when a more intimate cause comes to penetrate these 
spaces of the ligneous matter to destroy their cells, and dilate 
the gas which their attractive power concentrates, then the 
latter, spontaneously resuming their primitive normal state, 
it., an infinitely larger volume — ^by breaking the cells 
which still form an obstacle, and the provocative force act- 
ing only upon a point — the vigorous action resulting pro> 
daces an enormous disengagement of heat, propagating itself 
ia every direction with an extreme energy; the organic 
"DiiUcT is butned in contact with protoxide of nitrogen, a 
huming gas par excellence — the carbonic acid, spontaneously 
produced and dilated by heat, joins its expansion to that of 
the other gases from whence results a vivid explosion. 

The cellulose transformed into pyroxyline acquires the 

property of dissolving in a mixture of ether and alcohol ; 
it appears, nevertheless, that it is not a true solution so pro- 
duced, but simply a separation of the ligneous particles, and, 
according to M. Davanne, a swelling of the fibres anaJogous 
to the swelling of the gi-anules of starch, or of fish isinglass 
in water. 

For, upon precipitating a solution of pyroxyline in ether 
and alchoi by water, we easily recognize the distinct remains 
of the organic tissue in the deposit formed, composed of 
elongated fibres which have preserved the principal pro- 
perties of the nitrated cotton ; that is to say, they can be 
redissolved, partially it is true, in the ethereal mixture, and 
be instantly decomposed, after drying, upon contact with 
a burning substance only : the material then fuses, on account 
of its compactness, the same as gunpowder when pulverized 
and compressed. 

This apparent solubility of pyroxyline in alcoholic ether, 
is therefore simply only the effect of a disaggregation of the 
fibres of the ligneous substance, but not oi the compound 
cells of the organic body. 

The cells not being destroyed by the dissolving vehicle, 
and so remaining quite entire in the liquid, it is natural 
that they should preserve their principal properties in con- 
tinuing to exercise their condensing action upon the nitro- 
genous gas, until an influencing cause, such as heat or light, 
comes to provoke the more or less partial disengagement 
of the condensed gas, which is then liberated slowly, by 
reason of the little energy of the cause, and various other 
circumstances, favourable or unfavourable, amid which the 

Shenomenon takes place. The protoxide of nitrogen, thus 
isengaged, combines with the elements of the solvent 
itself, changing it by forming more hyponitiic acid, which 
concurs powerfully to the rapid destruction of all these sub- 
stances. Whatever be the cai*e employed in the preparation 
of nitrated cotton, after it is dried it instantly disengages 
a small portion of the protoxide of azote it contains, of 
which the oxygen of the atmosphere determines the con- 
version into hyponitric acid, which is always found in largo 
quantities in bottles in which gun cotton has been kept. 

When the vessel containing the g^n cotton is hermeti- 
cally closed, and the disengagement of the gas is very little 
favoured by any external influence, the hyponitric acid 
formed, withdraws the water from the ligneous matter and 
partially decomposes it ; nitric acid is also formed ulti- 
mately, the action of which upon the pyroxyline and the 
organic portion of the substance, disengages the oxygenic 
elements of the nitrogen, and ends by causing a more com- 
plete destruction. A portion of the mass becomes liquid 
under the prolonged action of the nitric acid, and is con- 
verted into a substance similar to xyloidine, which the 
water precipitates from its solution, and there remains in 
the liquid other matters, soluble and deliquescent, arising 
from a more advanced decomposition ; for these phenomena 
are slow to be produced, so that several different com- 
pounds must be developed in succession. 

Nitric acid does not form a true combination with 
cellulose, hence a product, the elements of which are in 
definite proportions, cannot result ; and it is the diversity of 
these proportions which gives rise to the variety of pyroxy- 
lines, which may always be seen among the specimens 
arising from different manufactures. 

It is generally admitted that there are four varieties of 
pyroxyline, because analysis has sometimes afforded, accord- 
ing to the species, 2, 3, 4, or 5, equivalents of a nitrogenous 
gas, which is considered to be hyponitric acid, but which is 
also oxygenized, finally only by the modifications it under- 
goeb during the reactions effected by the decomposition of 
the organic matter. 

Moreover, these numbers, which are taken to represent the 
equivalents of the composition of the fulminating matter, 
are rather only the two extremes, in some respects, that 
are most frequently found, and between which there may be 
an infinity oi varied proportions. We are sustained in this 
supposition by the diversity of proportions found by every 



[Jaxuakt 9, 18G3. 

author who has attempted its direct analysis, and from 
which, finally, we have only been able to deduce general 
averages, the summary of a great number of experiments. 

This, however, is easily understood, when we know that 
these varieties of pyroxyline are constantly mixed in the 
specimens obtained, no matter what the method of fabrica- 
tion has been ; it is therefore only the dominant species 
which constitute the properties, more or less characteristic, 
of the whole. But these species do not really exist, and 
why we admit them, as we have before stated, is, the 
varied and in determined proportions according to which is 
produced the absorption of the gas in the capillary 
interstices of the fibres of the ligneous matter. — BuUetin 
Beige de la Phatographie. 

Upon the preceding the editor of La Lumiert, H. Gaudin, 
remarks : — " I readily admit, with M. Testelin, that nitrated 
cotton is not constantly in definite proportion. The action of 
nitric acid upon the cotton differs constantly with the propor- 
tion of water it contains, to such a degree, th at in the preparation 
of a single tuft, we maybe certain that the proportion first im- 
bibed differs in naturo from the portion last imbibed, in 
consequence of the accumulation of water in the acid, which 
has already acted, remaining, for I have proved, by a decisive 
experiment, that the reaction is instantaneous. It is also 
certain that the nitrated cotton is unstable by nature ; with 
time it undergoes a kind of fermentation, which sometimes 
causes it to explode, and it is this which forms an insur- 
mountable obstacle to its employment as a substitute for 
gunpowder. Witness the catastrophe at Bouchct, where 
some thousand kilogrammes exploaed spontaneously, scat- 
tering the building m which it was contained to dust, and 
even nollowing the earth beneath it, like a funnel. Photo- 
graphic cotton is less explosive, nevertheless from time to 
time it causes serious accidents ; and quite recently, the ex- 
plosion of some kilogrammes demolished the laboratory of 
M. Mathieu Plessis. 

" But to conclude that the instability of the product is due 
to the absence of combination, appears to be an error, when 
wo consider the known properties of photographic cotton, it 
dissolves, in fact, in alconolic ether. I underline the word, to 
express that it is a true solution rather than a simple sus- 
pension. In fact, photographic collodion constitutes a per- 
jhctly transparent liquid— a quality which never attaches to a 
body held in suspension, if held, as supposed. Upon slowly 
evaporating it on an impervious surface, it detaches itself in 
limpid glassy pellicles, which also preclude the presence of 
any detached body. Finally, the filtering of collodion 
through paper, which succeeds very well, abundantly proves 
that the cells, if cells there be, cannot exceed the hundreth 
part of a millimetre in diameter, and this absolutely excludes 
any idea of ligneous fibre. Soluble photographic cotton, 
therefore, constitutes a true combination of lignine with cer- 
tain oxygenised products of nitrogen; but there exists also a 
scries of these products which differ from each other by in- 
sensible degrees, from whence results the difiiculty of con- 
stantly obtaining the same product, when following, as nearly 
as possible, the same conditions of fabrication." 


BT W. H. WAJUfXa. 

Lr the Nsws of this week, I read, under the above heading, 
a (to me) somewhat complicated arrangement for the se- 
curing of the very beautiful effects of cloudland. Having, 
in the course of my professional engagements, been ofUn 
compelled to resort to various " dodges " to effect the best 
results in the securing of such effects, and knowing that 
Fimplicity in apparatus is at all times desirable, I will proceed 
to give you my little contrivance, which was arrived at by a 
puff' of wind having one day blown over my camera. 

The lens I was working with, was Dallmeyer's No. 1 triplet, 
to which was attached his flap shutter, made, as you know 
in mahogany. 

My view consisted of a very white parsonage-house, with a 

lawn in front cut up into beds, containing a large quantity 
of green leaves of various shades ; behind the house were 
some very picturesque clouds, which I was desirous of ob- 
taining. The size of the picture was 10 by 6. 

Having focussed, I proceeded, as usual, to prepare the 
plate, when a sudden squall arose, and the catastrophe oc- 
curred as mentioned above, whereby the flap and sides of the 
shutter were broken. Then the following idea suggested 
itself, which has since been perfected by Mr. Robert Murray 
of Murray and Heath, vis., to make one side of the shutter a 
little broader than the other, and in the place of wood to 
have metal sides and flap ; then to ascertain the exact angle 
at which the lower line of the shade divides the whiter 
portion of the picture from the darker, marking this by a 
lead pencil line on the broad side of the shatter. On ex- 
posure, proceed thus .—open the flap at first 1-I6th of an inch 
within that line, holding the brass knob by which the flap 
is raised in your hand, according to the exposure you wish to 
give the foreground ; at the same time move the shutter 
upwards and downwards, in a rapid movement, four or five 
times during the exposure of the foregpx>und, say half an 
inch above the line marked on the side of the shutter in 
order to soften the light into the dark, and thus avoid an 
abrupt line ; then for a moment close the shutter; next open 
the whole for one or two seconds, as the case may be, to give 
the clouds. 

The same principle may be applied to the taking of street 
views, where yon require an absence of people and perfect 
delineation of buildings. Having lately — in fact, at the oe^in- 
ning of last month— rbeen requested to take a view of the Rosii 
Com Exchange, for the purpose of engraving, and its situa- 
tion being in the main street, with people constantly passing 
and repassing, I found that to get a satisfactosy picture it 
would be necessary, in the foggy frosty weather we then had, 
to give an exposure of two or three minutes. This, you see 
by the specimen sent, was done, the only fig^ure being the one 
placed there in order to give the comparative heignt of the 
Duilding. All this has taken much time to explain, the 
actual operation taking only a few seconds to effect 



Mil. J. R. Wood, writing to the American Journal of Photo- 
graphy, says : — " I saw it stated in the Photogbaphic News 
that Dr. Van Monckhoven was experimenting on dcvelopei*??, 
and that he had found protosulphate of uranium to develop 
collodion pictures with less exposure than protosulphate of 
iron. Wishing to try that salt for that purpose, and having 
some of the sesquinitrate of uranium by me, I converted it into 
the protosulphate by the following simple means : 

If a solution of sesquinitrate of uranium in water bo 
heated with clean iron filings, decomposition soon iaken 
place, precipitating the protoxide ot uranium, which 
mostly adheres firmly to the excess of iron filings. If thes.> 
be washed and then mixed with a warm dilute solution of 
sulphuric acid, the precipitated uranium rapidly dissolves, 
forming a dark green solution, which reouires filtering. 
This solution, mixed with an excess of sulphuric acid, I 
have used as a developer, and believe it to require less ex- 
posure than the sulphate of iron with acetic acid. Perhaps 
some of your readers might try it, and rejwrt." 

To Put a Papeb Positive into a Looking Glass.— A 
correspondent sends us the following, which may interest some 
of our readers. Having cut out the picture, take a quarter 
plate glass, well cleaned, lay a sheet of tin foil on two or thrc^e 
thicknesses of cloth or paper, and spread some quicksilver with 
a piece of cotton wool. Next, attach the portrait with varnish, 
to the glass. All being ready, lay a [sheet of clean paper on 
the top of the quicksilver, and place the glass, with portrait 
attached, on the sheet of paper. Now press hard, and draw 
out the sheet of paper gently. The quicksilver will run 
round the edge of the portrait, making a beautifiil looking- 
glass, with a portrait in tne centre, giving an effect, something 
like a daguerreotype. 

Jahuaby 9, 1863.] 




Ix making some further extracts from these extraordinary 
narratives, we may suggest the singular resemblance between 
the images described and the phantoms which sometimes 
appear as the result of imperfectly cleaned plates, on which 
pictures have before been produced. It will be noticed that 
only a portion of the figure is generally visible; that it has a 
nhadowy indefinite appearance ; and that it is often accom- 
panied by fog and stains; which, in the narrative, are 
acscribed as ** cloudy vapours," " white undefined masses," 
'* blurs," &c. The image, too, is often of a difiPerent size to 
the sitter, as though it is suggested " the spirit were at a 
different distance from the camera;" no allusion being made, 
however, to the trifling diCEculty in regard to focus, which 
must follow. It 18 probable that the idea has had its origin 
in the reappearance during development of the imperfectly- 
removed image of a former picture, and this has been received 
by some credulous persons as a spiritual manifestation. That 
which originated in delusion is probably maintained by 
imposture, by a variety of possible moans. The identifica- 
tion of the images as portraits of deceased friends, is only 
explainable by remembering that such barefaced impostors 
as Joe tSnaith, the Mormon Prophet, found thousands of 
followers, and that the wildest delusions have never 
been wanting in " respectable evidence " and unhesitating 

These are not the fitting pages for entering into any dis- 
cusion of the claims of spiritualism, as it is termed, but we 
are somewhat concerned in protesting against our art being 
made the auxiliary either to delusion or imposture. The 
Spiriiual Magazine remarks : — 

^ Those whe are so carefully making their investigations are 
not ignorant of the manner in which the well-known stereo- 
scopic ghosts are produced, of which the invention, like that of 
the stereoscope itself, is claimed, and we hope more honestly than 
the latter, by Sir David Brewster. These ghost imitations are 
produced by having a figure dressed to represent the unearthly 
nsitor, and standing in position during just half the time re- 
quired for the full operation, then moving away, giving the 
objects behind it the other half, to impress their image faintly 
on the negative plate." 

" Dr. Gardner, in his address to the Boston Spiritual Confe- 
rence, says : — ' To me there is no cause for doubt. The pictures 
themselves furnish evidence in their gauze-Uko appearance, that 
has not beon imitated. Careful examination will show the 
roanterfeits that have been made to be essentially different. I 
do not doubt that Mr. Mumler is a peculiar medium, and has an 
organization and magnetism adapted to the production of these 
spirit photographs.* 

** In the Banner of Light, of the 29th November, is also con- 
tiined an elaborate review and description of the process and 
iti results, from which we make the following extracts : — 

" * They are ordinary cartel de vitite, but with a faint addi- 
tional figure, not defined by a distinct sharp outline, but vapoury 
and semi-indefinite. The whole of the figure is not displayed, 
n^naOy, only the head and bust. 

" ' The fint is a portrait of the medium, W. H. Mumler, with 
one hand on a chair, the other holding the black cloth covering 
jnst taken from the camera. In the chair sits a half-defined 
female form, apparently about twelve or fourteen years old. 
This was at once recognized as a deceased female relative. A 
cloadj vapour hovers about the head of this spirit — an effect we 
never before saw in any sun picture. One we have seen has a 
faint disc of light about the head, as if luminous rays were shoot- 
inv ootward, but all stop at a determined circular outline. Two 
others have a similar effect, but the circle would be sufficiently 
large to enclose the whole figure, if the card were of greater 

** 'The second picture taken by this medium has the spirit of 
a lady sitting on a chair, with a white undefined mass of some- 
thing behind her, like two or three pillows. The features are 
quite sonken, with a serious expression. We are told this is a 
likeness of the spirit sister of Mr. J. J. Ewer, as she looked 
when wasted by consumption. The father of the deceased fully 
reeogaizes the likeness, as do the rest of the family. 

" * The next is an elderly lady leaning on a chair, in which 

sits a faintly-defined form of a young man playing upon a guitar. 
This figure is shown more fully than the last, one leg being 

visible to below the knee, the other not being visible at aU 

looks as if moved, leaving only a blur. This was at once recog- 
nized as a deceased brother, who made guitars and was fond of 
playing upon them. 

" * Another is a female figure leaning upon a chair, the hands 
placed together, and eyes elevated as in prayer. The spirit 
appears of a larger size, the face and bust only visible. The 
face is elevated, as if in prayer. 

" * Another is a gentleman sitting, with the edge of a whito 
marble table near him. The spirit is behind him, and a little 
smaller — a female figure, with the hair dressed quite plain and 
Quakerish, a small white collar about the neck, tied with a dark 
ribbon, a close fitting dress, visible only to the waist. 

" * A gentleman from Illinois sat for his portrait, and raised 
the right hand as if holding something. He was told that was 
a very uncouth attitude, but he said, " No matter ; take it so." 
When the plate was developed, there sat upon the raised arm 
a child, leaning its head upon the sitter's shoulder. This child 
is not very clearly defined ; it appears a little larger than in 
nature, as if nearer the camera than the arm it sits upon. The 
dress is transparent, with the hand and arm of the sitter seen 
through it. 

" ' Here is another, an elderly lady, in a dark dress, standing 
by a chair. The spirit of her deceased husband is with her, a 
man evidently older ; the figure about the size of the lady. A 
standing collar is visible on one side, the other turned down ; 
black neck-stock, white shirt bosom. The other portion of the 
costume is not distinctly defined. This is Isaac iiabbitt, inventor 
of the celebrated Babbitt metal. The lady referred to above is 
Mrs. Babbitt, the wile of the deceased, who assures us that the 
picture represents her husband as he appeared in his last illness, 
and she pronounces it, unequivocally, a good likeness, and knows 
that she has not been deceived by the artist. 

" * The next is a portrait of Mr. Luther Parks, an elderly 
gentleman, well known in this city, sitting with his hat on. 
The spirit in this picture is entirely unlike any of the others. 
It is a female figure floating in the air. the hair combed back 
over the head, a loose-fitting dress with short loose sleeves 
gathered in at the elbow ; a bracelet on the left fore arm, which 
is extended, with a wreath of flowers in the hand, toward the 
gentleman. The right hand is pressed against the side, and 
over the head (not on it) floats a wreath of flowers. This spirit 
is quite transparent, the folds of a curtain being distinctly seen 
through the whole of it. 

" ' Dr. William B. White has two photographs taken at the 
same time ; one (a ladv) in front, and another behind a chair. 
These spirits, he says, have been with him many years. He is 
a clairvoyant, and sees the spirits and talks with them. They 
told him, eight years ago, that the time would come when a 
group, sitting at a table, would have thoir photographs and 
those of their spirit-friends taken together. Still further ; that 
they would be taken in colours. 

" ' The last we shall notice, at this time, is that of a gentleman 
of commanding figure, noble bearing, and dignified demeanour, 
well known, particularly to express agents in the business com- 
mumity, who stands by a chair, in which sits the form of a young 
man reading a book. Another picture of the same gentleman 
has the dim form of Daniel Webster near him. The statesman 
is recognized at a glance, and bears a close resemblance to por- 
traits painted in the latter portion of his lifetime — ^the sunken 
cheeks particularly. The top of the head is bald, with the hair 
combed up from each side. The expression of the features is 
very grave and solemn. The dress is not distinct, but, so far 
as it can be perceived, is unlike an3rthing in the painted or 
engraved portraits, but slightly resembles the costume on the 
Washington statue, in the State House ; nearly half the figure 
is displayed, and is a little larger than the mortal, as if nearer 
the instrument. It is quite transparent, the chair being quito 
distinct behind it. 

" * The spirit of Webster purports to be frequently with this 
gentleman, manifesting its presence whenever a suitable medium 
IS available. This gentleman has received from Webster a 
private signal, by which he says he is able to identify its pre- 
sence, and, therefore, that he is not liable to be imposed upon by 
any other spirit. While in position for this picture, he ex} e- 
rienced the usual signal, thus oddinganother proof of identity.' 

" Dr. A. B. Child, of Boston, says — 

*' ' Mr. Mumler invited me to bring my own glass on whicn 



[January 9, 1863. 

to make the picture ; to examine the camera, its tubes, and 
lenses ; his chemicals ; to see him apply the collodion to the 
glass, and immerse it in the silver bath ; to see him take it out 
of the bath and put it in the shield, then in the camera, and 
then to go with him into the dark dosct, lighted only by n 
little lamp, and see him take the glass from the shield, which is 
a little dark box, then pour on an iron preparation, wash it 
under a stream of water, and then hold it to the little lamp, and 
see the picture of a mortal and a spirit on it. In compliance 
with this invitation, I carefully observed all the above operations 
in detail. 

" * Mr. Mumler asks for any fair investigation that shall con- 
vince the people that his claims are just and genuine. This is 
right, and as it should be. And it is not unjust or ungenerous, 
in a new thing — so great and so beautiful as this, if true, must 
be for the people — to ask the privilege to prove it true beyond 
the shadow of a doubt.' 

" And in a letter written a week after, and after further inves- 
tigation. Dr. Child says : — 'The best and oldest photographic 
artists in Boston are unanimous in declaring that they know of 
no means by which these pictures can be produced, as Mr. 
Mumler produces them.* 

" Mr. Joseph B. Hall, of Portland, Maine, writes to the 
Banner of Light an account of his experience, which appears to 
contain a good test. He says : — ' I was permitted to go into 
the " dark room " with the operator, and I saw another figure, 
beside my own, developed upon the plate. Being unable to wait 
for the picture, I came home, and, a few days after, copies were 
sent to me. At first, although the face of the spirit- figure was 
familiar, I did not recognize it, as I confess I was looking for 
some one of ray relatives ; but soon I recognized the countenance 
of a young friend of mine, who died in Au^sta, Me., some three 
or four years since. He was not in my mmd when! sat for the 
picture, and I had hardly thought of him for months. Imme- 
diately I forwarded one of the pictures to the friends of the 
young man at Augusta, without intimating to them that I had 
recognized it. Yesterday I received a letter from his sister, 
from which I make the following extract : — 

" ' I received the photograph, and it was my brother F . 

The likeness nearly overcame me, it was so plain. His collar 
and cravat are precisely as he used to wear them. It is as plain 
a picture to me as the one hanging in my room. "We all see it 
alike, and I think any one who knew him must see the likeness 
at once. It was a great surprise to me, for I never dreamed of 
seeing any of our friends on your picture ; I hope, however, that 
the test will make up for the disappointment to you. I do not 
think these pictures flatter, but this is a true likeness. 

" * Augusta, Me., November 16, 1862.* 

*' The point has been raised by one of the New York papers, 
and Judge Edmonds has written the following letter, which puts 
the question on its true basis : — 

" ' To the Editors of the Evening Post, 

" * Your article of yesterday in regard to spiritual photography 
professes to solve the mystery^ and announces that Appleton's 
artist can do the same thing, wherever there is a photograph of 
the dead person. 

" ' That is not the mystery of this thing. But it is to take a 
picture containing a likeness of a person who is dead, and of 
wbom there is no photograph or likeness in existence ! 

" ' This is what the Boston operator professes to do, and the 
question is, " Is that so ?'* J. W. Edmonds.' " 

Wo echo the question of Judge Edmonds — '* Is that so?" 



To the dlseovery of the collodion process, no doubt, may be attributed the 
immense bnpetus which was now given to the art. Daguerreotypes had been 
taken by Beard as early as the year 1843, he having patented for England 
(hat process which the generosity of the French Oovernment had thrown 
open to the world by awarding a pension of 10,000 francs for the discovery— 
6,000 to Daguerre,and 4,040 to Niepce. Claudet and Mayall, with some half 
dozen others, comprised all the professional photographers in 1852, who sup- 
plied thp photographic wants of the public After another five years there 
were in the metropolis alone above 150 establishments for the taking of 

Shotographic portraits; and, again, at the present time, the "London 
directory " tellH us that tliere has been a vast increase. 

* Continued from p. 8. 

This must still comprise but a very small portion of those who obtain their 
living by the sun's rays. Scarcely a favourable spot for the practice of the 
art is left untenanted ; and we were lately informed that, for a desirable 
house in Regent Street, an enterprising and wealthy firm had given nearly 
double the former rent obtained for the premises. Every country town of 
note, and even some remote villages, now pos.sess one or more practical 
photographers. Travelling photographic vans also throng the rural districts ; 
and a statement of the consumption of photographic requisites seems to be 
quite fabulous. 

A paragraph lately appeared in the daily papers stating that one firm alone, 
in London, used upwards of half a million of eggs annually, to obtain alba- 
men for the formation of positive printing paper. 

Beyond the discovery of Mr. Archer, two other causes, especially, have 
conduced to the spread of the photographic art in England— the formation of 
the photographic societies of Xondon and Edinburgh, together with other 
local societiesi, and the removal of the patent restrictions which threatened 
the earlier nractisers. 

In April, 1852, Mr. Roger Fenton issued, as honorary secretary, a proposal 
to establish a photographic society, in which it is stated that, since th<» 
Exhibition of 1851, the science of photography had advanced at a more rapid 
rate than in preceding years. At the Exhibition of 1851, the lovers and 
students of the art in all parts of England were brought into more imme- 
diate and frequent communication. Ideaa of theory, and methods of prac- 
tice, were interchanged ; the pleasure and the instruction were mutual In 
order that this temporary state might become permanent, it was proposed to 
unite in a common society, with fixed places of meeting and a regular orga- 
nization, "all those gentlemen whose Ustes have led them to a cultivation 
of this branch of natural science ,■" but, still, a degree of doubt seemed to 
exist as to the strength of the infant art, for it is suggested that it is needful 
to ascertain the amount of support such a proposal is likely to obtain, by 
those desirous of uniting to send their names, with suggestions for its 
success, to the gentleman who had so kindly undertaken to suggest it and 
act as the first secretarv. 

The proposed formation of the Photographic Society, no doubt, influenced 
the second result, for Sir Charles Eastlake, the President of the Royal 
Academy, had been in constant communication with photographers, in their 
previous councils, accepting the office of first president of the proposed 
society, he, in conjunction, with Lord Rosse, addressed a letter to Mr. Pox 
Talbot, which, together with Mr. Fox Talbot's reply, appeared in the Timet 
newspaper of August 13th, 1852, and, as they are both important in the pro- 
gress of the history of the art, it is desirable that they should be here 


London, July, 1852. 

Deas Sik,— In addressing to you this letter, we believe that we speak the 
sentiments of many persons eminent for their love of science and art. 

" The art of photog^phy upon paper, of which you are the inventoe, has 
arrived at such a degree of perfection that it must soon become of national 
importance ; and we are anxious that, as the art itself originated in 
England, it should also receive its further perfection and development in 
this country. At present, however, although England continues to take the 
lead in some branches of the art, yet, in others, the French are, unquestion- 
ably, making more rapid progress than we are. It is very desirable that we 
should not be left behind by the nations of the Continent in the improve- 
ments and development of a purely British invention ; and, as you are the 
possessor of a patent right which will continue for some years, and which 
may, perhaps, be renewed, we beg to call your attention to the subject, antl 
to inquire, whether it may not be possible for you to obviate most of the 
dfficulties which now appear to hinder the progress of the art in England. 

"Many of the finest applications of the invention will probably require 
the co-operation of men of science and skilful artists. But it is evident the 
more flreely they can use the recources of the art, the more it is that their 
efforts will be attended with eminent success. 

"As we feel no doubt that some judicious alterations would give great 
satisfaction, and be the means of rapidly improving this beautiftil art, we beg 
to make this friendly communication to you in the full confidence that you 
will receive it in the same spirit -the improvement of art and science being 
our common object. Rosse. 

C. L. Eastlike. 

"To n. Fox Taldot, Esq., P.R.S." 


" Lacock Abbey, July 30, 1852. 

" Mr DEAR Lord Rosse, — I have had the honour of receiving a letter from 
yourself and Sir Charles Eastlake respecting my photographic invention, to 
which I have now the pleasure of replying. 

" Ever since the Great Exhibition I have felt that a new era has com- 
menced for photography, as it has for so many other useful arts and inven- 
tions. Thousands of persons have now become acquainted with the art, 
and fh)m having seen such beautiflil specimens of it produced both in 
England and in France, have naturally felt a wish to practise it themselves. 
A variety of new applications of it have been imagined, and doubtless many 
more remain to be discovered. I am unable to pursue all these numerous 
branches of the invention in a manner that can even attempt to do justice 
to them ; and moreover, I believe it to be no longer necessary, for the art 
has now taken a firm root both in England and France, and may be safely 
left to take its natural development I am as desirous as any one of the 
lovers of science and art whose wishes you have kindly undertaken to repre- 
sent, that our country should continue to take the lead in this newly dis- 
covered branch of the fine arts ; and after much consideration, I think that 
the beat thing that I can do, and most likely to stimulate to further im- 
provements in photography will be to invite the emulation and competition 
of our artists and amateurs by relaxing the patent right which I possei>^ in 
this invention. I therefore beg to reply to your kind letter by offering the 
Patent, with the exception of the single point hereinafter mentioned, as a 
free present to the public, together with any other improvements in the 
same art, one of which has been very recently granted to me, and has still 
thirteen years unexpired. 

" The exception to which I refer, and which I am desirous of still keeping 
in the hands of my own licencees, is the application of the iDvention to 
taking photographic portraits for sale to the public. 

" This is a branch of the art which must necessarily be in comparatively 
few hands, because it requires a house to be built or altered on purpose, 
having an apartment lighted by a skylight, otherwise the portraits cannot 
be taken Indoors, ganeraliy speaking, without great difficulty. 

January 9, 1863.] 



"With this exception then I present my invention to the country, and 
trost that it may realize our hopes of its future utility. — ^Believe me to re- 
main, mj dear Lord Reese, your obliged and ftUthful servant, 

"II. F. Talbot. 
To the Sarl or Rossi, Connauffht Place, London.** 

' On the 22nd December, 1852, the first public exhibition of photographs 
was opened|by the Society of Arts, in their rooms In the Adelphi, and a large 
number of pictures, principally by the paper processes, were displayed. On 
the 20th January, 1853, a meeting of photographers took place in the rooms 
of the Society of Arts, and the Photographic Society was established. Sir C. 
L. Eastlake, President of the Royal Academy, became the first president of 
the new society. This society has become the 'parent of a numerous progeny 
(it other societies, which have since sprung up largely in all parts of the 

The concessions made by Mr. Fox Talbot, in the foregoing letter, did not 
satisfy photographers, who felt that the "single point" reserved was that 
which hindered the practice more than all the others conceded. Accordingly, 
the art was dailv becoming more practised and lucrative to the promoters, 
when Mr. Fox I'albot, in December, 1854, brought an action against Mr. La 
Roche, a photographic artist, to restrain him from taking collodion portraits. 
After a trial lasting two days, before Lord Chief Justice Jervisi, a verdict was 
returned adverse to Mr. Talbof s claim, since which, the art, freed from 
patent restrictions, has progressed with an uninterrupted flow of success. 

The earty experimentalists in the collodion process confined their efforts 
mainly to the production of positives on glass, and little thought was 
originally given to the securing of negatives by that process. On the dis- 
covery, however, that the collodion image was suited for use as a negative 
from which positives on paper might be printed, and that results much supe- 
rior in delicacy and perfectness of definition, with greater rapidity of expo- 
sure were thus obtained, the attention of photographers was chiefly directed 
to tUs process. The delicacy of detail which was possessed by the coUodion 
and albumen negatives was found to demand a finer surface for its perfect 
rendering than that usually possessed by even the finest photographic 
papers ; to meet this difficulty it was proposed to apply to the paper a coat- 
ing of albomen. One of the earliest records that we find of this application 
ii in a communication by Mr. IL Pollock, addressed to the Journal of the 
Pkotograpkic Society, in July 1853. The process has since become general, 
and is almost universally practised ; although the glaze thus given to the 
tmrfsee is not entirely satisfifustory hi an artistic sense, yet the facility it 
affords for rendering delicate definition in a class of pictures, the perfect and 
ninnte detail of which is an especial beauty, will always be a strong induce- 
ment to continue its use. 

It is unnecessary here to refer at length to the calotype and waxed-paper 
processes and their progress since the Exhibition of 1851 ; they have ueen, 
(or a variety of reasons, to a large extent superseded by the collodion pro- 
nM. The waxed-paper process has received a variety of modifications, and 
ii still practised with success by some photographers, especially in tropical 
climates. An allusion cannot, however, be made to these methods without 
expressing some regret that the calotype procoMs, the oldest method of pro- 
dftting photographic pictures, and one by which many of the most beautiful 
productions of the art have been obtained, possessing many advantages 
p«ealiarly its own, should have fkllen so largely into disuse. 

A new diflBcolty soon developed itself, and the want of permanency in 
phoiogiaphic prints was forced upon the attention of all interested in the 
progress of the art. 

One of the first to call attention to this failing, and to the importance of 
devising some means to give greater stability, was the Patron of the Photo- 
paphie Society, His Royal Highness the lamented Prince Consort ; at his 
tuggestion a committee was formed for the examination of the causes upon 
vbich the fhding of positive prints depend, and if possible to suggest methods 
for the securing of permanency. 

In May 1855, a committee, consisting of Mr. Delamotte, Mr. Hardwlch, Dr. 
Percy, Mr. Henry Pollock, Mr. Sbadbolt, and Dr. Diamond, was appointed 
by the Photogiaphic Society for this purpose ; His Royal Highn^ the Prince 
Consort contributing the sum of d£50 towards the expenses of^he inquiry. 
The special objects of the committee were thus stated : — 

Ist. To report upon the evidence that can be collected with regard to 
photographs that have been printed for a long time ; to ascertain whether 
there are any that appear to be quite unaltered by time, and, wherever it is 
practacaUe, to find out the methods by which they were prepared. 

3Bd. To conduct a series of experiment:) carefully, preparing photographs 
by dilTerent means, and exposing them under various circumstances, in order 
to ascertain what method combines in the highest degree the essential quali- 
ties of pennanency and beauty. 

(To be continued.) 

"^xamJnixQn of Siamixts, 

London Photographic Society. 

The usual monthly meeting was held in the theatre at King's 
College, Mr. Francis Bedford in tlio chair. 

The minutes of a previous meeting were read and confirmed. 

The Secretary then read a letter just received from Lieut.- 
General KnoUys, in reply to a communication from the secre- 
tary, in which he stated that His Royal Highness the Prince 
of Wales would have pleasure in becoming the patron of the 

The Chairman called attention to a couple of prints from an 
enlarged negative, by Mr. W. H. Warner. One was on olbumen- 
ized paper, the other on resinized paper ; the latter possessing 
more Boflness and detail than the other, but being a little cold 
in tone. He also called attention to a series of photolithograplis, 
by Messrs. Simonau and Toovey, of Brussels, produced by M. 
Asser's process, sent by Mr. G. Wharton Simpson. A couple 
of rolling presses, by Mr. Waddy, of Sheffield, were also exhi- 

bited, and the Chairman explained that Mr. Waddy was pre 
sent, and would answer any questions regarding them. 

The following gentlemen were elected members of the society : 
Messrs. W. Stonehouse, E. Fox, P. Meagher, W. ^. Debenham, 
J. Rivington, and Sir A. H. K. Macdonald. 

Mr. S. HiOHLEY then proceeded to read a paper *' On Photo- 
CTaphy in its Relation to the Ma^ic Lantern, Educationally 
Considered." A variety of mechanical adaptations were shown 
during the course of the evening, and at the close of the paper 
an interesting series of transparencies, photographed from 
nature, and from engravings, were exhibited by means of the 
magic lantern and the oxyhydrogen light. Amongst these 
were a variety of fine microscopic objects, a series of trans- 
parencies from Kaulbach's illustrations to " Reynard the Fox;" 
some from Shaw's Bible illustrations ; others from Hogarth's 
engravings ; some of Mr. England's Parisian street scenes, and 
American scenery, and a variety of miscellaneous subjects. 

At the termination of the illustrations, the Chairman stated 
that it was necessary that two auditors should be elected to 
examine the accounts, against the annual meeting to be held 
next month. M. Hcisch and M. Claudet, jun., were proposed 
and elected, and after a vote of thanks to Air. Highley the pro- 
ceedings terminated. 



Paris, 1th January, 1863. 
M. E. Baroux, a wood engraver, has claimed the merit of 
having solved the problem of photography on wood, inas- 
much as by a simple process he obtains the design on wood, 
not reversed, with every delicacy of light, shade, and detail. 
The wood is not attacked by the sensitive preparations, and 
if the proof happens to be unsatisfactory, it can be imme- 
diately removed by passing a wet sponge over it. The block 
can then be recovered with the sensitive coating, and a 
fresh proof taken. The blocks retain their usual hardness 
and solidity, and are cut with as much facility as blocks 
unprepared. The sensitive coating is so thin that it offers 
no impediment to the graver, while it readily receives 
corrections, or retouching, with the ordinary black lead 

Eeucil. M. Baroux has not yet communicated his process, 
ut I name it in order to stimulate your readers to a satis- 
factory solution of this important problem. 

An apparatus for operating with in the open air has 
lately been introduced by M. Rousseau de la Farge : it 
permits of working with wet collodion, of sensitiising the 
plate, and of completely finishing the proof, in full sun- 

This portable apparatus does not require the ordinaiy ob- 
jective to be changed ; it serves rather as an auxiliary to it, 
as they can be united together. 

It is composed of a grooved box to carry the glassplatcs, 
behind which is a compartment for the bottles. To this 
box there are adapted two vertical baths, by suitable hooks 
and fastenings. The upper portion of the baths has a 
groove equal in sisse to the thickness of the principal slide, 
of which more hereafter, and intended to receive it during 
the operation. To keep it fixed, they are furnished with 
two stop-plates projecting a little over the opening. The 
rabbet of each bath is closed on one side, and can be on 
the other by an india-rubber spring. The opening of each 
bath is closed by a cover coated with gum-elastic. Pressure 
is exercised and maintained by two screws. 

The nitrate of silver bath must be made of an imper- 
meable substance, which has no action upon the solution, 
such as glass or gutta-percha ; and it must be enclosed in a 
wooden case. The developing bath, of orange-yellow gloss, 
must be protected in a similar manner. If it be composed 
of any other impermeable material, it must have two plates 
of yellow glass nxed parallel to its two sides, and carefully 
cemented to avoid leakage. The slide holding the plates 
during exposure in the camera opens at its lower part, and 
is closed at will by means of a slip of whalebone, wood, or 



[January 9, 1863. 

india-rubber sticking in a groove, and in another external 
one, having its corresponding sides parallel, and at the 
same height on the other side. 

In this titide there is a second, which plays within the 
first, and b intended to receive the coUodioned plate ; it is 
called the plunger^ because it serves to introduce the plate 
into the baths by plunging into it. It is formed of bands 
of copper or of brasfl. of the same breadth and thickness, 
soldered together. This slide must be properly silvered. 
It is moved from the principal slide into the baths, and 
from the baths into the principal slide, by a cat-gut string 
passing to the outside by a hole through the upper part of 
the principal slide. 

This plunger may be made of vulcanized india-rubber. A 
spring, of a particular form adapted to the outside shutter of 
the slide, permits of a suitable pressure being exercised at 
will upon the plate placed within the slide. 

The manipulations with this apparatus are extremely 
easv to perform. We commence by placing the principal 
glide containing the plunger upon the nitrate of silver bath ; 
the slide passes to the opening of the bath, and is stopped 
by the partition of the bottom at the point of complete 
coincidence of its opening with that of the bath. We next 
open the shutter of the slide, and collodion the plate, which 
is placed in the plunger. Then the shutter is closed, taking 
'care that its spring be properly adjusted ; then the stop- 
plate is withdrawn, and the plate falls into the bath. After 
it has become sufficiently sensitized, it is returned to the 
principal slide by pulling up the cord on the outside. The 
opening of the piincipal sliae is now closed by returning the 
stop-plate to its original position, the bolt of the springs 
withdrawn, and then the plate is ready for exposure in the 
camera. To developc the image obtained, the slide is 
carried to the bath of protosulphate of iron, and operated 
with as described. For the sensitizing bath, with this 
difference, however, that the bath is turned on its hinges so 
as to examine the development of the image by transparency ; 
the principal slide may then be withdrawn from over the 
bath on leaving the plunger, which is withdrawn afterwards, 
BO as to avoid staining the principal slide. It now only 
remains to wash and fix the picture. If necessary, other 
baths may be established between those mentioned above 
and the box carrying the glass plates. 

Before commencing another picture, the slide must be 
cleansed of all traces of the iron developing solution. For 
the movements of the plunger to be perfectly fi*ee, the 
internal space of the principal slide must be narrower than 
the bath, and the lower opening of the principal slide must 
be rounded at the edges, and bevelled. 

The plunger can be dispensed with by employing silver 
pincers and a screw, to seize the plate at its upper end. We 
can also employ different hooks. In this new system the 
plate moves m grooves formed by the shutters of the slide, 
and two fillets fixed upon the interior surface of the 

The baths require no sort of modification. 

This arrangement can be applied to all kinds and sizes of 

M. Icard has communicated the following note upon 
Graduated Backgrounds : — 

" Many contrivances for the attainment of this object 
have been described, none of which appear to me to be 
comparable, either in simplicity or in the results obtained, 
to that which I make use of. The following is a descrip- 
tion of it : — I have made a little groove on each side of my 
pressure-frame, so as to admit of my introducing a piece of 
wood which completely masks tne plate. An oval, of< 
greater or lesser axis, according to the size of the object to 
be copied, is cut in the centre of this piece of wood. At the 
moment of exposing the frame to the sun's rays, or to diffused 
light, the whole secret consists in applying a piece of ground 
glass to the oval : the light reaching the picture only 
through this ground glass will give a gradation of tone of 
exauisito delicacy. In the absence of a piece of ground 

glass a sheet of tracing paper will produce the same effect : 
the piece of wood can also be replaced by a piece of 
blackened cardboard with raised edges, fitting the frame 
exactly like a coverlid." 

M. Van Monckhoven has addressed to the secretary of the 
French Photographic Society the following communication 
upon the action of light upon certain compounds of 
silver : — 

*' In an article contributed by M. Roussin to the Societ^^'s 
BuUdint which I have just received, I read that 'Iodide 
of silver is not necessary in the albumen process in order to 
obtain images in the camera obscura. This salt only 
increases the rapidity a little.' 

" I beg, sir, to refer you to No. 173 of the British Journal 
of the 1st September last, where you will find this iact 
stated in nearly the following words : — 

** 1st. In Young's experiment (consisting in the develop- 
ment of an image upon albumen after fixing) the image va 
not due to the iodide of silver, but rather to the albuminate 
of this metal. 

** 2nd. Every process in which, besides iodide of silver, 
there is present an organic body capable of combining with 
the nitrate of silver, will admit of development after fixing. 

" 3rd. In these processes tJie iodide of silver may he 
omitted in practice. 

" The fact announced by M. Boussin is, therefore, a 
particular instance of the rule laid down. 

" If, sir, any doubt lingers in your mind on this matter, 
I beg of you to peiiise pages 322, 323 of the fourth edition 
of my Traite de JPhotographiej which I enclose. 

" In my opinion, the theory of the formation of the image 
in the camera may be stated in these terms: — 

" 1st. In the processes where the iodide of silver is pure, or 
mixed with an excess of nitrate of silver, the action of light 
is purely physical. 

" 2nd. But in the processes where an argentico-organic 
combination exists in presence of iodide of silver, the 
action is double ; first tnere is a physical action upon the 
iodide, then a chemical action upon the oi^anic combina- 
tion. Besides, the iodide of silver is not absolutely neces- 
sary in these processes in order to obtain images in the 
camera obscura. With regard to M. Roussin's second asser- 
tion, I have a few words to say — ' On the rapidity which 
iodide of silver communicates to the albumenizcd glass.* 
I have, in fact, remarked the same thing, but the pro- 
foundest lesearch has proved to me that this is due to the 
transparency of the alouminate of silver — a transparency so 
complete, that the light can impress several plates placed 
one over the other at the same time. But if the albuminate 
of silver be opaque (if the film be very thick), then the 
luminous rays are stopped ; besides, I have not been able to 
discover in these conditions any difference between the 
sensitiveness of plates simply albumenized, and those albu- 
menized and iodized." 

M. Davanne states, that on two several occasions he has 
proved that the abundant smoke of tobacco had an influence 
upon the development of negatives. In one of these 
instances a colleague attempted an instantaneous process in 
the presence of several smoking photographers : every nega- 
tive ytnA fogged. Next day he repeated the same process, 
after the room had been thoroughly aired and ventilated, 
and the images came out perfect. More recently, himself 
and a friend developed negatives taken by Taupenot's pro- 
cess, in the same room, with the same materials, and under 
identical conditions; with the one who smoked the develop- 
ing solution soon, became covered with reductions to such 
an extent that it had to bo thrown away ; while the other 
experiment, taken when the room was free from smoke, was 
perfectly successful. Numerous facts serve to prove the 
truth of these observations ; and photographers who are in 
the habit of smoking in their operating rooms, may rest 
assured that thiH is the cause of numerous otherwise inex- 
plicable failm-es. 

January 9, 1863.] 




Dbas Sm, — At the beginning of last year, I tried printing 
on paper, prepared with india-rubber and ^tta-percha, but 
was then nnauooessful, on account, as I since find, of my 
using too large a proportion of these bodies. 

I have since tried some more experiments with the same 
substances, and some of them have turned out perfectly suc- 
cessf al. I was much surprised to see that so many have been 
tiring india-rubber, as I thought the idea of using it to 
render the paper waterproof before printing, had not been 
made public. As in the last number of the Photoq&a.phic 
News yon say that you wotild be glad to receive practical 
details on the subject, I thought that your readers would like 
to know the proportions that I have found to answer best. 
Procure some pure benzole, and in four ounces of it, dissolve 
twelve grains more or less, of pure india-rubber. I say more 
or leas, as different samples of india-rubber are very variable, 
as regards the extent to which they are soluble in benzole. 
Some of them swell up to an enormous size, and refuse to 
dissolve at all. After a suitable sample has been procured, 
and the correct quantity determined, it is best to keep to it. 
The india-rubber may be dissolved with advantage, in a 
little chloroform, before adding |the benzole. When dis- 
sohvd allow the solution to stand till perfectly clear, then 
ponr off the top poi*tion with a flat dish. To prepare the 
paper, immenie in the way I directed for resinizing paper, 
draw it from the solution, and hang it up by two corners to 
drjr. Great care is I'equisite to prevent streaks. Dust must 
be excluded, as far as possible, from the room, as any of it 
adhering to the paper whilst wet, would cause a kind of 
comet. When the paper is dry, it will present a beautifully 
even, and slightly glossy surface. The paper may now be 
tloated on either of the lollowing solutions : — 

No. 1. — Distilled water 1 ounce 

Chloride of Ammonium ... 6 or 8 grains 

No. 2. — Chloride of Ammonium ... 6 or 8 grains 

Iceland Moss 6 grains 

Distilled water 1 ounce 

The moss should be washed in cold water before pouring 
the boiling water upon it. 

Or, No. 3. — The waterproof paper may be resinized. 

The bath I used is 70 grains to the ounce, with ^ drop of 
nitric acid. 

Br either of these three formulae, charming prints may be 

The toning and fixing, is performed as usual. 

A carious fact with regard to resinized paper, has recently 
come under my notice. I was much astonished to see a 
batch of prints remain, after fixing, as dark as when they 
were taken from the printing frames. I was at the time, at 
the printing establishment of one of our first photographers, 
and, as several prints printed there, did not lose at all, I was 
rather vexed that I could assign no reason for it, and to test 
whether it was to the chemicals used in toning and fixing 
that it was due. I brought a few prints away with me, and 
toned and fixed them at home, wnere they all lost consider- 
ablr. I have since discovered the reason of this apparent 
anomaly, and now save a great deal of time, by not printing 
much deeper than the finished print is required to be. Upon 
r*;moval from the printing frame I wash m two changes of 
(ll^tilled, and one of common water, and use a toning bath 
of acetate of soda and gold, in the proportion of 20 to 1, 
made 8t least a week beforehand, and never use either the 
toning or fixing bath more than once. From this, it will be 
S'en. that if the print is washed at first in water, containing 
a chloride, and toned in a comparatively new bath, it will 
W to a very serious amount. « 

Should you think this letter worth inserting, I should be 
glad if you would do so, — I am, dear sir, yours truly, 

H. Cooper, Jun. 

5, Aberdeen Park, Jan, 3ni, 1863. 

|P^0t0jjruj|^|;ic Botes auiir ^u^ms. 

Ahuonia Nitrate Bath. 

Sir, — ^Upon looking over the notices to correspondents, in 
the News of the 2nd instant, one C. P. W. complains of blisters 
upon albimienizcd paper, floated upon the nitrate of ammonia 
bath. I beg to offer tl^e remedy — ^namely, add a small quantity 
of aloohi^ ; I use about four ounces in a 60 or 70 ounce bath, 
which at once causes the silver (as it werej to amalgamate as 
required, upon and with the hitherto repellent-surface. — I am, 
sir, yours obediently, J. J. Hobbiss. 

Washing Prints. 

Sir, — Possibly the following idea has been fdrcady considered, 
but I have not seen it noticed. To every photographer, the 
washing of the prints is a dull, manual operation, without a 
gleam of science to enliven it. To supersede this troublesome 
process, I think that the air-pump might be applied, as follows : 
Place the prints in the receiver of the air-pump, and exhaust the 
air; this being done, admit water, which will of course imme- 
diately saturate the paper, then empty out the water, and 
again exhaust the air. Repeat this process, in proportion to 
the amount of the prints to be washed. The chemicals that 
dissolve in water will, I think, by this quick process, bo carried 
completely away ; whether the print will be damaged, can only 
be seen on trial. The experiment would require a very slight 
modification of an air-pump, and I would havo tried it, but do 
not possess such an instrument, nor am I aware]of the existence 
of one within sixteen miles of my residence. As I do not think 
that there is a photographer within the same distance, I havo 
no one but you to consult, and trust you will pardon a 
** tyro " and " amateur " in so doing. — Yours truly, G. W. O. 


Sir, — In the British Journal, Dec. 15, occurs the following :— 

" On the same occasion M. Disderi announced that he had 
just been negociating with an American artist, who had found 
out a means of prcSucing positive pictures on the prepared 
canvas employed by painters. At M. Delcssert's, and also at 
Disderi's, X have seen several specimens of this novelty, and 
must acknowledge that the result is most remarkable. The 
painter having only to terminate the sketch traced for him by 
photography, and being no longer inconvenienced by the nature 
of tho substance he is painting upon, produces a work which 
has all the merit of photographic accuracy, and which at the 
same time has given nim free scope for his talent." 

I have no desire to detract from tho merit or originality of 
the invention ; but I shall feel obliged by your allowing mo the 
privilege of stating, that as long ago as February, 1859, 1 had 
mado experiments with a view of obtaining the same desidera- 
tum ; and in March of the same year I had succeeded in pro- 
ducing perfect i)rints upon canvas as ordinarily prepared for 
the painter in oils, and had shown them to several photo- 

I hope to have several specimens of my process at the 
forthcoming Exhibition of the Photographic Society. — I am, 
sir, your most obedient servant, j2«o. T. Lucas, Jun. 

8, St, Johns Wood Road, Regent's Park, Dae, 16<A, 1802. 

Resinized Paper. 

Sir, — ^My object in thus intruding myself to your notice, 
is to say a few words on the now controverted subject — 
photographic paper. 

It is scarcely necessary here to remind your readers of tho 
importance of the printing part of photography, as, tlianks to 
your stirring articles on the subject, photographers havo aroused 
themselves to take better care of this neglected part of tho art. 

We find most, if not all, photographers using albumen ized 
paper in preference to any other, and yet albumen contains 
sulphur, the dread enemy of photographic prints ; so we find 
in the verv foundation of the proof sufficient cause for premature 
decay. iJow, if any onepaper at present in existence may bo 
recommended, it is Mr. H. Cooper's resinized paper, described 
in one of your papers. This paper has many excellent points, 
and surely no better recommendation is needcdt hau its well- 
known preservative qualities. I fear to presume too much on 
your time, or I would give you a formula for toning used by me, 
with the best results.— I am, sir, yours truly, 

D. K. Griffith. 



[jAmjABY 9, 1863. 

Chsap Alcohol. — A method of extracting alcoho] from 
coal gas has beeu discovered at St. Quentin, France, by a 
yoang chemist named Cotelle. Ho announces that he can sell 
his alcohol at 25 francs the hectoliter, while the most inferior 
spirits produced from other articles is selling for 75 francs the 
hectoliter. One equivalent of alcohol contains 4 equivalents of 
olifiant coal gas and 2 equivalents of water. There is nothing 
new about the obtaining of alcohol from gas ; this has been 
done before but it cannot be manufactured so cheaply as from 
grain. Olifiant gas can be made of alcohol as follows :~Take 
1 ounce of strong alcohol and 4. ounces of concentrated sul- 
plmric acid and place them in a glass retort capable of holding 
10 ounc<cs, and apply a gentle heat. When the liquor boils, 
olifiant gas is given ofif. The sulphuric acid should be added 
to the alcohol in small quantities, and the retort should be 
shaken after each addition. The olifiant gas thus obtained 
for experiment is usually passed through a weak solution of 
potash to wash it. 

Portable Camera. — We have recently had an opportunity 
of inspecting a very ingeniously contrived portable stereoscopic 
camera, invented by Mr. Hooper, and manufactured by Mr. 
Petschler of Manchester. The front is hinged at the bottom, 
and so arranged that it can fall back, with the lenses in situ^ 
into the body of the camera. A case which holds three double 
backs, is attached with hinges to the back of the camera, but 
is so made that it can easily be removed. The whole, when 
packed up, forms a compact and convenient parcel. 

Negative Varnish. — We understand from Mr. Solomon, 
that a spurious imitation of the negative varnish of Soehnee 
Freres, has recently got into the marlcet. As we have heard 
we have heard frequent complaints of the deterioration of this 
varnish recently, it is possible that this may account for the 
change. It should be an easy matter for photographers to 
assure themselves that they purchase a genuine article. 

Photographic Exhibition. — Cards of invitation for the 

Erivate view of the Exhibition of the Photographic Society 
ave just been issued. The day is fixed for Saturday, the 
10th, from twelve till dusk. On Monday it will open to the 

The Robbery op Lenses at the Crystal Palace. — 
George Restall, late manager to Messrs. Ncgretti and Zambra, 
opticians, of No. 1, Hatton-garden, at their photographic 
establishment, in the Crystal Palace, was finally examined, on 
Tuesday, at the Lambeth Police-court, on a charge of stealing 
photographic lenses belonging to his employers, of the value of 
£100. Mr. G. Lewis, jun., of Ely-place, appeared for the pro- 
secution, and Mr. Sleigh for the defence. Sergeant Palmer, 
the ofiicer engaged in the case, discovered that four of the 
missing lenses had been pawned at the shop of Mr. Blizzard, a 
pawnbroker, in the Borough, and that amongst them was one 
belonging to the prisoner himself. Richard Kinder, the shop- 
man, swore positively the property had been pledged by the 
prisoner on the morning of Friday, the 31st of Octo»>cr last, and 
tliat he subsequently identified him at the Crystal Palace, when 
ho had been taken into custody. Mr. Sleigh called three wit- 
nesses to prove an alibi ; the first was the female servant of the 
prisoner, who swore that her master did not go out until after 
nine o'clock in the morning in question ; and two relations de- 
posed they left the house at a quarter past nine, proceeded by 
omnibus, and accompanied the prisoner to the Crystal Palace ; 
while the pawnbroker's assistant swore positively that the 
accused pledged the property between the hours of eight and 
nine. Mr. Elliott, however, committed the prisoner for trial ; 
but on the application of Mr. Sleigh admitted him to bail. 

%o ^axxt%^oixbtx\ts. 

\* Wanted, for full prices, or in exchange, the following 
numbers of the Photographic News: — 76, 80, 81, 91, 101, 
107, 198, 200, 202, 203, 218, 214, 215, 216. 

Jkctkrh. — The amorphoaa iodide of ammonium, recommended by Mr. 
Ackland, is a preparation sold by Messrs. Home and Thomthinite, which 
decomposes much more readily than the usual crystalline samples, and, in 
Mr. Ackland's experience, gives greater sensitiveness and cleanness. We 
shall be glad to hear further of your .success with the calcio-chloride. 

A.— The vellow stains are, probably, due to the prints sticking together in 
the flxing bath of hypotalphit« of soda, and so preventing complete and 

perfect fixation. A weak, or exhausted flxing bath, might aid in the result 
8ome trace of hyposulphite of silver is formed, and not dissolved at once 
by excess of hyposulphite of soda. The result is a yellow stain, which 
generally occurs in washing. The fact, that it most frequently occurs with 
vignettes, is confirmatory of this idea, as there is in such a larger surface 
of white paper containing unreduced chloride of silver, and more, there- 
fore, to be dissolved. 

Aqua Pura.— Vulcanixed india-rubber would scarcely serve your purpose, as 
it contains sulphur. We don't see that you can use anything better than 
a piece of felt. 

RoBBST Rbbks.— The question entirely depends on the terms of the bargain. 
If you were employed to produce a photographic picture simply, whether 
it be a portrait, or a copy of some object, you have, according to the usual 
practice of the profession, completed your commission when you have deli- 
vered the print ; the negative belonging to yourself, and, if given up, l-i 
generally the subJ«ct of a distinct and extra payment. If you were em- 
ployed to take a negative of the painting in question, then, of course, it 
would become the property of the person who commiiuions the work. There 
is no law that we know of which affects the question, except u.4age, and 
that has generally determined hitherto, that, in the absence of an expresji 
baxigain to the contrary, the negative remains the property of the photo- 

A CoifSTAKT Scbscbibbb.— Tou may either print by development, fixing 
your negative in an aperture of the shutter of a darkened room, and 
enlarging on to the paper direct by means of an ordinary portrait lens, or 
what we should prefer, as simpler and better, take first a transparent posi- 
tive, and from that a negative enlarged to the desired size. The details 
are too lengthy for explanation here ; but you will find them given on more 
than one occasion in our last volume, and also in our Ybab Book for 1863, published. 

C. M.— We have repeatedly given the formulse and manipulations for toning 
with gold and acetate of soda. Use 3 grains of chloride of gold, and 00 
grains of acetate of soda, in a pint of water. Mix at least twenty-four 
hours before use. We like the acetate better than the carbonate. See 
article on the sulDJect in the PHOToaRAPHic Nbws Almahao, just ls:$ued. 

S. — A report on your glass in our next. 

II. J.— The dark deposit firom decomposition in the toning bath is, doubtless, 
metallic gold. When it occurs, the only plan is to make a finesh bath. 
Alkalinity, organic matter, light, and a variety of causes, will sometimes 
bring it al>out, as well as firee nitrate of silver. 2. We do not know of any 
cement which will unite strips of bladder together Mtrongly, and yet remain 
flexible. Isinglass dissolved in vinegar might be tried, or india-rubber 

Hugh Robbbts. --If a stereoscopic negative, taken with a bi-lens camera, be 
copied as a transparency in a similar camera, no cutting or transposition 
is needed. £ach half is, in the transparency, turned round on its own axis 
which is practically the same as if the slide were cut in two. It is diiBcult' 
to explain more definitely here without the use of a diagram, • but, by 
trying the experiment, you will easily convince yourself. In reality 
the two images are cut, and each turned round in the camera ou 
itM own axis, the lens being able to turn round the image without 
cutting the glass. If you take the stereoscopic print, and after 
dividing the two halves, turn each round on its axis, so that the top is in 
the place where the Irattom waa ; you will flnd you have simply produced 
the same change in their relative position as if you had transposed them, 
and this is what camera copying with a pair of lenses effects. Mr. Brcese 
had one stand of Dallmeyer's stereoscopes with achromatic lenses, and 
another stand with similar stereoscopes by Cntts, Sutton, and Co., of Shef- 
field, both were first-rate instruments. We do not know any agent in 
London for those of Cutts, Sutton, and Co. 

A. B. C— Mr. England's use of the No. 1 B, in preference to the "new 
stereo" in the Exhibition building, was doubtless to enable him to get sufll- 
cient definition with a large aperture, having frequently to work in a very 
l)ad light. For stereoscopic work this is the chief advantage of the No. 1 B 
over the stereo lens, sufficient definition over the whole of the picture can 
be obtained with a much larger aperture, and thus, practically, greater 
rapidity is gained. Less subject is of course included in the same space 
with the No. 1 B, as the focus is longer. For interiors, and your purpose 
generally, we should be disposed to prefer the stereo. It is very rapid. 
As to the exact ratio of definition, light, Ac, we cannot speak with cer- 
tainty. The manufikcturer can probably give you more definite informa- 
tion on that point. 

An Amatbdb.— In cold weather, and with some samples of paper, it will fre- 
quently happen that considerably more than ton minutes will be necessary to 
secure satisikctory tones, especially if the bath be old. Try much longer, or 
adding a little warm water with a trace of fresh chloride of gold. Vols. 2, 4, 
and 5 of the Photographio Nbws are in print, and may be had at the 
published price, namely, VoL 2, containing the numbers of six months, 
8s. Od. ; Vol. 4, containing the niunbers of eight months, 10s. 6d. ; Vol. 5, 
containing the numbers of twelve months, 158. It is very doubtful whether 
we shall be able to make up any volumes at all of last year, as a great 
many of the numbers are quite out of print, and although we have ofl*ercd 
full price for such nnmbers we cannot procure them. 

S. L. 0.— It is not necessary to be a member of the Photographic Society in 
order to exhibit. But we fear you are now too late, as the Exhibition opens 
on Monday next. 

X.— The Ammonia-nitrate bath generally gives greater vigour than the ordi- 
nary silver bath. Mr. Hennah, of Brighton, has always used It for plain 
paper, and his tones have found many admirers. We think them a trifle 
too black. Tone is much a matter of taste, but a warm tone !s generally 
more brilliant, and does more Justice to a good negative than a cold 

A. L. COKK. — There can be little doubt as to the custom of the profession. 
The negiitivc belonpi to the photographer unle.<s a bargain to the contrarj 
exist. You will flnd reports on Mason r. Heath on pages 116, 204, 234, of 
the Photoobaphio Nbwb, VoL VI, or in Nos. 183, 191, 103. We do not 
know of any more copious reports. The paper to which you refer did not 
arrive. We shall be glad to learn the issue. 

W. O. — Thank you for the cutting. We shall make ose of it when the case 

H. Raxsomb.— If vou wish to use that formula you should do so as it stands ; 
but you may make an approximation by adding the lime to a solution of 
chloride of gold. See article in our Ybab Book. 2. Some persons prefer 
the lime and some acetate of soda. It is a question of taste. 


Vol. Vn. No. 22S.— January 16, 1868. 


Ax exhibition of the collected examples of any art is always 
a landmark of progress, looked for with eager anticipation, 
examined with careful scrutiny, and referred to in after-time 
as authoritative eyidence of tne exact state of advancement 
at a given period. The display of photographs at the Inter- 
national Exhibition of last year, we have always main- 
tained, was not an adequate representation of the art. 
Apart from the antecedent misunderstanding and the unsa- 
tisfactory position, an exhibition representing the progress 
of eleven years, necessarily contained many things not new 
to photographers, and possessed much less technical in- 
terest than an annual exhibition. The Photographic Society 
Tery wisely determined not to exhibit in 1862, nor in any 
way divide the interest. This year, therefore, we have the 
examples of two years' progress to compare with the recol- 
lections of the last exhibition. 

The ninth exhibition of the Society was opened for pri- 
vate view on Saturday, the 10th instant, and was attended 
by a large and deeply interested assemblage of visitors. 
The old Water-Colour 6allery in Pall Mall, were the most 
snccessful exhibitions, in former years, have been held, could 
not, unfortunately, be obtained this year, and the present 
exhibition is held in the rooms of the Society of ^British 
Artists, Suffolk Street, Pall Mall. So far as regards space, 
nothing could be more eligible than the present gallery, 
consisting of one large room and two smaller ones, and 
being in the immediate vicinity of the old place, it is con- 
venient on that account. At present it possesses an im- 
portant drawback, which is a serious detriment to the effect 
of the photographs. We refer to the want of light : the 
room is lighted by means of a skylight, on which appears 
to rest the accumulated dust and dirt oJF something like a 
century. This, added to the dark weather which has pre- 
vailed lately, renders it impossible to examine the pictures 
with any approximation to a satisfactory result. Wnen the 
gas is Kghted, the effect is wonderfully improved, but this, 
we fear, will not often be the case, as we learn with regret 
that it is not intended to open the exhibition in the even- 
ings this season. The policy of such a course is, of course, 
decided by a comparison of receipts with costs; but we 
cannot but remember, that on former occasions the evenings 
pr^ented the most animated effect, and have secured a full 
attendance. If it be at all compatible with commercial 
prudence, we would urge on the authorities the fact, that 
there are, in London, some thousands of photographers, 
whose only opportunity of profiting by the exhibition is 
in the evening. Operators, to whom such exhibitions are 
of immense educational importance, are closely engaged 
during the hours of daylight, making the most of the few 
working hours the season affords ; ana unless the exhibition 
be opened in the evening, they must lose all opportunity of 
seeing it, or, at most, obtain a hasty glance on some single 
occasion. If it be deemed imprudent, from financial con- 
siderations, to open the exhibition every night, we would 
suggest that it be opened one or two nights in the week, 
to which due publicity may be given. In any case, let us 
have light ; let the dirty skylight be cleansed. Photographs 
pTe-cmincntly require a good light for their satisiactory 
examination, and they lose considerably by the want of it. 

The present exhibition is, so far as we can judge at 
present, a highly satisfactory one. Both in the number 
and excellence of the contributions it far surpasses those of 

former years. The walls of the three rooms are well 
covered, and something like seventy frames remain unhung, 
rather fy>m. want of space than from want of merit in the 
pictures. The gentlemen entrusted with tho hanging have, 
on the whole, executed their difficult and delicate task with 
great fairness and ability. Some modifications doubt- 
less might be desired, but the necessity of making frames fit, 
as well as the importance of giving prominent positions to 
meritorious pictures having equally to be considered. Some of 
the contributions, which it might nave been desirable to keep 
together perhaps, are somewhat scattered about ; but this is 
better than hanging fine pictures in inaccessible positions. 

In taking a general glance at the contributions, and re- 
serving for future notices anything like a detailed criticism, 
we are struck with the amount of uniform excellence 
exhibited, and the absence of the sooty abominations which 
have startled us by their hardness in by-gone years. A 
higher general excellence prevails throughout, and leaves 
less room for contrast between the works of different men 
than existed in former years. There are much fewer 
white skies; there are fewer masses of soot and white- 
wash ; there are few traces of sulphur toning. Some degree 
of photographic excellence, if not of artistic beauty, charac- 
terises almost everything we have noticed. 

Prominently fixed on our memory, are the works of three con- 
tributors, as surpassingeverything we have before seen in photo- 
graphic exhibitions. These are the " Bringing Home the May," 
of H. P. Robinson, the ** Photographic Studies," of Lady 
Hawarden, and the large instantaneous pictures of Lieut. 
Col. Stuart Wortley. The first, as we have before expressed 
our conviction, is such a picture as never before was produced 
by photography. It here occupies the place of honour, is 
the cynosure of all eyes, and excites alternate exclamations 
of wonder and delight from every visitor. Lady Hawarden's 
studies are small pictures, but of their class — and it is a 
charming class — ^they are perfect gems. As examples of 
chiaroscuro, they are wonaerful ; and as results, for the 
most part obtained with the management of light possible 
in a lady*s drawing-room, they are a lesson to all pi!ioto- 
graphers. The exquisite taste, fine feeling, and excellent 
photography, combine to produce an amount of pictorial 
effect very rare in photographs. Col. Stuart Wortley's 
instantantaneous pictures ot sea, and cloud, and foreground, 
and atmospheric effect, are sublimely grand. Le Gray has 
produced magnificent pictures of similar effects, but none 
like these. Wamod exhibited at the International Exhibi- 
tion some very perfect large instantaneous views, but they 
lacked the sense of sublimity which these possess. Breese, 
Wilson, Blanchard, and Fry, have produced wondrously 
charming small atmospheric effect, but these are equal in 
beauty and rarity of effect, whilst they are on a scale rarely 
attempted in such work. 

We have, mentioned the three which have struck us most, 
because of their unusual style of merit ; but there are many 
others of scarcely less excellence, but of a more familiar 
kind. Here are a splendid series of landscapes by Yemon 
Heath, from which we are delighted to see white skies 
entirely banished; a fine display of Francis Bedford's 
pictures. Eastern and English ; Annan's noble landscapes ; 
Henry White's exquisite bits of English scenery ; Earl's 
grand interiors ; Thurston Thompson's unrivalled reproduc- 
tions, and a host of other landscape pictures the mere men- 
tion of the artists* names will guarantee their excellence. 
Here are landscapes by Mudd, Morgan, Dixon Piper, Spode, 



[January 16, 1863. 

Stephen Thompson, Major Gordon, W. W. Roach, W. 
Mayland, Sir A. K. Macaonald, the Hon. W. Vernon, G. S. 
Fenny, the Stereoscopic Company, the Amateur Ausociation, 
and a host of others. 

In portraiture, amidst much excellence, the level is more 
equally preserved. Pre-eminent in his own line, now as ever, 
arc the vignette heads, of T. R. Williams; a large number of 
very fine pictures by Claudet ; a few by Vernon Heath ; a 
frame by Mayland ; some by McAndrew ; and a few others 
well worthy of notice. The bulk of the portraiture is hung 
together in one room, a good portion of which is devoted to 
coloured work, much of which, so far as we can judge from a 
hasty examination, does not invite further attention, a great 
deal of it being sad stuff. 

One of the most interesting features amongst the examples 
of portraiture is a series of prints on resinized paper from 
enlarged negatives, by Mr. A. Harman, Secretary of tne South 
London Society. They are enlarged from card size to whole 
sheets of paper. The standing figures being about sixteen 
inches high. The original card is exhibited beside them, 
and we can unhesitatingly pronounce tlicm to be the best 
pictures of their kind we have seen. The definition appears 
excellent, and delicacy and brilliancy arc both secured. The 
enlarged prints appear in all respects fully equal to the 
small ones by their side, and the resinized paper appears to 
be admirably suited to the work. AVe shall examine these 
again by a good light with considerable interest, and com- 
mend them to the attention of all visitors. 

There is not a large display of genre pictures. After those 
of Mr. Robinson, some^by Bullock Brothers, also of Lieam- 
ington, will attract attention, especially one entitled 
** Footsteps of Angels." This is a very bold attempt, and 
really striking in result. It is not, however, quite a success, 
as it fails in convening its idea, also exhibits some solecisms, 
or incong^ities, in lighting, to which we shall refer on 
another occasion. 

Mr. Cooper has a glass case with some very charming 
specimens on silk, made into handscreens, watch pockets, 
&c., and also some fine specimens on resinized paper. 

There is an unusually good display of stereoscopic trans- 
parencies, by Breese, Ferrier, Fry, Blanchard, and others, to 
which we shall refer in future. M. Claudet and Mr. England 
also exhibit stereoscopic pictures. 

One room is devoted to foreign contributions, chiefly con- 
sisting of specimens from the International Exhibition. To 
these we shall advert on another occasion. 

There are Qot many specimens of apparatus exhibited at 
present, two or three manufacturers only having sent con- 

Owing to the tardiness with which packages arrived, the 
final steps for opening were taken in a somewhat hurried 
manner, so that a complete catalogue is not yet issued. We 
cannot, therefore, arrive at any satisfactory analysis of the 
processes represented ; but so far as we can judge, the wet 
collodion process is represented in stronger force, compared 
to other processes, than at any former exhibition. 

Pbbparation 07 PuRK Htdrobroxic Acid — Special Pas- 


In our chemical articles we endeavour to place' before our 
readci's the most recent and practical information upon the 
various subjects likely to be of interest to them. Chemical 
science being, however, one of the most progressive branches 
of human knowledge, it constantly happens that the novelty 
of one day is superseded the next. In such cases as these we 
have adopted the plan of posting up our readers, in the par- 
ticular subiect in which improvement has been effected, by 
giving a short notice of it under the present heading, in 
preference to breaking in upon the plan and order of the 
series of our chemical articles. A case now occurs in which 

information given some months back, and the best of its 
kind then attainable, now requires to be modified and 
enlarged to bring it down to the present state of scieoce. 
We allu<le to tlie preparation of hydrobromic acid, a com- 
pound of considerable photographic value, both on account 
of its own properties, and also by reason of its forming tho 
starting point to a long series of valuable salts. We will 
just glance at the different methods employed in the prepa- 
ration of this acid. One excellent process consists in aecom- 
posing a solution of bromide of barium by diluted 
sulphuric acid. If sufficient care be bestowed upon it 
there is no great difficulty in getting a perfectly pure 
acid by this means, as by employing a trifling 
excess of sulphuric acid, anci then distilling, a pro- 
duct is obtained, which is at the same time free from 
baryta and sulphur. The great objection to this process 
is, that it is necessary previously to prepare bromide 
of barium ; otherwise it is a very good one. Another plan, 
is to distil bromide of potassium with dilute sulphuric acid ; 
this involves the same objection as the one just mentioned ; 
and is, moreover, not nearly so convenient, owing to the 
separation of sulphate of potash from the mixture, if the 
amount of sulphuric acid be small, and the decomposition 
of the hydro-bromic acid in the presence of a larger quantity 
of sulphuric into sulphurous acid and bromine. Balard's 
process is one of the least satisfactory of any, although it 
is one frequently used ; ho recommends passing hydro- 
sulphuric acid gas through bromine diffused in water. 
According to theory, the decomposition would consist simply 
in the hydrogen exchanging sulphur for bromine; but 
in reality another change goes on at the same time — the 
first portions of sulphur which separate, unite with some 
of the bromine, forming bromide of sulphur, and this de- 
composing in the presence of water, produces sulphurous 
acid. By far the best, as well as most economical plan, 
consists in preparing the acid by the reaction of bromine 
and phosphorus upon each other in the presence of 
water. These two elements have, however, so intense an 
affinity for each other that unless some special 
precautions are taken serious explosions will ensue. It is to 
these precautions and the modincations introduced into the 
process by one of our most skilful experimentalists, Mr. 
Maisch, that we wish to direct attention. A tubulated 
retort is taken, capable of holding at least double the 
amount of all the materials. Into the tubulus of this is 
fitted a funnel tube, and the neck of the retort is placed 
pointing upwards, and connected with an empty receiver, by 
means of a glass tube, which is cut off just below th^ cork ; 
a second glass tube, commencing near the bottom, connects 
this receiver with another one of the same capacity — any 
ordinary bottles will answer — and dips into a little distilled 
water, both receivers beins kept cool by ice, or some other 
means. The phosphorus is first introduced into the retort 
together with six or eight parts of water, if desired. Tho 
bromine must be added only in small portions at a time 
through the funnel tube, which is immediately afterwards 
covered with a glass plate. The apparatus is soon filled with 
white vapours of hydrobromic acid, mixed sometimes with 
free bromine ; tho vapours are partly condensed in the neck 
of the retort, and run back, they partly condense in the first 
receiver, whilst the last portions are absorbed by the water 
in the second bottle. This liquid will commence to rise in 
the tube when the reaction has subsided, and more bromine 
must now be added. This is continued from time to time 
until the whole has been used. The proportion of material 
is one pai*t of phosphorus to twelve and a half parts of bro- 
mine. The first receiver c^cnerally contains some free bro- 
mine, besides some hydrobromic acid. The liquor in the 
last receiver will mostly be colourless if the condensed liquid 
from the first one has not been forced over through the con- 
necting tube. If colourless, it is set aside and employed as 
the absorbing liquid in the next part of the process ; if 
coloured, it is, together with the contents ot the first 
receiver, added to the residue in the retort, and the 

Janbaut 16, 1863.] 



whole apparatus is then set aside, if possible, in the 
direct sunlight. The retort now contains phosphorus, 
bromine, phosphoric and hydrobromic acid. When it 
has become colourless after exposure to the light, and 
occasional agitation, the bromine has been converted 
into hydrobromic acid. The next step is the distillation of 
the hydrobromic acid, previous to which, however, every trace 
of uncombined phosphorus is to be removed. The neck of 
the retort is inclined, and the glass tube, after the first re- 
ct'iver has been disconnected, is made to dip into a small 
quantity of distilled water, or into the liquid employed 
daring the first part of the process, if it was colourless, and 
had not to be subjected to another distillation ; heat is ap- 
plied, and the distillation continued to near dryness. The 
residue constitutes pure phosphoric acid. In this process, 
penta-bromide of phosphorus is first formed, which decom- 
poses water when coming in contact with it, forming phos- 
phoric and hydro-bromic acids. Inasmuch as concentrated 
phosphoric acid is apt to gradually destroy the retorts, it 
will be well to add after the undissolved phosphorus has been 
removed, six parts of bromide of potassium, and distil to 
dryness. As the solution in the retort becomes concentrated, 
hv distilling off the liquid, a double decomposition is 
effected, resulting in phosphate of potash, and hydro- 
bromic acid, the former of which is very soluble in 
water, and does not in the least impede the process. 
When the concussions are observed tne fire is to be 
removed, and the tubulus of the letort opened ; the 
salt becomes solid, and may, by dissolving in water and 
evaporating in a capsule, be obtained *in a dry state. 
If the phosphorus contained no impurities, it will be 
pare phosphate of potash, and may be preserved as such 
lor use. It is necessary to warn our reaacrs on one point, 
which might otherwise produce serious accidents; that is, 
never to add the phosphorus to the bromine, inasmuch as 
the affinity of both elements is so great that the phosphorus 
bums in the vapour of the bromine, causing violent explosions, 
which may shatter the apparatus to atpms. By proceeding 
in the manner above described, there is no danger in the 
operation, the only annoyance being caused by the volatiliza- 
tion of a little bromine while pouring it into the retort. 

The season for commencing photographic operations is 
beginning early, judging from the numerous specimens of 
glass which are forwarded to us for examination. No less 
than nine are at present on our table. Out of the whole num- 
ber, however, there is only one at all fit for the purpose in- 
tended. Those marked 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, are far too light, 
even 2 and 4 being not half dark enough. Specimens 
" Gillard 1 and 2 " ai'e too brown in colour, and transmit 
the actinic rays copiously. S 1 is a ruby glass, transmitting 
only the extreme red ; it will certainly answer for photo- 
graphic purposes, but not any better than orange glass, 
whilst it will render the room very dark for working in. 
S 2 has the fault of most of the other specimens, being too 
light, and of a brown colour instead of oi-ange. 




The opening of a new year seems to offer a peculiarly 
suitable opportunity to take a slight retrospect of our doings 
as photographers, and to indulge in a few anticipatory 
views of the prospect which discloses itself at the com- 
mencement of a fresh season. Upon our late season we may 
look back with mingled feelings of regret and satisfaction — 
an alloy that, to a greater or less degree tinges all our 
mundane proceedings—of regret that a wet, cold, ungenial 
rammer, should have to a certain extent marred our efforts, 
and acted as a hindrance to the prosecution of the desires of 
the enthusiastic follower of the new-bom art ; and of satisfac- 
tion that, notwithstanding official slights at the International 

* Bead before the Soath London Photographic Sociotf . 

Exhibition, photography has triumphantly asserted its 
position, and that on any future occasion of the same 
nature we may feel sure its just claims will be recognized. 
Also, we have just cause for gratulation in the unques- 
tionable fact, that the art-progpress of photography has been 
fully commensurate with the expectations formed in advance ; 
if, indeed, it have not in some respects surpassed them. 

In instantaneous results— on which I have long insisted 
depends the future of photography — vast strides havo 
been made ; and so many accomplished labourers are now 
uniting their efforts, that it is onlv reasonable to expect 
^reat things in the ensuing year. Taking, then, all things 
into consideration, I am clearly of opinion that the prospects 
of the coming season are of the most hopeful character ; and 
it remains for us individually, during tne now short period 
of winter which must elapse before our active operations 
are recommenced, to determine fully in our own mind the 
line we intend to pursue. 

I have, on previous occasions, urged the high importance 
of each taking for himself some particular line to delineate, 
and to devote all the energies to that, rather than by an 
incoherent following out oi general principles to involvo 
the mind in confusion, and, perhaps, to continue for a 
length of time pursuing an erratic course, and following 
a number of irrelevant subjects, without devoting a sufiS- 
cient period to any single one to obtain proficiency therein. 
These remarks will apply with especial force to gentlemen 
whose time for these matters is very limited, and for whom 
it is of paramount importance to have clear, distinct 

So many subjects, all of surpassing interest — some of them 
almost sublime in the beauty of their results— open upon the 
mind that any one, especially a tyrp, may well be excused 
for hurrying for a time, butterflv like, from flower to flower. 
He tries in turn portraiture, landscape, stereoscopy, instanta- 
neous works, albumen, collodion, dry plates, enlarging, mi- 
croscopic reduction ; there seems no end to the field, no 
limit to the value, commercial as well as artistic, of the 

We have now, thanks to eminent opticians and clever 
mechanists, exquisite lenses and admirable apparatus ; our 
chemicals are more certain than ever; iron development 
and separate toning and fixing, have changed the whole 
aspect of affairs within a year or two, and there is now 
more scope than ever for the artistic photographer. Clean 
working can no longer carry off the palm, so large is the 
number of those who are able to fulfil all that can be desired 
in this way. No ! photography must take higher ground, 
and assist in an uncontrovertible manner its intimate alli- 
ance with the fine arts. The painter, with a proud conception 
pre-arranged in his mind, looks to nature for his inspirations, 
and secures in his sketch-book studies called here and there ; 
sunny skies, browsing herds, trees, rocks, and all that 
nature or art, judiciously selected can furnish to enrich his 
canvas and enhance his reputation. It is competent — nay, 
it is incumbent^-on the photographer to do this also, if he 
desire to be of the same class, and to enforce the dogma 
that our art, when perfected by the united discoveries of 
science, and labours of the artist, should be entitled to rank 
as a fine art. 




In almost all photogpraphic processes in which iodide of 
silver forms the princifjal basis of the sensitive material, a 
certain quantity of bromide is added, corresponding to the 
soluble metallic iodides which must subsequently lorm the 
salt of silver by double decomposition with the nitrate of 
the sensitizing bath. 

To the bromide of silver — which thus necessaiily results 
in the preparation of papers or plates coated with collodion 
or albumen — belongs the peculiar property of being im- 



[January 16, 1863. 

pressed under the action of the yellow and green luminous 
rays, differently and more easily than the iodide is, under 
similar circumstances. 

In order to overcome the'^difficulties experienced in the 
representation of subjects in which the tints are very varied, 
and opposite in their chemical action, it is customary to 
introduce into the collodion a relative quantity of soluble 
bromides corresponding to the iodides wnich form the base 
of the generating salts, and by this addition we render 
coloured objects more completely than could be hoped for as 
perfect bv any other means. 

This tact is very important in photography, and has 
induced us to examine into the fundamental principle ; 
whereupon we perceived that an error, apparently confirmed 
by experiment, nad led to the conclusion that tne action of 
coloured light upon bromide of silver, differs from that 
which this agent exercises upon the iodide of the same metal 
obtained and preserved under the same conditions. It is 
generally admitted that the green and yellow rays of the 
solar spectrum act relatively with greater activity upon 
bromide of silver than the other coloured rays : but if this 
fact be substantial and demonstrated in practice, the principle 
attributed to it is altogether illusory, as we shall attempt to 

Suppose, for example, that we project the solar spectrum 
upon a white screen, in order tnat, by thus arranging a 
series of very pure and vivid colours, the experiment shall 
be clear and definite. In the place of this screen, substitute 
a glass plate covered with collodion prepared with iodide 
omy (without bromides). After ten or fifteen seconds, 
withdraw the plate, and develop it with a weak solution of 
sulphate of iron, prepared in the usual manner, and there 
will appear a black confused trace alon^ the entire length 
of the spectrum, extending from the red to the violet, and 
even beyond it. Upon examining the negative, we further 
discover that the portion impressed by the violet rays is 
grayer and more transparent than the rest, which indicates 
too long an exposure. 

Experimenting afterwards with fresh plates, we reduce 
the time of exposure to the coloured spectrum until the 
most active portion (the blue and violet), has produced its 
maximum effect, without, however, exceeding it. Let us 
suppose that this space of time is a second, for example ; 
after examining this last negative, we remark that the image 
obtained does not extend so far as before, and that the 
luminous action diminishes from the blue towards the 

From these experiments we conclude : — 

1. That the iodide is susceptible of being changed by all 
the coloured rays of the solar spectrum. 

2. That this action is stronger with the violet, blue, and 
green rays, and much less active with the yellow, red, and 
orange rays. 

3. That the action which light can exercise upon iodide 
of silver may be easily excessive, when there is chemical 
decomposition, and the effect of the developing agents no 
longer produces a picture, or at least, they act more feebly 
in causing the image to appear. 

This last property, therefore, opposes itself to prolonging 
the exposure to light in order to obtain an impression from 
the green, yellow, orange, and red rays. Now, if we operate on 
a sensitive substance, which does not possess, like iodide of 
silver, the property of being " over-done " when developed, 
it is, of course, sufficient to prolong the exposure within 
determined limits, for this or that coloured ray to have time 
to produce an action which may be regulated in such a 
manner as to be relative to its apparent intensity, compared 
with the hues of the whole object. 

It is precisely this property which is possessed by bromide 
and chloride of silver ; tnese salts will even take a deeper 
tone under the action of light, without, in conseauence, 
losing the property of being darkened by developing 

This characteristic of bromide of silver, then, very clearly 

explains why this salt appears more sensitive to the green 
rays than iodide of silver, as it is equally susceptible to all 
the other coloured rays. Added to iodide of silver in the 
sensitive film, it in no respect modifies its properties, nor 
communicates new ones ; on the contrary, wnere the solar 
rays have only a feeble action, it performs no part at all ; 
but it is only where the light is so strong aa to decompose 
the iodide of silver wholly, after a sufficient space of time, 
so to speak, to effect the chemical change, that the bromide 
of silver is found impressed in the limits necessary to render 
these parts of the picture in harmony with the rest. — 
BuUetin Bdgc de la rhotographie. 



SoxE years ago, a friend of mine in Bruzelles received a box 
of glass plates for photographic purposes. They were highly 
polished, quite new, and each separate plate was enveloped 
in two or three folds of the journal V lnd4pendence Bdgc 
One of these plates was taken out and prepared to receive an 
image. The sister of the gentleman before alluded to, sat for 
the picture. In course of time, the plate was developed and 
finished, when, to our astonishment, the whole of the imag^e 
obtained was covered with printed characters, which it was 
not difficult to identify with those of the paper which had 
enveloped the plate. 

The *' spirit " was, in fact, the ghost of apoUUooL ariide in 
the Independence Edge, 



Frrfeot confidence in the stability of photographs printed 
with the salts of silver cannot l>e said to be established ; 
and no one would venture to guarantee the existence of a 
picture ten years after it has left the hypo bath. 

This instability is most probably due, mainly, to defec- 
tive washing of t£ie proofs ; but even supposing the washing 
to have been most carefully and effectually performed — a 
fact the purchaser can never ascertain for himself — still the 
permanence of a picture cannot be guaranteed ; for the 
atmosphere abounds in agents capable of attacking the 
thin metallic coating* which forms tne picture ; and skilful 
chemists, such as M. Regnault (the President of the Photo- 
graphic Society of Paris), even think that this metallic film 
may evaporate or diffuse itself in the substance of the 

For photographic pictures to possess a degree of perma- 
nence equal to that of engravings and lithographs, it is 
absolutely necessary for them to be formed of insoluble 
substances, as little volatile as possible, and unattackable 
by sulphur, ammonia, and nitrous fumes. If to these con- 
ditions we add that of the picture being of a fine black 
colour, similar [to that of printing ink, our choice becomes 
limited almost entirely to carbon in powder. Seven or 
eight years have elapsed since the first attempts were 
made to produce carbon photographs ; the scientific possi- 
bility of success depended upon the existence of substances 
which become hygrometric, or cease to be so, under the 
action of light, so that the parts impressed by it, or those 
which are not, become susceptible of fixing pulverulent 
matters. But until the commencement of the present year, 
the results attained in no respect the perfection of proofs 
furnished by the old processes, and possessed no value other 
than as curiosities. 

In the month of March last, M. Charavet, photographer^ 
of Paris, exhibited a series of carbon prints, both portraits 
and landscapes, which were greatly admired. These pho- 
tographs, in finish and delicacy, could be distinguished from 
proofs taken with the salts of silver only by their perma- 
nence in the presence of nitric acid, and by the beauty of 

Januaby 16, 1863.] 



the black tones. It was now evident that the problem o^ 
permanent photography was resolved, both in a scientific 
and in an artistic point of view, and that it was only neces- 
sary to discover thd most practicable and economical mani- 
pulations. To enquiries as to the method he adopted to 
produce these carbon pictures, M. Gharavet gave only 
evasive answers. Since then, however, he has communicated 
to us the theoi-y of his process, and entrusted to us some 
memoranda which will enable us to afford some useful infor- 
mation to our readers. 

The chemical principle of M. Gharavet's process is, that a 
mixture of gelatine and an alkaline chromate, prepared 
and dried in the dark, becomes deliquescent and soluble in 
water when submitted to the action of light. This property 
of gelatine has been known for a long time. We cannot 
say who discovered it ; but since the year 1843,* M. Mungo 
Ponton has made it the basis of positive printing, in which 
coloured proofs were obtained by the chromates of different 

M. Poitevin, well known also by his curious lithographic 
process, conceived in 1855 the happy idea of incorporating 
carbon in powder with a chromatized gelatine. By spreao- 
ing this mixture upon a she^^t of paper or other sunace, and 
causing the light to act upon it through a negative, and 
afterwards washing the impressed gelatine, the water removes 
all the parts which have received the action of light, and the 
carbon remains only in the blacks. Unfortunately, this 
method does not furnish half tones, because in them the 
surfieu^e only of the gelatine has become insoluble, and they 
are entirely removed by the washing, along with the pure 

In 1860, M. Fargier, of Lyons, discovered a remedy for 
this inconvenience. It consists in the application ot the 
following process, suggested in 1857 by M. Moitessier, for 
transferring a picture from glass to paper. In his patent Mr. 
Faigier describes the manipulation nearly in the following 
terms : — " Upon a plane surface, such as a glass plate, spread 
a film of sensitized gelatine holding a carbonaceous powder 
in suspension, and dry it in a darkened room ; then expose it 
to the light. Then coat the plate with collodion, and im- 
merse it in warm water; remove the collodion fiom the 
plate, to which it adheres only at the edges, and after 
several washings, place it upon the piece of paper on which 
it is to remain." 

We do not consider it necessary to enter into details to 
explain how, during the washing, the water acting from the 
thick portion to the thinner portions of the film of gelatine, 
and not from the thin to tne thick, can preserve the half 
tones. We say, can preserve, for in fact they are not always 
preserved, or are sometimes too much so. The pictures 
shown to us by M. Fargier were extremely defective, and 
could not be offered for sale, for they made every person 
look like a negro. 

M. Gharavet operates by M. Fargier's process, but by im- 
proving upon it he has obtained the remarkable results 
which have excited our attention. 

Other methods of carbon photographs appear to yield 
very good results, but their principle is dinerent ; it con- 
sists in the fact that the salts ot protoxide of iron, with 
organic acids prepared in the moist way, are naturally 
hvgrometric, and cease to be so when they have been 
exposed to light. A collodioned glass plate, impregnated 
with these salts, becomes, therefore, capable, in those parts 
which have not received the action of light, of causing 
powders, spread with a brush, to adhere to those parts. 
M.M. Gamier and Salmon took out a patent in 18d9 for 
this process, the principle of which was announced by 
Herschell in 1842. More recently, M. Poitevin has dis- 
covered the counterpart of this principle ; which is, that 
the per-salts of iron, mixed with reducing substances, are 
not naturally hygrometric, but become so in the light. 

To complete what relat^ to permanent photographs, we 

* Jir. Mango Ponton first utaoonced his discovery in 1838.— En. P. N. 

must not omit to mention the labours of M. Lafon de 
Garmasac. Since 1855, some time previous to M. Poitevin, 
he obtained photographs which were almost indestructable, 
but he overshot the mark. Instead of seeking to make 
permanent photographs upon paper, he regarded the paper 
itself, which can endure only a few centuries, as a substance 
altogether too ephemeral, and consti-ained himself to employ 
only ceremaic media, such as porcelain, glass, &c. The 
chemical principle to which he had recourse is, that bitumen 
of Judea, dissolved in oil of lavender, acquii^es (or loses?) 
the property of adhering to coloured powders after it has 
received the luminous impression. Disregarding the differ- 
ence in medium, it is therefore M. Lafon de Garmasac 
who must be considered as the inventor of carbon-printing. 
But, in truth, there is no need to speak of the inventor of a 
thing which exists only through the combined efforts of 
several persons ; and we can only regard the inventor of 
carbon-printing in the same light, for instance, as the 
inventor of the steam-engine. — Fresse Scientifiqtie, 



4. The Negative riddled toUh pin -holes, produced during 
Devdopment, and also after Intensifying and Fixing, 

The principal cause of the first of these accidents is the 
presence of an excess of iodide of silver on the collodion 
film, after sensitizing. 

This excess is produced when the collodion employed con- 
tains too great a proportion of alkaline iodide, relative to 
the thickness of the film it furnishes ; that is to say, relative 
to the proportion of pyroxiline dissolved. However, a 
collodion in these conditions cannot produce the bad results 
indicated above, if it be sensitized in a strong new bath. 
Then, in fact, the nitrate will dissolve the excess of iodide 
of silver, and the collodion film will be in the best possible 
condition. But if the sensitizing bath be already saturated 
with iodide, the following condition arises : — ^the film being 
too thin to retain all the iodide that is formed, part of this 
salt is separated under the form of extremly fine and opaque 
grains, which, not being dissolved by the nitrate of the 
bath, adhere to the surface. During the exposure to liffht 
these grains are impressed by it, and, acting as screens, they 
prevent the lower film from experiencing the luminous 
action. At the time of development, these pulverulent grains 
are driven off by the stream of the developing solution 
poured upon the plate ; and thus exposing the non-impressed 

Eaits, which are transparent, they form a quantity of little 
oles, which being reproduced as black spots upon the 
positive, completely spoil it. 

Moreover, these impressed and floating molecules attach 
themselves almost always to the film, upon which they are 
found spread uniformly, in consequence of the agitation 
communicated to the plate during development. They 
therefore necessarily cause a uniform veil, which destroys all 
transparency in the darks and all delicacy in the details. 

We perceive that it is easy to remedy these accidents, as 
it is sufficient to that end to take care not to dissolve moro 
than a reasonable proportion of iodides in the collodion (as 
indicated previously) ; and by replenishing, at least in nart, 
a bath already saturated by the plates which have oeen 
sensitized in it. 

We sometimes also obtain negatives riddled with small 
holes by another cause, which it is as well to know how to 
avoid. I refer to the acetate of silver, resulting from the 
addition, to the sensitising bath, of a certain quantity of 
acetic acid. This acetate of silver, but little soluble in the 
nitrate, is still less so when this latter is concentrated; 
consequently, it will be perceived that every collodioned 
plate, sensitized in a bath of this kind, precipitates a 
certain quantity of this acetate under the form of very small 

* CP&cladod from p. i27, 



[January 16, 1868. 

rystals. These crystals fix. themselves in the film, and 
being removed or dissolved in the siibsequent operations, 
they leave the place they occupied, vacant and thus riddle 
the picture with small holes. Upon examining a negative 
thus spoiled, by a microscope or simple magnifying glass, 
it is very easy to recognize the nature, and consequently the 
cause, of this accident. 

If it be due to the precipitation of iodide of silver, the 
holes are irregular, and do not exhibit crystalline forms ; if, 
on the contraiy, these holes result from the crystallization of 
the acetate of silver, they take a crystalline form, and this 
character permits of our recognizing them easily. 

Frequently, after developing a negative, we can perceive 
no signs of these points ; but after strengthening and fixing, 
we are disagreeably surprised to see them appear, and spoil a 
negative supposed to be perfect. This disaster may always 
be avoided by employing an intensifying solution of nitrate 
of silver both new and weak, (about 3 per cent, at most). 

For when, to turn old baths to account, we intensify with 
silver solutions saturated with iodide, we precipitate upon the 
negative — in consequence of the addition of the aqueous 
solution of sulphate of iron or of pyrogallic acid — a certain 
quantity of this iodide of silver which adheres to it, and 
becomes incorporated among the molecules of reduced silver ; 
and which, being afterwards dissolved by the solution of 
cyanide of potassium or of hyposulphite of soda, also pro- 
duces, as in the preceding cases, a negative riddled with 

This efiPect is also produced less regularly when we employ 
an intensifying solution of nitrate of silver freshly made but 
too concentrated (especially if the developing solution be 
new). The reduction is then made in too great abundance, 
and the particles of silver assume large dimensions, adhere 
very sligntly, and are removed by washing the plate, leaving 
great holes in the place they occupied. 

By this we perceive that, in order to obtain fine pictures, 
we must operate with weak solutions, and with collodions 
slightly iodized ; in a word, we must moderate the reactions, 
and avoid producing them suddenly, for this promptitude 
is always at the expense of the fineness of the grain and the 
perfection of details. 

5. — Complete Fogging of the Negative, 

Many different causes may produce this unwelcome result, 
one most frequently encountered by inexperienced operators. 
I shall examine each one in succession : — 

1st. Fogging produced by certain iodides, and by too great 
neutrality of the sensitizing solution. 

2nd. That which results from a bad state of the surface of 
the glass plate, added to a too porous state of the collo- 
dion film. 

3rd. That which is due to the action of light, either before, 
during, or after exposure in the camera obscura. 

A collodion containing only iodide of cadmium, without 
free iodine, sensitized in a neutral bath, or in one very 
slightly acid, will always give fogged negatives, without 
this result being attributable to the action of light ; for the 
fogging will, under these conditions, still make its appear- 
ance, although the plate be kept constantly in complete 

To neutralize this property of iodide of cadmium, it is 
sufficient to add a little free iodine to the collodion, and a 
little nitric acid to the sensitizing bath. If this does not 
suffice, the addition of a little iodide of potassium or of 
iodide of ammonium to the collodion will infallibly put a 
stop to these abnormal reductions. 

The second kind of fogging enumerated above is produced 
when the collodion contains pyroxyline of bad quality, or 
too great a proportion of alcohol. The collodion film is then 
too penetrable to the various liquids ; and then, upon develop- 
ing, a certain qiiantity of the iron and silver solution infil- 
trates between the collodion and the glass plate, and (if the 
plate be not perfectly clean) there results a reduction under 
the picture, which often entirely spoils the negative, or at 

least destroys the vigour of the shadows and the beauty of 
the details. 

A glass plate, perfectly clean and dry at the moment the 
collodion is poured upon it, is necessary in order to avoid 
this accident ; and as to the proportion of alcohol contained 
in the collodion, we have never anything to fear in employ- 
ing it in the proportion of one part to two parts of ether, &n 
before stated. 

The collodion and the baths being thus prepared and 
harmonized, we may always avoid the fogg^ngs described 
above ; but if the negatives still be grey, and not transparent 
in the darks, or if, when viewed as positives, they exhibit a 
uniform tarnished aspect, wc may tnen be certain that the 
fogging is the result of the external action of light, and we 
must make sure that none penetrates into the camera obscura. 
Lastly, we must guard against the admission of white light 
into the operating-room, however small in quantity, though 
we have nothing to fear from yellow or orange rays, coloured 
so by passing through glass of the proper colour. 

Under these conditions, I can assure the photographer 
that, with a little practice and dexterity, he may certainly 
attain a stood result in most cases ; at any rate he has the 
means of tracing the causes of failure, and of remedying 

The wet collodion process is unquestionably the most per- 
fect photoRTaphic process known at present, and its applica- 
tions are the most general and numerous. I believe, there- 
fore, that, notwithstanding the numerous essays and formulas 
on the subject, it was probably not unimportant to collect 
and classify the most^frequent causes of failure. I shall have 
accomplished my object if some of these indications prove 
useful to the numerous adepts of an art, the importance of 
which increases daily. — Le Moniteur de la Photographie, 


Dear Sir, — ^No one who has even cursorily investigated the 
subject, can have any doubt that the belief in the possi* 
bility of coagulating dried albumen, has very mucli re- 
tarded the advancement of our knowledge as to what is 
essential for the production of the utmost brilliancy in 
photographic prints upon albumenised paper. That photo- 
graphers — whether chemists or not — ^have given universal 
credence to this fallacy, cannot be denied with any truth, 
when the fact is borne in mind that not any individual 
amongst them has ever attempted to expose it ; whilst very 
many of them, in England, France, and America, &c., who 
are men of science, are, at the present time, persistingly 
assuming it to be a fact, and attributing to this fancied 
coagulation the effects which are produced from other 

As water is the solvent emploved for the salts used in the 
sensitising, toning, and fixing oaths, and the prints have 
not only to be submitted to its action in these three pro- 
cesses, but have also, in their final washing, to be immersed 
in it for several hours ; and as dried albumen is also solublo 
in it, an absolute necessity arises that insolubility should 
be produced by sensitising ; this the nitrate of silver accom- 
plishes, by forming with it an insoluble compound, and the 
sooner it can be effected, the less will the brilliancy of tho 
albumenised surface of the paper be impaired. 

Did we use any solvent for the nitrate of silver that was 
not also a solvent of dried albumen, a weak sensitising bath 
would be sufficient, not only to form the albuminate and 
chloride of silver, but likewise to afford the requisite free 
nitrate, by a longer or shorter floating, according to the 
strength of the bath. Absolute alcohol not being a solvent 
of dried albumen, it follows, as a natural consequence, that 
a considerable portion of it in the sensitising oath, must 
diminish the solvent power of the water; tliercfoic, the 
greater the strength of the alcohol, and the larger the 

JiinjABT 16, 1863.] 



quantity added to the bath — not only the less silyer requi- 
site in it, but also the less time required for floating the 
paper : as the silver salt, from not having so much antagon- 
istic force to contend against in the solvent power of the 
water, is enabled to produce insolubility by its combination 
with the dried albumen sooner than it could under more ad- 
verse conditions. 

Thus, upon philosophical grounds I think it may be in- 
ferred, that the addition of alcohol to the sensitising bath 
for albumenised paper, will be an advantage. The Abbe 
Laborde's eondusUms are, therefore, correct, hut not the cause 
assigned for them. — Vide " Foreign Science," p. 609, of your 
Jonraal for Dec. 19th, 1862. 

Unfortunately, the belief in one fallacy causes the pro- 
mulgation of others ; thus we find the Abbe, who is a man 
of science, stating, that the dried albumen " is coagulated 
both by the nitrate of silver and by the alcohol." With 
alcohol in the sensitising bath, we have two ingredients, 
&o^ of which are assumed to have the power of coagulating 
the dried albumen ; but even did they possess the power 
falsely attributed to them, Ihey could not act in ctrnjunc- 
tion, for the weaker pouter must give wag to the stronger ; 
the alcohol, therefore, only serves the purpose of mitigating 
the solvent power of the water, and has no action whatever 
itself upon the albumenised surf ace of the paper. 

Yours truly, Gkobok Price. 

Mufnington JRoad, Hew Cross Road^ Deptford. 

The credit of this simple, yet useful, invention is due to 
Messrs. Barresuil & Davanne, two chemists to whom photo- 
graphers are greatly indebted, and who have written the 
best work on photography in the French language. 





S»8iTi»B paper, although kept in perfect darkness, some- 
times turns Drown in a lew hours. This alteration, which 
is caused by the action of nitrate of silver on the sizing of 
the paper, is principally observed in damp weather. Albu- 
men paper is more liable to it than plain salted paper, 
and such as is sensitized with ammonio-nitrate more so 
than one floated on a simple solution of nitrate of silver. 
When kept in a perfectly dry atmosphere, however, even 
albumen paper floated on ammonio-nitrate of silver will 
keep for several days. To attain this object, use is made 
of the properties of chloride of calcium^ a salt which 
absorbs moisture with great avidity, and which, for this 
reason, is used as a desiccating agent in chemical opera- 
tions. The apparatus consists of a square or round zinc 
box with a veiy light-litting cover. In the bottom of the 
box is put a sheet-iron pan, filled with dried chloride of 
cdciam. Above it, and resting on a border, is a wire frame 
on which ia laid the sensitized paper. A professional 
photographer should possess two of these boxes — one in 
which to keep his sensitized paper, and another in which 
to keep the prints until the time comes for toning. It is 
readily seen that the box should be left open as little as 
possible, to keep out the moisture. Perhaps some im- 
provement might be introduced by which it would not be 
Decenary to take off the cover every time a piece of paper 
or a print was put in. For instance, the cover might be 
pierced with a hole, on the top. through which the prints 
might be slipped into the box, and this hole mignt be 
shut by laying a heavy ground glass over it ; or, better yet, 
with an easily fitting cover. 

For more security against the entrance of moist air, an 
india-rubber band might be stretched around the joint of 
he large cover. After being used some time, the chloride 
of calcium becomes wet. When this happens, take out the 
sheet-iron pan containing it, and leave it on the top or in 
the oven of a stove until the salt is again dry. This ope- 
ration can be performed over and over again without losing 
its quality. 

It is to be hoped that some one of our enterprising manu- 
facturers will take the matter in hand ana furnish this 
ii^fal apparatus to American photographers. 

* From numpkTey*t Journal. 

This was an action tried before Mr. Justice Willes at the last 
sittings at GuildhaD, when a verdict was found for the plaintiff 
— damages, £10. 

Mr. Coleridge, Q.C., on Tuesday last, moved on leave re- 
served to enter a nonsuit, on the grounds that there was no 
evidence to go to the jury, and that there was no infringement 
of any Act of Parliament. The question arose on the right to 
publish photographic copies of certain prints, and whether so 
doing was an infringement of the Copyright Acts. The plaintiff 
was the proprietor of the prints, " The Horse Fair," engraved 
from Rosa Bonheur's picture, and of " The Light of the world," 
engraved from Hunt's picture. The defendant; among other 
photographic scraps, had sold a copy of the print, " The Horse 
Fair," and also a photographic copy of the other print, and the 
jury found that they were copies taken from the engravings 
tliemselves. The learned counsel contended that these photo- 
graphic copies of the prints in question would be no infringement 
of the plaintiff's copyright, unless within the words of the 
Copyright Acts. The first of these Acta was the 8th George II . , 
cap. 13, which gave any person who invented a design, or 
engraved or etched it, the sole right and liberty of printing it 
for 14 years. This was to protect the artist or inventor of the 
picture. The next statute was the 7th George III., cap. 88, 
which extended the provision of the former statute by prohibiting 
any person to engrave, print, or publish, or import for sale, any 
copy of a print in which any person had a copyright. 

Mr. Justice Willes. — ^That is a protection of engraving 
against engraving, not of engraving against drawing ; a fortiori, 
not against a new mode of drawing. 

Mr. Colebidoe. — That was so. The next statute was the 
17th George III., cap. 67, which prohibited " that any person 
should en^ve, etch, or work, or in any other manner copy, in 
whole or in part, any print in which there was a copyright." 
This statute, the learned counsel contonded, did not extend the 
protection against any other kind of piracy than that which 
before existed. The next statute was the 6th and 7th William 
IV., cap. 69, which extended the provisions of these Acts to 
Ireland. The last statute was the 16th and 16th Victoria, cap. 
12, which, by section 14, extended the protection of the Copy- 
right Acts relating to prints against lithographs or any other 
mechanical process by which prints or impressions of drawings 
or designs are capable of being imitated. The learned counsel 
submitted that photographs were not within the meaning or 
protection of any of these Acts, nor was a word said about 
photographs in the treaties regarding international copyrights. 
— Rule nisi granted. — Times, 

South London Photoobaphic Societt. 

The usual monthly meeting of this society was held in the City 
of London College, on the evening of Thursday, January 8th, 
Mr. Sebastian Davis in the chair. 

The minutes of the previous meeting were read and con- 

Mr. A. Habman, the Secretary, exhibited a couple of prints 
irom enlarged negatives ; one an architectural subject, on albu- 
menizcd paper; the other, a portrait, enlarged to a full sheet of 
paper, from a card picture, printed on resinized paper. Both 
were good, the latter especially bo, being well defined^ delicate, 
soft, and artistic. 

Mr. Wall, commenting on this picture, said that it proved, in 
a very satisfactory manner, that resinized paper could render 
transparency in the shadows. Some who had doubted this had 
mistaken the depth given by the albumen for depth and 
transparency in the picture. 

Mr. CooPEU observed, that the specimen on the table was not 
rolled, and that a greater amount of detail in the shadows would 
be apparent after it was rolled.. 



[JuruABT 16, 1863. 

Mr. Wall said much miaapprehenaioxi seemed to pzevail 
amongst photographers as to the true meaning of the term 
" transparency," as applied to the ahadows of a picture. Trans- 
parency was wimfAj the result of detail, which carried the eye 
into the deepest shades. It might exist without a glossy sur- 
face at all, and might he ahsent, no matter how high the glaze; 
it was a great error to suppose that the glossy surmco of albu- 
men necessarily gave transparency. Rolling, as well as glazing, 
would sometimes bring out detail in the shadows not before ap- 
parent, and thus Mr. Cooper was correct in referring to rolling 
as a means of giving additional transparency. 

Mr. Habman thought resinized paper would not come into 
use for small pictures ; but for whole plates and upwards he 
thought the results were so much more artistic, that it would 
oome largely into use. 

After some further conversation, 

Mr. CooPBs said, he had recently spent a few days with Mr. 
T. R. Williams, at his establishmeht at Finchley, where the 
printing was done. He had there been struck with the fact 
that, in the method adopted, very little printing was necessary. 
By following the same plan, he now found that, both on resi- 
nized paper and silk, he could get good results with much less 
printing than he had formerly recommended. It was simply 
necessary to wash the prints in distilled water, instead of 
common water, then tone with a bath of acetate of soda and 
gold, which had been made a week, using it only once. 

Mr. Leake said it was well understood that the acetate bath 
was better for being made three or four days, or a week, before 

Mr. CooPEB said, that in using the solution only once there 
was not necessarilv much loss, as a very small quantity of solu- 
tion might be used. 

Mr. Harman generally used the solution seven or eight times, 
and liked it better after it had been used once or twice than at 
first, as it seemed to prevent any tendency to mealiness. 

Mr. G. Whabton Simpson said he thought the observation 
made by Mr. Cooper, as to the practice in the printing estab- 
lishment of Mr. T. R. Williams, was very important. He 
(Mr. Simpson) had often been somewhat puzzled when Mr. 
Williams informed him that in his establishment they over- 
printed very little ; the depth of the print, when it left the 
printing frame, being very little more than what was required 
in the finished prints. Mr. Cooper, when there, had been print- 
ing on resinized paper and silk, and found, when using Mr. 
Williams's solutions, his prints, printed the usual depth, were 
much too dark. He thought, perhaps, that he was deceived 
by the quality of the light, and printed a little lighter, but the 
results were still too dark ; and it was not until he printed to 
just about the depth reouired on the finished print, that he 
obtained what he wanted. It was clear that the prints lost 
scarcely anything in the processes of toning and fixing. After 
careful observation, he found that the chief difference between 
liis own operations and those in Mr. Williams's establishment 
consisted in the fact that whereas at home he used common 
water, here they used filtered rain water. On returning home 
he tried distilled water, and found that it made all the difference 
in the depth of printing required. It would seem that the 
effect of water containing chlorides was to act upon the print, 
perhaps converting some of the minutest particles of silver, 
forming the image, such as those in the half tones, again into a 
chloride of silver, which caused the prints to be considerably 
reduced bv the action of the hypo bath, and by this circum- 
stance rendered necessary much over-printing whenever common 
water, or water containing chlorides, was used for washing 
before toning. 

The Ch A IBM AN said members would remember that some 
time ago he recommended the use of distilled water, and float- 
ing the print instead of immersing it, so that the free nitrate 
would dissolve, and by its superior specific gravity fall to the 
bottom of the water. 

Mr. Habman thought such a plan would require too much 
time, where printing was conducted on a large commercial 

After some further conversation, in which the Chairman 
commended the subject of resinized paper as one which would 
well repay further experiment, 

The Chairman said Mr. Simpson had handed to him a copy 
of the PaoTOORAPHio News Almanac for 1868, for presenta- 
tion to the Society. All who had seen last year's almanac, 
would, he felt sure, look for this one with much pleasure, as 
forming a most valuable and complete epitome of the science 

and art of photography up to the present moment. He then 
called attention to some prints which had been under water 
for some time, in the Colombo, The action of the salt water 
had been to change the colour to a light, dirty, yellowish 

After some fHirther conversation, 

Mr. Samuel Fey read a paper on '* Photography : its Retro- 
spects and Prospects." {Seep. 27). At the close of his paper, he ex^-^ 
plained that his aim had been rather, by a few brief remarks, to 
promote discussion, than to bring any especial views of liis own 
before them. He thought greater things would be effected in 
photography if each artist were to select a given line, and stick 
to it, in preference to i)erpetually experimenting in different 
directions. He urged upon all photographers the, effort to 
attain a higher artistic standard. 

Mr. Wall referred to the practice of capable professional 
photographers, who worked down to the standard of imperfect 
public taste, instead of endeavouring to elevate that taste to a 
higher standard. Painting had once been in the same position, 
but had at length risen beyond it, and he hoped photography 
would soon do the same. He referred to a recently publisned 
work, entitled " A Painter's Tour in the Highlands," said to be 
written by a distinguished art critic. Tins book devoted a 
chapter to the consideration of photography as a fine art. Not- 
withstanding an evident disposition to be just in his apprecia- 
tion of photography, it was impossible to avoid a smile at the 
profound ignorance of the subject manifested, as evinced in hia 
treating as inherent faults of the art those shortcomings which 
were entirely due to bad lenses or bad manipulation, and over- 
looking the important fact that all art is subject to similar de- 
fects when in the hands of incompetent persons. The legiti- 
mate conclusion of such a line of argument would be to condemn 
all art for the shortcomings of artists. His object, in drawing 
attention to the subject, was to impress upon members that one 
great duty photographers owed to their art was to endeavour 
to make it understood in principle, as well as appreciated in 

After some further desultory conversation, 

The Chaibman remarked, that whilst all photographers 
desired to see the art progress of photography, it should never 
be forgotten that it was to scientific experimentalistb artists 
must look for the power to progress. The delicacy, roundness, 
and many excellent qualities which were now common in 
photographs, were a few years ago scarcely attainable. During 
the old regime of iodized collodjou and pyrogallic acid, hard 
black and white pictures were the rule ; and when the chemical 
conditions were such as yielded those results, artists might 
labour in vain. The use of bromides and iron development 
had placed a new power in the hands of the artists, the results 
of which we found in better and softer pictures. He might 
here suggest that it was desirable that the experimental 
committee should resume its labours, and especially suggested 
for its attention the subject of a dry process which should be 
as good as wet collodion. 

Mr. Wall suggested that an instantaneous dry process 
would put a great power in the hands of the portraitist, who 
would then have a plate ready for exposure at any moment. 
The great superiority of the higher class of portrait painters 
over others did not generally consist in the superiority of their 
drawing or colouring, so much as in their power to embody 
character. Such men would think nothing of engaging the 
sitter for half an hour or an hour in conversation, watching for 
the right expression before they touched the canvas. 

Mr. Simpson remarked that, valuable as the suggestion might 
bo, he feared it was scarcely applicable to photography, especially 
as now practised. The tendency of ihe day was to rapid 
production in large quantity. He feared that any suggestion 
for the art progress of photog^phy, which was inimical to its 
commercialsuccess, would scarcely obtain much attention. Again, 
as to the use of dry plates, however valuable instantaneous dry 
plates might be to the tourist, they would scarcely be used 
under any circumstances by the portraitist. The photographer 
who at all knew his business, had, in the wet process, such a 
safe, certain, readv, rapid, and satisfactory power, that he 
would not be likely to exchange it for the inevitably lengthy 
manipulations of the most perfect dry process. As to having 
a plate always ready, that was easily managed. In one of the 
largest and best managed portrait establishments in London, 
which he knew, the custom was, during the season, tor an 
operator to commence coating and exciting plates from the 
fiirst thing in the morning until evening, without any inter- 

Januaby 16, 1863.] 



misBion, so thftt a wet plate was ready at any moment the 
artist might require it. 

Mr. Wall thought that the oommorcial interests of photo- 
graphy should be subaeryient to its art progress. 

Some conversation followed, in which the Chairman, Mr. Fry, 
Mr. Leake, and others, thought that no advantage would be 
gained by the use of dry plates in the studio, and that portrait- 
ists would never abandon the wet process. A desultory con- 
versation on the possibility of keeping wet plates for twenty 
minutes or half an hour in the dark slide, during the arrange- 
ments of portraiture, followed, many precedents^ being quoted 
in support of the practice. 

The Bey. F. F. Stathau made some interesting remarks on 
the phases of photography, illustrated at the International 
Exhibition. He referred to the variety of style which might be 
introduced into portraiture — referred, for example, to the pro- 
ductions of the Dutch painters, in which portraits were produced 
as character pictures, so that they were interesting and valuable 
as works of art long after the individuals portrayed were for- 

Mr. Simpson had been reminded, by some remarks of Mr. 
Statham, in reference to card pictures of landscapes, of one he 
had just received from an anonymous correspondent, which he 
wished members to examine as one of the most perfect small 
pictures he had ever seen. It was a view of Edinburgh, from 
Calton HiU, in which every part of the foreground was most per- 
fectly and brilliantly defined, and yet fine natural clouds were 
secured in the sky. He had no information as to how it was 
produced, except that it was on a Fothergill plate. He did not 
know by whom it was produced ; but, from collateral evidence, he 
was disposed to attribute it to Mr. Archibald Bums, of Edin- 
burgh, a well-lmown skilful Fothergill manipulator. 

iiler some fiirther conversation, Mr. Fby, at the call of the 
Chairman, said, that the able remarks of Mr. Statham had 
quite cut the ground from under him for further comment. 
There was first one subject to which he woifid refer. It 
would be within the recollection of members that, two years 
ago, he read a paper before this society, on printing in skies, 
and other forms of double printing, with a view to artistic 
effect It met with some opposition, and was, in fact, mani- 
festly a prematurepaper — one which photographers were not 
then Teadj for. He was very happy in being able to call 
attention to many prints in the Photographic Exhibition (which 
would open in a few days), in which photographers, of un- 
doubted skill and reputation, had adopted the system referred 
to, and with manifest advantage to their pictures. 

The Chaibman proposed that Mr. Simpson be requested to 
ascertain the artist who had produced the charming little card 
landscape they had been examining, and the terms at which a 
sniBcient number could be procured, in order that each member 
of the society might have in his possession a picture which 
might serve as a standard for imitation. This was carried 
by acclamation. 

Mr. Leaks called attention to two pieces of lead pipe, 
quite eaten through by the vapours of acetic acid. 

Mr. Statham suggested that the society should keep a 
Desideratum Paper, on which should be entered, from time to 
time, a note of all the especial wants which occurred in the 
ait. Such a memorandum would preserve a record before the 
eye, of things which would often otnerwise be forgotten. 

It was announced that, at the next meeting, Mr. George 
Price would read a paper on the Theoretical Principles of 
Positive Printing. The proceedings then terminated. 



CiiccL&x letters wett addressed by the committee to photographers of expe- 
rience aad reputation, asking them to assist in the purposes oif the inqoIrT 
bj iatesation and suggestions, and also by contributions of prints, with 
psticutan of the method of producing them, in order that the fullest experi- 
nent uul examination might be made. The results of this inquiry were 
f>nuriMd in the following Beport :— 

" Evidenu of Permanmct. 
** The CommittM haye unquestionable oTidence of the existence of Photo- 

^ MIWI, _ IIIMI — 

* Continued from p. 21. 

grwhs which have remained unaltered for more than ten years, prepared by 
lalttag plain paper with a chloride, afterwards making it sensitive with either 
nitrate of ammonio-nitmte of sUyer, Using with a firrahly-made solution of 
hyposulphite of soda and washing in water ; also of po^ves pmduoed bj 
Mr. Talbot's negative process. 
" They have not been able to obtain evidence of photographs having been 

Srepared at all upon albumenixed paper, or coloured with a salt of gold or 
xeid with " old hypo " so long ago as ten years. 

"They have, however, ample evidence of the existence of unaltered photo- 
graphs so prepared, Ave, six, and seven years ago. 

"They have not found that any method of printing which has been 
commonly followed, will necessarily produce fading pictures, if certain pre- 
cautions be adopted, nor have they evidence that any method which luu 
been adopted, wUl not produce fsding pictures unless such precautions are 

" Cauitt of Fading. 

" The most common cause of fSading has l>een the presence of hyposul- 
phite of soda, left in the paper from imperfect washing after fixing. 

** The Committee think it right to state, that they have been unable to find 
any test to l>e relied upon, which can be used to detect a minute portion of 
hyposulphite of soda, in the presence of the other substances which are 
obtainea by boiling photograplis in distilled water, and evaporating to dry- 
ness ; yet they have no doubt of the truth of the above statement, from the 
history given of the mode of washing adopted. 

*' The continued action of sulphuretted hydrogen and water will rapidly 
destroy every kind of photograph ; and as there are traces of this gas at all 
times present in the atmosphere, and occasionally, in a London atmosphere, 
very evident Urace:), it appears reasonable to suppose that what is effected 
rapidly in the laboratory, with a strong solution of the gas, will take place 
also slowly, but surely, in the presence of moisture, by the action of the very 
minute portion, in the atmosphere. 

*' The Committee find tliat there is no known method of producing pic- 
tures which will remain unaltered under the continued action of moisture 
and the atmosphere in London. 

** They find that pictures may be exposed to dry sulphuretted hydrogen 
gas for some time with comparatively little alteration, and tlwt pictures 
in the colouration of which gold has been used, are acted upon by the gas, 
whether dry or in solution, less rapidly tlwn any others. 

" They also find that some pictures which have remained unaltered for 
years, kept in dry places, have rapidly &ded when exposed to a moist 

*' Hence it appears that the most ordinary cause of fading may be traced 
to the presence of sulphur, the source of which may be intrinsic Arom hypo- 
sulphite left in the print, or extrinsic from the atmosphere, and, in either 
case, the action is much more rapid in the presence of moisture. 

" Mode of Mounting Fhotographi, 

** The Committee find that, taking equal weights, dried at a temperature 
of 212^, of the three substances most fluently used, via. : gelatine, gum, and 
paste, the latter attracts nearly twice as much moisture as eltlier of the 
former ; and, as in practice, a much smaller weight of gelatine is used than 
of gum, gehktine appears to be the best medium of these three ; and the 
Committee have evidence of finding having, in some cases, been produced by 
the use of paste. 

"In illustration of some of the circumstances alluded to above, the Com- 
mittee think it well to mention some instances of prints at present in their 

" Out of several |>repared together in 1844, three only are unaltered, and 
these were varnished soon after their preparation with copal varnish. 

" Half of another print of the same date was varnished, and the other 
half left ; the unvarnished half has faded, the varnished remains unaltered. 
Three pictures were prepared in 1846, all ,at the same time, with the same 
treatment : when finished, one was kept unmounted ; the other two were 
mounted with flour-paste at the same time, one of these latter having been 
first coated with Canada balsam ; at present, the unmounted one and the one 
protected with the balsam are unchanged, whereas the other lus faded. 

"A picture prepared in 1846 >ras so exposed that the lower part of it 
became wetted with rain ; at present the part so wetted has fiided, while the 
rest of it remains unaltered. Several pictures were prepared and mounted 
about ten years ago, and kept in a dry room for about three years without 
anv change, after which they were placed in a very damp situation, and then 
fkded decidedly in a few months. 

" The Committee propose very shortly to actually test the durability of the 
various modes of printing, by exposing pictures to different treatment, and 
they have been fortunate enough to obtun a grant of space for this purpose 
from the Crystal Palace Company. 

" The Committee make the following suggestions, arising out of the above 
Report: — 

"1. That the greatest care should be bestowed upon the washing ot the 
prints after the use of hyposulphite of soda, and for this purpose hot water ii 
very much better than cold. 

" 2. The majority of the Committee think that gold, in some form, should 
be used in the preparation of pictures, although eyery variety of tint may 
be obtained without It 

" 8. That photographs be kept dry. 

"4. That trials be nutde of substances likely to protect the prints from ai 
and moisture, such as caoutchouc, gutta-percha, wax, and the different 


The methods of printing, toning, and fixing photographic pictures had 
up to this period not undergone much modification since their original dis- 

An image formed by the action of light upon paper prepared with the chloride 
of silver and fixed by means of a sdutton of hyposulphite of soda was found 
to be tolerably permanent, but its colour, a reddish brown, was unsuited to 
the purposes of pictorial effect The addition of cliloride of gold to the fix- 
ing solution aided in producing a vwiety of purple black and neutral tints, 
which were much more agreeable and satisfactoiv. This addition, however, 
introducing an element of decomposition in the fixing solution, was thought 
by many to increase the chances of fading. To avoid this difficulty a new 
method has been proposed, In which the toning of the print by means of a 
solution of gold is conducted prior to the process of fixing by means of hypo- 



[January 16, 1863. 

sulphite of soda. Thla was considered an important step in the secnring of 
permanency, and it is believed tliat photographs, produced with an intelli- 
gent regard to known laws, and preserred with a care due to works of art, 
may be considered as permanent. Although it is an undoubted fact that 
the phenomenon connected with the printing, toning, and fixing of photo- 
graphs, so as to secure under all conditions entire permanency, still pre- 
sents more points for anxious examination and inqui^ to the scientific pho* 
tographer, yet the fact that there are in existence many photographic prints 
which have remained unchanged for upwards of twenty years, proves, beyond 
all doubt, that the causes of fading are not inherent, but accidental, and 
that they only require to be better understood to be entirely removed. 

The desire for absolute certainty as to the permanency of prints from 
photographic negatives has led to many attempts to substitute other sub- 
stances for the salts of silver usually employed. 

In the year 1856 a French nobleman, the Due de Luyneii. In order to give 
an impetus and a definite purpose to elTorts in this direction, oflered a prize 
of 2000 fhincs for the most perfect process of printing In carbon, two years 
being allowed for competitors to complete their researches in. 

It was agreed that carbon being of ail substances known to the chemist 
one of the most stable and unaltered, it was manifest that if it could be used 
for producing the blacks of the photographic design, the same guarantees 
would then be obtained for the permanency of photographs which exists for 
the stability of printed books and engravings, and that such a consummation 
was all that could be hope<l or desired. Several competitors responded to 
the appeal thus made, and a commission of gentlemen was formed in the 
year ISoS to report upon the processes submitted by the respective claimants 
for this priae. 

The report was made in the year 1859, in which it was stated that 
no process submitted at that time was sufficiently perfect to merit the 
entire award. -The nobleman who had instituted the competition then 
intimated his willingness to allow the offer to stand over for three 
years more, at the same time allowing the commission to divide the 2000 
francs amongst the various gentlemen who had best contributed to the 
end In view — the* production of permanent prints. Two gold medals, 
each of the value of 600 francs, and two silver medals, each of the 
value of 400 fiancs, were then awarded. A gold medal was given to M. 
Poitevin, as the originator of the first idea upon which carbon processes 
were based, vis., the peculiar action of light upon a combination of salts 
of chromium and organic matter. A gold medal was awarded to Messrs. 
Divanne and Oirard for their investigations into the causes of instability in 
silver prints. A silver medal was awarded to Messrs. Gamier and Salmon, 
for a process of printing in carbon. The other silver medal to Mr. Pouncey, 
an Englishman, for a similar process. The commission appointed to decide 
upon the second competition have recently made their report, and have 
awarded to M. Poitevin the prise of 2000 francs, and an additional medal, 
value 600 fhincs, to M. Fargier for his process. Specimens of each of these 
artists' works are in the Exhibition. 

Notwitstanding the fact that great progress has been made, much still 
remains to be desired, and a farther prize Is again ofl'ered by the Due de 
Lu^nes, to be awarded in 1804, and it is still open to competition. 

In referring to this interesting portion of the history of the art, and accord- 
ing high honour to the nobleman by whom it was initiated, there remain 
one or two remarks to be made. 

It would be manifestly beside the purpose of this report to enter into an 
examination of the claims for priority of invention made by various experi- 
mentalists ; but it is impossible to refer to the matter without drawing 
attention to the fact thnt the germ of all these processes was the discovery 
of an Englishman. In May, 1839, Mr. Mongo Ponton communicated to the 
Royal Scottish Academy of Arts his discovery of the action of light upon 
paper, prepared with a solution of bichromate of potash, a discovery upon 
which the carbon processes and the majority of the photo-engraving and 
photo-lithographic processes have been based. 

(To be continued.) 



Paris, Hih January, 1863. 

A PSOCBSS for obtaining paper positives and negatives, with 

nitrate of silver alone, is announced by M. Gaume, of 

Mans. He employs a nitrate solution of the strength of 

4 or 5 per cent., upon which the paper is floated 4 or 5 

minutes, then dried in a dark jplace. The exposure in the 

camera must be about 20 or SO seconds for negatives, and 

several minutes for positives. Both negatives and positives 

are developed with gallic or pyrogallio acid, without the 

addition of silver. They are toned with chloride of gold. 

and fixed in rain water. The same results may be obtained 

upon albumeniaed paper, without iodide or chloride, and the 

proofs are remarkable for their delicacv. By this process, 

therefore, pictures are obtained with nitrate of silver only. 

M. Regnault considera that it will be more prudent to fix 

with ammonia, as recommended by M. Humbert de Molard. 

Mr. Maxwell Lyte has pointed out a cause of fading in 

paper positives which has not hitherto been noticed, viz. : 

— the presence of sulphur in the Bristol boards, &c., used 

as mounts. In paper manufacture, the pulp is bleached 

bv the action of chlorine, and to remove all traces of this 

bleaching agent, manufacturers frequently put into the vat, 

under the name of afiiircklor,, a certain quantity of 
hyposulphite of soda. But this substance acts only on 
condition of being decomposed by the chlorine, and the 
products of the decomposition of the hyposulphite of soda, 
eminently unstable, always cause the liberation of a 
certain quantity of sulphur, which remains in the pulp, 
sometimes in so considerable a quantity that it is literally 
possible to extract the sulphur by sublimation. Besides 
the sulphur, there is always a slight excess of hyposul- 
phite 01 soda, and it need cause no surprise when we sec 
proofs mounted upon certain kinds of cardboard, show the 
fatal yellow stain, while other proofs, prepared under 
exactly similar conditions, remain intact if not mounted. 

Therefore, in mounting proofs we encounter numerous 
causes of fading, either from the presence of free sulphur, or 
of an excess of hyposulphite of soda, or of chlorine, or of 
hypochlorite of lime, or even from the chloride of sodium, 
resulting from the decomposition of the hyposulphite of soda 
by chlorine. 

We may easily detect the presence of hyposulphite of 
soda, chlorine, and the chlorides, by the following expe- 
riment : — 

Beat up a piece of the suspected card-board in a porce- 
lain or glass mortar with distilled water ; to one portion of 
the filtered liquid add a ciystal of nitrate of silver, which 
in the course of a few minutes, gives, when sheltered from 
the action of light, a yellow, or even a black, precipitate, if 
any traces of hyposulphite of soda be present. In the 
other portion of the liquid, previously acidulated with a 
little nitric acid, and boiled, also put a ciystal of nitrate of 
silver, which, if chlorine or chlorides be present, gives a 
white precipitate of chloride of silver. 

The detecflon of free sulphur, rather more difficult, is 
made by attacking the paste of the cardboard with €Lqua 
reffia entirely free from sulphuric acid, after the evaporation 
of the greater part of the liquid, and the incomplete eatnr< 
ation of the excess of acid by a little ammonia. Then add 
some distilled water, and filter ; the presence of sulphuric 
acid in the clear diluted liquid, is recognised by chloride of 

A successful mode of treating the ashes arising from the 
burning of photographic paper clippings, &c., consists in 
the following : — the papers are first burned in a laboratory 
furnace; the ashes, left undisturbed for several hours, 
gradually consume all the carbon ; they are then collected 
together, weighed, and melted without any other treatment. 
After some comparative experiments made upon 150 grains 
of ashes, the following proportions have been adopted : — 
Ashes ... ... ... ... 10 parts. 

Carbonate of soda (dried) ... 5 „ 
Pure silica sand 2 „ 

The addition of the silica appears indispensably necessary. 
We thus obtain a very fluid nitreous slag, with a compara- 
tively low temperature. The grains of silver are easily col- 
lected together, and the very compact matter thus obtained 
dissolves perfectly in nitric acid diluted with its own volume 
of water. The gold mingled with the silver remains in the 
capsule in the form of a black powder. 

Generally the ashes of the refuse papers of the operating 
room arising from filtering papers, clippings, &c., yield 
from forty to fifty per cent, of their weight of silver. 

M. Gaudin, the editor of La Lumiere, has published his 
Photographic Programme for the current year, in which he 
points out the su^'ects deserving the especial attention of 
photographers, and to the investigation of vhich he intends 
devoting himself. First in importance stands a sensitive 
dry coUodioii. The defect in this is due entirely to the 
cohesion the collodion acquires in drying, which transforms 
it into a horny substance of a greasy nature, which does not 
permit aqueous liquids to penetrate it to react upon the im- 
pressed iodide of silver it contains. Collodion which has 
never ceased to be wet, may be regarded as forming spongy 
film composed of extremely fine fibres interlaced, and acting 
as a support to the iodide of silver. This is, at least, what 

Janvabt 16, 1863.] 



takes place in employiDg the ordinary silver bath of eight or 
ten per cent., with a weaker bath, of two per cent, for ex- 
ample ; the iodide of silver is produced only on the surface 
of the collodion, forming a continuous pellicle; unfortunately 
this pellicle does not adhere, and becomes detached in spots, 
leaving the collodion bare, and consequently perfectly trans- 
parent. From a present point of view, this is to be re- 
gretted, for we well know tnat a sensitive coating, which can 
be applied to the whole surface of the collodion, will not be 
protected from the developing agents by the drying of the 
subjacent collodion. 

From this it is clear that a dry collodion composed of 
perfectly rectified ether and alcohol, will be less porous and 
less sensitive than a collodion prepared with alcohol and 
ether a little aqueous. In drying the first will become com- 
pact and nitreous, while the second will be very porous ; but 
also, its cohesion will be feebler, and it will scarcely bear 
the numerous operations consequent upon developing the 
pictures, unless it be placed on a glass-plate previously 
covered over its entire surft^e with a very dilute coating of 
albumen ; a simple edging of albumen being insufficient in 
this case. 

Glycerine in collodion appears to act in the same manner 
as water, but it is probable, that in putting it on to a washed 
sensitized collodion, it act^ like iannin, by lodging in its 
pores. As to inertness, and permanence of the humid state, 
it holds the first rank, and if we had not to fear the adherence 
of dust, it would, perhaps, be superior to tannin, as it 
carries with it a certain power of reduction, which is called 
into play every time the iodide has been impressed by light, 
however little, during the preceding operations. 

The Developing Bath of Proto^acetate of Iron, — Thus 
far I have found nothing comparable to proto-acctate of iron 
for the development of negatives. The proto-nitrnte is much 
too difficult to preserye, from its tendency to precipitate the 
silver in a white state. It is valuable for direct positives, but 
the pictures are always a little granulated, while the proto- 
acetate of iron, which gives, it is true, a yellow metallization, 
produces a delicacy equal to that given by pyrogallic acid, 
rhc great advantage to be derived from the employment of 
proto acetate of iron, is that of producing in the negative a 
black proportionate to the intensity of the light, which has 
acted upon the collodion ; an advantage which it does not 
share with any other developer. Sulphate of iron, for 
instance, never gives skies which can be printed uncovered, 
at the first pouring on, but require intensifying. During 
my latest researches, I have been prevented from employing 
the proto-acetatc of iron which I had prepared, because it 
always produced a general inky blackness over the whole 
plate, without any picture ; but I shall soon discover the 
cause of this singular obstacle, which is doubtless caused by 
some oi^anic matter inherent to the products used in its 

Prepurallon of Photographic Cotton by Nitrous Gas, — 
1 have already made an experiment to prepare photographic 
cotton by the action of nitrous gas : the effect was nil. I 
ought not to have expected to succeed, for previously I had 
failed to obtain any result upon passing this gas through 
S'^veral folds of rag ; but I did not think the intervention 
of water was necessary to this reaction ; the idea occurred to 
me only during my last experiment. I have now no doubt 
that moistened cotton will produce the desired result ; it 
would greatly surprise me ii it did not. In the event of 
.-U'Xjpas, it is easy to perceive the great facility that would 
rx'»ult in the preparation, on a large scale, of a product so 
i;xtensively employed at the present time, and I see a 
racans of obtaining it more easily and with less variable 

Afodf/ication of Organic Substances, mixed with various 
>'///#, under the influence of Light, — The mixture of al- 
kaline bichromates, by which certain organic substances 
Wcome insoluble* by the action of light, is the first step on 
a boundless path. Quite recently it has been asserted, that 
any organic matter, the juice of walnut-peels, for instance, 

becomes, without any addition to it, black and insoluble 
under the action of light. I have thought it necessary to 
notice this statement, which appears to me very extraordi- 
nary, because an operator asserts that he has obtained proofs 
by this means. For lack of walnut-peels, I have prepared a 
decoction of walnut leaves, without being able to recognize 
any photogenic property in this decoction when spread upon 
paper. Until proof is afforded to the contrary, I shall 
suspect that there is some error in this statement ; but we 
must restrain our incredulitv in remembering that even the 
illustrious Arago was too nasty in imposing limits to the 
power of photography. 

Carbon Printing.^The highest aim of photogi-aphy is 
to arrive at results in which durability shall rival perfec- 
tion. In taking proofs with lamp-black upon ordinary 
paper, we seem to have attained this aim. Such, however, 
is not our opinion,. It seems to be possible to obtain upon 
a steel plate, suitably coated, an engraving by the action of 
light solely, and to be able to print a small portrait with a 
black mineral ink, on asbestos paper with a suitable vitreous 
mixture, so that, after being subjected to a red heat, we 
shall possess indestructible pictures, so long as they are not 
exposed to the heat of a forge. 


Ohentj Belgium, January 4M, 1863. 

Dear Sni, — ^In your number of January 9th, I find a 
letter from Mr. J. T. Lucas junior, by which he claims to 
have made perfect photographs on canvas in March 1859. 

Allow me Mr. Editor to give you a few dates relating to 
this matter. 

It is, to my knowledge, that in 1855 or 1856, Mr. Charles 
Fontayne (of Porter and Fontayne, photographers, Cincinnati, 
0.,) experimented on canvas coated with iodized albumen. 
I know of no particulars about it. 

In April 1856, Mr. J. H. Tatum of Baltimore, M.D., 
patenteu a process which gave but indifferent results. The 
canvas was treated with alkali, then with chloride of sodium, 
after which it was silvered, exposed to light, and fixed with 
hypo. Finally flowed over with a very diluted solution of 
sulphuric acid. 

In 1858, the exact date I cannot tell, Mr. Marius Sanier 
communicated to the American Journal of Photography a 
process which I tried with success in the winter of the same 
year. The canvas was cleaned with a solution of cyanide of 
potassium and well rinsed, then coated with diluted iodized 
albumen, sensitized with aceto-nitrate of silver, developed 
with gallic acid, and fixed with hyposulphite. The great 
drawback to this process is, that a thin nlm must be used 
or it will crack after painting, and a thin film gives less 
success than a thick one. This evil was remedied by sub- 
stituting gelatine for albumen. From the moment I made 
this alteration, I worked with constant success. 

I may at a future time, and with your permission, give 
ou a description of the process in all its details. Until of 
ate, having made a special business of photography on 
canvas, I considered the process as a ira^e secret, and have 
only communicated it to a few friends. — Yours, respectfully, 

Charles Waldaok. 
From Cincinnati, Ohio U. S. 

[We shall have much pleasure in learning the details of 
Mr. WiJdack's method of working on canvas. — ^Ed.] 


The Pbeservativk Qualities of Caoutchouc. — We quote 
the following interesting notice from the Chemical News: — 
" Wood for Ship Building, — Professor Crace Calvert is now 
making an investigation for the Admiralty of different kinds of 
wood used in ship building. It appears that the profesEor is 
at no loss to explain why so many of the fleet of recently built 
gun-boats became rotten and others escape untouched. He 
finds the goodness of teak to consist in the fact that it is highly 
charged with caoutchouc ; and that, if the tannin be soaked out 
of a block of oak it may then be interpenetrated by a solution of 
caoutchouc, and thereby rendered as lasting as teak. Of the 
durability of teak there can bo no question." 




[Jakuart 16, 1868, 

%a €ant»jisn^t»t8. 


Wanted, for fall prices, or in exchange, the following 
unmberfl of the Photographic News:— 76, 80, 81, 91, 101, 
rJ7, 198, 200, 202, 208, 218, 214, 216, 216. 

F. P.— It is bj no means absolntely necessary that tmnspareneles for the 
magic lantern should be taken on albumen. The advantage claimed over 
collodion is greater brilliancy, sharpness, and richness of tone. Bv skilfhl 
manipulation, and careftil choice of proce86, eoUodlon.tnnsparencies may 
be made to imitate those on albumen very closely. Those who prefer the tone 
of albumen will find the tanain process frive Tery similar results. If you 
wish to try the albumen process you will find various articles with full 
details in the back volumes of the Nsws. We can only briefly state here 
that the albumen is prepared with an iodide and a bromide, the same as 
collodion, the plate is coated and allowed to dry, then excited in a bath 
of aceto-nitrate of silver, washed and again dried, and then exposed. With 
dry plates, printing by superposition, as in paper printing, is a common 
practice, giving a short exposure and then developing ; no toning is needed 
with albumen. If wet collodion and camera printing be used— and excel- 
lent transparencies may be so produced— then the negative must be placed 
in a groove of a box or a camera so that no light sliall enter the camera or 
reach the sensitive plate except through the negative. Various articles 
on transparencies appeared in our last volume. 

H. P.— Your letter is not quite clear as to what part of the plate presents 
the " silvered" effect to which you refer. So &r as we can Judge from 
your description it is from abnormal reduction, or fogging, and may pro- 
ceed from a variety of causes, which, without seeing the result, we cannot 
certainly point out It may be over-new collodion, or diffused light, or 
the bath. Most probably the hitter. Try adding a little bicarbonate of 
soda in solution, until a precipitate begins to be formed. Then expose a 
few hours to light, filter, and add a little nitric acid. If the defect arise 
from the bath, this will most probably cure it. 2. The time required for 
fixing prints in a fresh solution of hyposulphite of soda, one ounce in five 
of water, is about a quarter of an hour or twenty minutes. 

II. Sw— The defect is an unusual one, or, rather, it has presented itself in an 
unusual degree. It !s probably due primarily to the quality of the paper, 
which is unanually absorbent The defect arises ft?om partial absorption 
and unequal drying of the albumen, the portion not dried then flowing 
over that which is dried, and causing what are technically called by albu- 
menisers, "curtains." Newness of the paper, the sice not being thoroughly 
hardened, will cause it The albumen, in this case, partially dissolves the 
size, and the two mingling together produce the unequal surface. The 
extremely absorbent character of the paper is shown by moistening the 
back ; the moisture is absorbed and disappears at once. The sample sent 
up tastes strongly of the salt, at the back, showing that it has been 
thoroughly absorbed. This would readily account for the diflSculty. The 
suggestions we may make are : use undiluted albumen, and add neither 
ammonia, nor anything else but the chloride; see that the paper is 
thoroughly dry ; float a Tsry short time, scarcely more than drawing the 
sheet over the surihce of the albumen without allowing it to remain at 
all ; try some of the recent suggestions for making the paper waterproof 
previous to albumenizing. Or get another older, harder, less absorbent 

SioiLLi.— We will try your bath and report next week. 

A. B. C. will oblige us by communicating his address, and the terms upon 
which he can supply a few docens of the exquisite view of Edinburgh from 
Calton Hill, with any other particulars. See our report of the last South 
London Meeting. 

D. A. proposes to coat plates with collodion and allow them to dry, subse- 
quently exciting, At., in the field, for use. We fear tcit little would be 
gained In convenience, and something would certainly be lost in several 

L. S. W.— Tou can register and secure the copyright of a photograph of an 
oil-painting ; but that does not interfere with the right of others to copy 
the painting if they have an opportunity. It only secures your photo- 
graph from being copied. 

E. w.— The article to which you refer contained an extract from Mr. 
Sutton's A'oUi. It was he who proposed to send a sample of the paper, 
in which he was interested, to readers of the Notes. We believe that 
such a sample was given with the NoUt of January 16th. 

Michael Loam.— The manipulations in making collodion are best effected in 
the following order :— First, add half the alcohol to the cotton, and let it 
get well saturated with it ; then add the ether, and shake until all the 
cotton is dissolved. Now, let it stand for a day or two, and either decant 
or draw off with a syphon the clear collodion ft^m the residue. In the 
remaining half of the alcohol dissolve the iodides and bromides, if neces- 
ttary. grinding them with a Uttie alcohol in a mortar of g]asa or Wedge- 
wood ware. When dissolved, filter ; and then add the proper quantity of 
the filtered solution to the clear collodion. 

H. GoBLK.— We cannot recommend you to tone and fix in one bath, by the 
old method. But, if you do so, always use the solution fresh made, thus : 
—1 ounce of hyposulphite of soda, 1 grain of chloride of gold, and 4 ounces 
of water, adding a piece (tf borax the sixe of a walnut for each pint Do not 
add silver, or anything else. Or you may use the bath of «el d'or, thus :— 
1 grain of gold, three grains of hyposulphite of soda, and 4 ounces of water, 
afterwards fixing in a fresh strong solution of hyposulphite. 2. The back- 
grounds in Messrs. Southwell Brothers' studio, are generally of a somewhat 
dark grey. 

A StTBsoRiBsa FBOX THB BBOumxo.— We believe the best lenses in the 
world are made by the two English makers you name, and their lenses are 
chiefly used by good London artists. We do not know any foreign lenses 
which surpass them. 

A Novice okthk Cohtivbnt. — The only Journal of general character devoted 
solelv to chemical science is the Chemt'etU Newt, edited 1^ Mr. W. Orookes, 
published weeklv, price 4d., at No. 1, ^Vlne Office Court, Fleet Street 
There are monthly Journals, which arc simply organs for recording the 
transactions of the societies to which they belong, such as the Pharma- 
cnUical Journal, monUily, Is. ; and the Journai of the Chemical Society, 

monthly. Is. The PhiloBophieal Maoatine contains, oceastonally, tone 
chemical articles, monthly, 2s. Od. There are several good chemical 
Journals published on the Continent, amongst iriiich we may name the 
Oomptei Bendut, and the Repertoire de €%imie. Pure et AmliquSe. 2. 
Black varnish is sometimes used for stopping out skies. If yoo cannot 
purchase it ready, brunswick black, diluted with turpentine, will answer. 
Water colours, such as lamp black ground in gum water, are sometimes 
used. We don't like stoppea-ont skies. 

L. M. B.— Your picture is exceedingly creditable for an amateur. The chief 
improvement it would bear would consist in a trifle more exposore and 
less intensifying, this would make it a littie softer. We are gfaul you profit 
so much by reading the Niws. A littie more practice will make you 

C. F. W.— The book was sent. We shall look forward with interest for your 
promised communication. 

aiLLARD.— A report on your ghiss in the "Scientific Gossip." We have not 
yet seen any of the pictures refeired to, but we have good reason to 
believe they are notphotolithographs. We have been told they &re rile dimi- 
nutive photographic copies. But we confess that we, in common with 
others, are ptuzled by the advertisement. 

John Martin. — The glass was so broken that we could not form an opinion 
of it 2. The difference between the samples of acetic acid is that one 
really is gbtdal, and should freeze at b(P, the other is not, but is Urgely 
diluted, and possibly Impure. 3. We do not see any reason why photo- 
graphs taken with the pistolgraph should not answer for the oxy-hydrogen 
microscope if care be taken regarding the definition. 4 We do not know 
which rolling-press you especially refer to, but, as a rule, the larg^ ones 
give a heavier pre.s.<(ure. We believe some of the small ones answer very 

A CuNSTAXT ScBscRiBBE.- There is no obligation upon persons publishing 
registered photographs to have the fact announced on the print, but 
we think it would be advisable to do so. The mere lisct of printing 
"registered" upon the photograph would be no proof, however, that it 
was copyright The prcnumption is, that the copyright of all photographs 
belongs to somebody, whether protected by regular course of law or not, 
and that it is the duty of persons wishing to copy them for their own pur^ 
poses to ascertain how far they are permitted to do so, or otherwise run 
the risk of piracy. The only method of ascertaining whether a picture is 
protected or not, is to enquire of the publisher, or search at Stationers' 
Hall, on paying the proper fee. 

Chbltbkhaii. — Your cards appear to have stood Tery well, but an exposure 
during four months Is not a very severe test The chief improvement re- 
quired is a little more brilliancy and better definition. Von will find 
valuable printing formulae in our Alm axac, just published. You will find 
Instructions for ammonia-nitrate there, and also repeated in the last 

AMicrs.— In the case stated, where an operator works for you at » regular 
salary, using your chemicals, kc., on your premises, Ac, there cannot be 
a doubt about it that the negatives taken belong to you, unless there were 
a direct bargain to the contrary. The fact of the camera belonging to the 
operator does not in any way give him a claim to the negative.>t. 

R. M. — We are obliged by the interesting paragraph. The plan of taking a 
photograph in several pieces, and Joining them, is not, however, new. 

Xbmofhok. — It is unqueitionably philosophically right to reverse the lens 
in enlarging, so that the transit of the rays through the lens shall be liter 
the same manner as in ordinary operations for which the lenses are con- 
tructcd. We have not, however, noticed any practical disadvantage from 
neglecting to reverse. 

Tnoa. Collibb. — In Mr. Warner's remarks in reference to securing clouds 
with Dallmeyer's No. 1, triple, on a plate 10 by 6, there is no descrepancy. 
The No. 1 triple gives a circle of light twelve inches in diameter ; and we 
have seen respectable pictures on a 10 by 8 plate taken with it Many 
operators work on a plate 10 by 8 with this lens, and subsequently cut the 
print to whatever dimensions may suit it best. 2. We believe it an error 
to suppose that the triple, or ordinary double lense.«, give less brilliancy 
than single lenses. Some of the most brilliant pictures we have ever 
seen have been taken with the triple. As for double lenses there cannot 
be a doubt as to the brilliancy of the image. 8. We have found no dis- 
advantage from the use of an ebonite bath. 4. The sixth volume of the 
Chemical JVeios has Jast been issued, we believe. It is published in Wine 
Office Court, Fleet Street 

Pbrplkxitt. — The most palpable error in your operations, is the use of 20 
drops of nitric add in an ounce of developing solution. Try again with 2 
drops. Your collodion being old and red may be Insensitive. Try some 
fresh. Also try a better light if you can, the open air for instance. It i5 
very probable ftrom the appearance of the positive, which arrived In fhig- 
ments that your bath is out of order. Make a solution of bicarbonate of 
soda, 10 grains to an ounce of distilled water; then add a few drops at a 
time to your bath until a precipitate begins to Ikll. Now place the solu- 
tion in sunlight for a few hours ; then filter, and add a drop of nitric acid 
to each four ounces of solution. It wiir probably work bright and clean, 
if not, add about as mucJi more nitric acid, then try. Let us know of the 
result and we will, if necessary, try to help you further. 

Tteo R. — You will easily ascertain if you have too much of the roof over 
the head of the sitter darkened, by bringing him forward a little and trying 
a picture. We should be disposed to remove the yellow calico at the sides 
entirely. The general arrangements seem good. We could Judge better 
by seeing a picture taken with the unsatisfactory arrangements. 

Henry Regnier, Charles Derby, J. W., M. C, and several other correspon- 
dents in our next 

Br Mb. Jon.v Stuart, 120, Buchanan Street, GUwgow. 

1. Right Rev. Bishop Murdock. 

2. Rev. James Knox. 

3w Rev. James Mc. Naught. 

All Letters, Works for Beview, and other Communications for 
the Editor, should be addressed to the Office, 82, Paternostes 
Bow, London. 


Vol. Vn. No. 229.— January 28, 1868. 


Exetu of Density in Iodide of Hereory Negatlrei 87 

The Photographic Exhibition— Second Notice 87 

The DisGOTery of the Metal ThaUinn 88 

Photognphio ChemicalB, their Mano&ctare, Adulteration, and 

Analnlfl 89 

Printing Diflcoltiefl. Br a Photographer's AaeiBtant 40 

On the Ponnation of the Photographic Image, Ao. B7 H. 

Ommeganck 41 

On PhotoUthogiaphy. By Andrew Mactear 41 


The Application of Photography to the Magle Lantern, ke. By 

SamnelHlghley, P.O.8., rO.S.,4« 48 

International Kxhibition.— Report of the Jury on Photography 

and Photographic Apparatus 46 

Correspondence.— Foreign Science, ftc 46 

Notes and Queries 47 

To Correspondents 48 

Photograpns Begistered during the Week ^ 



We aie enabled to relieve the minds of many of onr readers 
from an apprehension, which has been Mt of late by 
photographers nsing bichloride of mercury and iodide of 
notaasimn, for intensifying their negatives. This process 
has been very extensively used during the last year, or since 
the method of using it, with great success, as practised by 
the late Mr. Lacy, was published in our columns. During 
the past summer a conviction has been gaining ground that 
the effect produced was not permanent. The deposit of 
iodide of mercury, in combination with the silver image, 
was found to darken gpradually under the action of intense 
light, so that if the right amount of intensity were gained 
at first, the negative gradually became hara during the 
coone of continued printing. 

All photographers are familiar with the fact that a silver 
image, treated with bichloride of mercury, has a tendency 
to darken under the action of light Neither the salt of 
mercury alone, nor the reduced silver, darken by light ; but 
it is probable that some trace of chloride of silver is formed 
upon which light acts. Iodide of mercury alone, in like 
manner, is not darkened b^ light, but the deposit, formed 
by its action upon a negative, is found, under some circum- 
stances, to change under the action of light and become 
darker. What is the precise nature of the change is uncer- 
tain ; nor has the fact itself excited much attention until 
recently. Mr. Lacy was in the habit of urging, as an 
advantage attending the process, that the negative became 
a little more brilliant, after once or twice printing, the 
sparkling points of high light becoming more pronounced 
and definite. In his experience, however, the negatives did 
not become hard. Mr. Hughes, who became his successor 
in bnsineas, found, on printing some thousands of copies 
from the royal negatives of Mr. Lacy, that they became, in 
process of time, so much denser and harder that they were 
comparatively useless. 

The subject has several times, recently, been discussed 
At the South London Society, where the evidence on the 
subject has been somewhat discrepant and varying. Mr. 
Blanchard has held that this change only took place when 
pjrogalHc acid and silver, as well as bichloride of mercury 
and an iodide, had been used in intensifying, and has main- 
tained the idea that it was to the presence of some trace of 
iodide of silver the darkening was due. Mr. Harman, and 
eome others, had found the darkening proceed in the course 
of continuous printing, where bichoride and iodide only 
▼ere used. The discrepancy of experience was sufficient, 
however, to throw doubt upon the value of the process, and 
excite lively apprehensions as to the ultimate fate of many 
valuable negatives already intensified by the method in 

We are now able to announce a remedy for the evil — 
a means of restoring all such negatives which have become 
hard to their pristine softness and delicacy. We are 
indebted to Mr. Jabez Hughes for the information, the dis- 
covery having been made, accidentally we believe, in his 

studio at Byde, which enables him to dbtain soft and 
detailed prints from valuable negatives which had been 
put aside, as giving hopelessly hard and unsatisfactory 
prints. The process of restoration simply consists in rocut' 
%ng the negative — ^holding it before a brisk fire until it 
becomes very hot. Whatever might be the precise cause of 
the evil, it appeared to result from a molecular change, the 
increased density did not arise from an aggregation of 
deposit, as in the usual processes of intensifying. The 
application of heat appears again to induce a molecular 
cnange, restoring the image to its original softness. We 
have not had opportunity of putting this experiment to 
the test ourselves, but have the assurance of a gentleman, 
vitally interested in the question, and accustomed to carefiil 
observation, that the remedy proposed is a valuable and trust- 
worthy fact. 



A MORE careful examination of the contribution at this year's 
exhibition, confirms all our first impressions, both as to 
general excellence and particular superiority. And we may 
add regarding the hanging, that we do not remember to have 
visited any exhibition in which a more pleasant effect was 
presented by the ensemble : there is a harmonious com- 
pleteness in the general arrangement which satisfies the eye ; 
the spotty scattered effect so common in such exhibitions, 
being fortunately avoided. 

The first picture in the catalogue is an enlargement from 
a small negative by Mr. Ponting, of a beach scene. It is 
one of a similar class to several sent by Mr. Ponting to the 
International Exhibition. It is scarcely quite satisfactory, 
being wanting in force ; it is nevertheless very meritorions 
for its pictorial effect, and is remarkable for its singular 
resemblance to a lithograph. Possessing many of the same 
beauties and faults are the contributions of Mr. Lyndon 
Smith. They are for the most part well chosen scenes — soft, 
detailed, and full of atmosphere — ^but they are so low in tone 
and wanting in power, that, being amongst more brilliant 
prints, they su£fer by the comparison. His present contribu- 
tions consist chiefly of Welsh scenery, and many of them 
are charmingly picturesque. The entrance to Llannberis 
Pass, (No. lo), is a very fine composition, and only wants 
vigour to be a fine picture. It is quite possible that, viewed 
alone, these pictures may be very good indeed. It is by 
juxtaposition with pictures possessing more contrast that 
they seem weak. 

We next find a series of views of Osborne and other places 
in the Isle of Wi^ht (Nos. 2 and 3). These are distin- 
guished by clean bright photography, and in some instances 
very good composition ; but there is perhaps, in some, a little 
hardness and want of atmosphere. The cabinet size, pro- 
duced by the No. 1 triple lens which Mr. G. W. Wilson has 
rendered popular, is selected for these pictures, and is well 
suited to the class of views delineated. Very similar in 
character to the pictures of Mr. Kouch are those contributed 
by Lieut.-Col. the Honourable Dudley F. de Ros (Nos. 14 



[Januabt 28, 1868. 

and 74). These consist of varions views at Windsor and 
Frogmore, and of the ruins of Grey Abbey, County Down. 
Some of these have a little tendency to hardness and want 
of atmosphere. A few clouds, or even a tinted sky, would 
have been a material improvement. 

The bulk of the portraiture and figure photography is 
collected in one room distinct from the landscapes. For the 
purpose of varying the monotony, however, a few portraits 
and figures are hung amongst the landscapes, and in giving 
a detailed notice we shall proceed in consecutive order ac- 
cording to the catalogue, without reserving such portraits for 
a place in their own classification. 

A couple of studies by Mr. H. P. Robinson, " The May 
Gatherer" (No. 5), and "The May Queen" (No. 6), are 
very charming. " The Mav Gatherer " is a pleasing rustic 
ffirl reclining on a grassy knoll, with a heap of hawthorn 
blossom. The position is graceful and natural, and the com- 
position and photography both good, whilst the keeping of 
the sentiment is admirably preserved. " The May Queen " 
is a vignetted head of a sweetly simple and winning village 
girl, with a wreath of May blossoms entwined around her 
head. The photography is very good, the picture soft, 
round and beautimlly modelled; but it is the charming 
expression, and wonderfully beautiful rendering of the eyes, 
which attracts, attention most. We have seen a copy with 
the lines from Tennyson's " May Queen " appended, which 
the picture appeared admirably adapted to illustrate : 

'J' Tbere 8 many a black, black eye they say. 
But none so bright as mine." 

Altogether we might take this as a very satisfactory em- 
bodijnent of " Little Alice." 

The next subject-pictures which come under our attention 
are also executed in Leamington, and are by Bullock 
Brothers. The most striking and ambitious of these is the 
"Footsteps of Angels" (No. 20). In examining such a 
picture, tne verdict given will mach depend on the precon- 
ceived notions of the critic as to the legitimacy of the effort 
to make a picture by photographic means. Those who 
deride the attempt will chuckle over certain shortcomings 
here, as evidence of the inherent unfitness of the art to illus- 
trate a poetical idea, or produce a picture with a story. We, 
who have always maintained the art-power of photography, 
and the legitimacy of every effort to develop its pictorial 
capabilities, examine Buch a picture with much interest, 
and regard its shortcomings witn leniency. The picture fills 
nearly a whole sheet of paper, and the photography is de- 
cidedly good. The general effect as a picture, and the com- 
position, are also good. The idea to be illustrated is that 
expressed in Longfellow's pretty little lyric, from which the 
title of the picture is borrowed, and which many of our 
readers may remember. The time is evening: — 

" When the hours of day are numbered, 

And the voices of the night 
, Wake the better soul that slumbered. 

To a holy calm delight ; 

Then the forms of the departed 

Enter at titie open door; 
The beloved, the pure hearted, 

Come to visit me once more/' 

An elderly gentleman sits in an apartment lighted only by 
the fire ; and, kneeling at his feet, is a female figure, in- 
tended, we presume, to represent the " Being beauteous," 
the departea love, referrea to in the after lines. It is in 
this figure the chief failure is found ; the choice of a model 
has been esp^ially unfortunate, as the figure and face are 
not of that light, delicate, fragile, or refined type, which 
is suggestive of a disembodied state, and especially of the 
** messengers divine " referred to. As suggestion, not repre- 
sentation, is the only possibilitv in regard to such an idea, 
the selection of a suitable moael was of vital importance, 
and especial care should have been taken to secure one with 
as littk of material mould as possible. Again, the treatment 
of the figure is defective. There is nothing shadowy or 
indefinite here ; the form is as essentially mundane and 
palpable as that of a figure still in the flesh. The pictorial 

treatment of things unseen and immaterial aitst necessarily 
be more or leas conventional, and all we can demand is that 
thev shall in some way or other suggest the notion of dis- 
embodiment. It may be a dimly defined *' shade," or a 
*' luminous shadow," or it may be that uncertain substance 
of which Milton speaks — 

" If substance might be called what shadow seemed. 
For each seemed either ." 

But we want the idea suggested by the presentment in some 
way. This figure is very real, and an arm which is ex- 
tended, unrelieved by any reflected light, is very black. 
Photography possesses resources for giving the air of imma- 
teriality we demand, and in such a case they should have 
been used. The effect of the firelight is very good, and 
for the most part the shadows in the deep gloom of the 
apartment are transparent and satisfactory. There are some 
lights for which we cannot quite account, regarding the fire 
as the sole source of light as the picture represents it. For 
instance, the bald head and the grey whiskers of the male 
figure are well lighted on the side opposite to the fire. On 
the whole the attempt is so bold, the result in some respects 
so good, and success missed rather by the want of a little more 
thought or effort than by the inherent difficulties in the way, 
that we have devoted more space to a consideration of its faults 
than we should have done if it had been a decided failure. 
And we intend these remarks rather as encouragement than 
censure. Two or three other large genre pictures, by the 
same artists, are less meritorious. A pair, " Mischief " and 
"Startled" TNo. 47), do not express the ideas, and the 
models are ill chosen. "Confound the Screw" (No. 69), a 
musician tuning a violoncello, and perplexed by the diffi- 
culty of turning the peg or screw witn one particular string, 
indulges in the expletive which gives the picture its title. 
Here the idea is well expressed, and the composition good ; 
but the photography is a little coarse and hard. 

The prints on rcsinized paper, from enlarged negatives, 
by Mr. Alfred Harman, will excite as much interest 
amongst photographers as any pictures in the exhibition, 
as they are decidedly the largest and best pictures of 
the kind which have been exhibited. The metnod of en- 
larging by two operations, first producing a transparency, 
and from that an enlarged negative, is one we have recom- 
mended for years. It has for some time been practised to a 
small extent. Mr. Samuel Fry has practised it for many 
years with great success. Mr. Vernon Heath and Warner 
have both, during the past year, given some popularity to 
the process by successfully applying and aescribing it. 
But none of the results that we have seen have been on 
such a large scale, and so entirely successful, as those of 
Mr. Harman. Here are four portraits, each about 22 inches 
by 17 inches, with accompanying prints from the card 
negatives from which the enlargement is effected. The 
portraits are chiefly standing figures, and some of them 
with various accessories; but in none, and in no part of 
them, do we find unsatisfactory pictorial definition, every 
part of each figure being as well defined as in the small 
prints, showing that no appreciable loss has been suffered in 
enlargement. No. 61 is especially fine, the composition 
being good, the image solt, round, vigorous, and well 
defined. The tone will probably be considered a little 
black by some, but the effect is very engraving-like, and 
will recommend the use of resinized paper — ^the sample used 
in this instance being, we undei-stand, that prepared by 
Francis and Co., after the formula of Mr. Cooper. The 
print (No. 84) from an enlarged stereoscopic negative, 
printed on albumenized paper, scarcely strmes us as so 
delicate and pleasing as the others. 


Amongst the fruits already reaped from the valuable dis- 
covery of Messrs. Kerchoff and Bunsen, in reference to 
spectrum analysis, are, as our readers already know, three 
new alkaline^metals — ^rubidium, ccesium, and thallium. Ths 

Januabt 23, 1868.] 



discovery of the latter of these, as our readers also know, 
is doe to Mr. William Orookes, a gentleman to whom the 
photographic world generally is indebted for much informa- 
tion on the chemistry of photography. In the beginning of 
1861, being engaged in spectrum examinations, Mr. Crookes 
discoTered, in the flame of some residues of selenium, a 
nngle bright green line in a portion of the s]^ectrum where 
snch a line bad not been seen before. Further investigations 
oonvinced him that this was a new element, which he shortly 
SDc^ceeded in isolating. The name of thallium was given 
to the new element — 'derived from a Greek word, signifying 
a yonng twig, the vivid green spectral line suggesting the 
name. The exact nature of the new body was not at first 
decided, but it was supposed to be a metalloid. In September 
of the same year, however, Mr. Crookes satisfied himself of 
its nature by obtaining the substance as a metal, which was 
shown to various persons in his laboratory. 

Mr. Crookes seems destined to meet with injustice in 
regard to this discovery. In the International lixhibition, 
notwithstanding that he exhibited the metal and its oom- 
ponnds, and that his discovery of it was well known to the 
jurors, his name was not mentioned in the first published 
list of awards ; whilst a French gentleman, M. Lamy, was 
rewarded with a medal for the discovery of new and abun- 
dant sources of the metal, the original aiscoverer of which 
was unnoticed. A proper and energetic exposure of this 
grievance bron^t some reparation. But recently Mr. 
Crookes has simered another not less grievous injustice. 
M. Dumas, in a memoir just presented to the Academy of 
Sciences, denies to Mr. Crookes the discovery of thallium as a 
metal at all, and awards that honour to M. Lamy. The facts 
appear to us, however, to lie in a nut-shell. The credit is 
given to M. Lamy on assumed prior publication ; and this 
publication of the metallic character of the new element is 
stated to have been made in a communication to the 
Social Imneriale of Lille on the 16th of May, 1862. Now 
setting asiae (as non-publication or insufficient publication) 
explanations and exhibitions to friends in the laboratory, 
here is the fact patent to all the world, that on the 1st of 
May, 1862, a case was exhibited by Mr. Crookes in the 
International Exhibition, containing samples of the metal 
and its componnds, in which it was distinctly labelled as a 
"new metallic element," and further described as a " heavy 
metal." Publication to a larger audience could not well 
hare been made ; and it is to be noted that the contributions 
of thallium to the International Exhibition by M. Lanny 
were not made until some time after it was opened. The 
comparison of the two dates appears to us to settle beyond a 
cavil the priority of iAie discovery ; and whilst M. Lanny 
has had tne good fortune and sagacity to discover abundant 
sources of the metal, it is clear that to an English investiga- 
tor belongs the honour of discovering l^e element and 
deciding its metallic character. 



The other componnds of alumina are of too slight importance 
to the photographic chemist to render any separate account 
of them of interest. The next element, the compounds of 
which demand our attention, is one which can scarcely be 
classed among the metals at all, although for the sake of 
convenience it is frequently so classified in chemical works. 
We allude to ailicium, the oxide of which is the well known 
silica or rock crystal. In the natural state silica occurs 
nnder manj forms ; it is almost chemically pure under the 
fom of fine white sand, immense quantities of which are 
brought from the Isle of Wight, for the purposes of glass- 
making. Another form of pure silica is known under the 
name dt rock crystal. This is met with in hexagonal crystals, 
Rumouoted by hexagonal pyramids ; the colourless trans- 
puent variety is largdy usea for optiod purposes. Although 
not strictly coming under the category of a photographic 

chemical, the properties of rock crystal are sufficiently in- 
teresting to our readers for us to devote a small space here 
to their description. Pure rock crystal possesses one great 
advantage over other solid transparent media, in being 
perfectly transparent to all the chemical rays of light. A 
photograph of the solar spectrum, taken with a complete 
Quartz train — that is, with prisms and lenses of quarts — ^will 
snow lines and bands in the spectrum three or four times as 
high as when taken with a glass train. In scientific re- 
searches upon the photographic action of light and colour, 
it is, therefore, necessary to employ rock crystal instead of 
glass wherever light has to be transmitted, as it has been 
shown by Mr. Crookes that the interposition of a piece of 
colourless glass, the hundredth of an inch thick, in tne path 
of a beam of light, passing through a quartz train, is suffi- 
cient to cut off very considerable quantities of the chemically 
acting rays of light. Bv employing a meniscus lens of 
rock crystal for photographic purposes, very excellent results 
are obtained, owing to the large number of actinic rays 
which are transmitted by it on to the plate. A quartz lens 
can, however, be used only with a small aperture m front of 
it, as it cannot be achromatized without diminishing its 
transparency down to that of glass. Another objection to a 
quartz lens is its double refracting power, by reason of which 
the image formed by it is double when viewed under a high 
magnifying power. This defect may be obviated by taking 
care in the selection of the lens, or in having it cut in a 
particular direction, with respect to the axis of the crystal. 
When a beam of light passes through a crystal of quartz in 
such a way that it forms an angle with the axis of the 
crprstal, it is doubly refracted, or split up into two rays 
slightly divergent. A lens cut from a crvstal, in such a 
manner that the light would pass through, forming an angle 
with the axis, would therefore give a double image. When, 
however, a ray of light passes through a plate of quartz, 
parallel to the axis of the crystal, it is not doubly refracted ; 
a lens, therefore, cut so that its axis coincides with the axis 
of the crystal, will onlv give one image. 

It may be of use if we instruct our readers in a simple 
way of ascertaining whether a lens is made of quartz or glass. 
The latter is much the softer of the two, and therefore, by a 
comparison of one with the other, the sharp point of a file 
will show the difiference without further trouble. This, how- 
ever, is not a plan to be recommended, as it involves per- 
manent injury to the lens. The plan we recommend is to 
employ polarized light for this purpose. A small tourma- 
line, which can be purchased mounted for a few shillings, is 
the only special apparatus required. A dark polished surface 
— such as French-polished mahogany, a japanned tray, black 
inai'ble, or similar material — is placed on a table in front of a 
window. The photographer stations himself about four feet 
from this, so that the bright light from the sky is reflected 
upwards to him from the polished surface. The tourmaline is 
now brought up to the eye, and slowly rotated on its axis. As 
the crystal turns, the polished reflecting surface will be seen 
to become alternately light and dark; the tourmaline is 
kept in the position in which the reflecting surface appears 
darkest. The lens to be examined is now held between the 
tourmaline and the reflecting surface, and in its turn moved 
round on its axis. If the lens is of glass, no change will 
be produced by this movement ; but if it is of rock crystal, 
it will become luminous during one part of its rotation, 
and then dark again, presenting a similar appearance 
to what took place when the tourmaline was turned 
round. It is possible, by this means, to ascertain in which 
direction, as regards the axis of the crystal, the lens is cut ; 
and at the risk of not being clearly understood by some of 
our readers, we will endeavour to point out how tnis is dis- 
covered. Turn the tourmaline so that the reflecting surface 
appears quite dark, and move the lens on its axis until it 
appears luminous over its whole surface. Now turn the 
lens about sideways, so as to look through it in different 
directions diagondly, keeping the relative positions of top 
and bottom unchanged. As it is being moved about, 



[Janvast 28, 1863. 


coloured spaces will appear on the luxninons sarface of the 
lens, which will pass over it in the order of the colours in 
the spectrum. On continuing to move the lens in the same 
direction as that which produced the colours, they will 
suddenly cease to appear, and will then be followed by 
another set of colours in the reverse order. The central 
position between these sets of colours is then to be returned 
to, and the experimenter will then be looking along the 
axis of the crystal from which the lens was cut. This may 
seem somewhat complicated and difficult to understand, but 
in reality it is very simple. After having once obtained 
the phenomena here described, any number of lenses can be 
tested one after the other, without spending more time than 
a few seconds for each. Anyone can obtain the appear- 
ances here noted by an attentive perusal of our description. 
Sometimes a quartz lens is found, in which the axis coincides 
almost perfectly with the axis of the lens, whilst at other 
times it will be found to be cut in such a manner that the 
two axes are almost at right angles to each other. Such a 
lens as this should, of course, be rejected. 

We have already alluded to one property of rock crystal — 
its great hardness ; this gives it an advantage over glass in 
cases where it is likely to be exposed to any rough usage, 
as it is very difficult to scratch. Another noticeable pro- 
perty is its power of conducting heat, being in this respect 
almost as good as a metal. A lens of rock crystal on this 
liccount is very quick in taking the temperature of the air 
in which it is placed, and in that respect possesses an 
advantage over glass. 

Silica may be melted by exposure to a very high tem- 
perature. ]3efore the oxyhydrogen blow-pipe, or in the 
name of a spirit-lamp, fed with oxygen, it fuses to a clear 
bead. In the fused state it may Im drawn out into long 
threads like glass. Fused silica dropped into water solidifies 
to a transparent mass, free from flaws, and remarkably 
hard and tough, so that it sustains the blow of a hammer 
without breaking, showing that it has become hardened, 
just as steel is hardened, by sudden cooling. It is very 
probable that this fused silica could be ap^uied to many 
useful purposes if means were devised to prepare it in larger 
quantities. From its properties when fused before the oxy- 
hydrogen blow-pipe, it is evident that, at a sufficiently high 
temperature, it could be worked like glass, and prepared in 
a variety of useful forms. To the chemist especially vessels 
of silica would be invaluable, as they would stand high 
temperatures as well as porcelain, whilst their power of con- 
ducting heat would doubtless prevent them from cracking 
so readily when exposed to sudden alterations of tempera- 
ture. Another advantage of silica vessels would be that 
water and chemical solutions would have absolutely no action 
upon them, ordinary glass being very readily attacked by 
many chemical solutions. 



The time has arrived when with confidence I may venture 
to give publicity to the results of the experiments referred to 
in my last communication. Selecting for those experiments 
samples of highly albumenized paper, which, under ordi- 
nary treatment, yield a thickly studded crop of mealiness, 
I set to work systematically, determined to trace out the 
cause from whence originates the evil. Examining (with 
the aid of a powerful lens) the surface of a mealy print, pro- 
duced on one of these papers, it at once occurred to me, 
that the irregularly mottled white spots, owed their 
existence to the removal of a portion of the slender film 
composed of reduced silver, which, previous to its exposure 
to the bleaching influence of the toning solution, had 
poured an unbroken coating over the entire surface of the 
paper. The thought suggested by this preliminary exami- 
nation, at once enabled me to fathom the reasons, why 
highly albumenised surfaces, are at all times the most prone 
to the detested evil of meolinefls. At this stage of the 

enquiry I deemed it necessary to ascertain, as nearly as 
possible, the permeating power possessed by silver solutions 
of various degrees of strength, and to accomplish this I com- 
menced with a bath containing 60 grains per ounce, then 
increasing its strength graduallv with the removal of each 
piece of paper, I had, when finished, 6 pieces ready for expo- 
sure, whose surfaces contained silver in varied quantities, 
commencing with 60 grains, its minimum, up to o5 grains, 
its maximum, each having received the same amount of 
floating, VLB. : 5 minutes. 

The paper floated on the 60-grain bath when exposed to 
sunlight, yielded a print intenselv red, the second that had 
been sensitized with a 70-grain solution, gave a tone slightly 
inclined to brown, the depth of this tone continued to increase 
with each remaining print, the shade varying in proportion 
to the strength of sensitizing medium. Cogitating upon the 
results thus produced, I at once arrived at the conclusion, 
that albumen in an undiluted condition, is capable of offering 
some considerable resistance to the efibrts put forth by the 
nitrate of silver to unite itself with the chemically attractive 
chlorine, hence the reason why the first print was composed 
of little besides albuminate of silver, and that increased 
depth of tone was obtained from the graduated increase of 
silver, the additional strength enabling it to permeate the 
minute interstices of the film of albumen, and thus ^ain 
access to a more liberal supply of the chloride salts, and by a 
mixture of the violet hue, produced from the chloride of 
silver, with the red albuminate, the resulting colour assumed 
a purple or reddish brown — a colour, in fact, similar to a mix- 
ture of pigments — the above named tints when the proportion 
of red is me greatest. To convince myself that such was in 
reality the case, I went through the experiments a second 
time, ^ving the first paper half an hour's floating on the 
60-grain bath, and the last, ten minutes exposure to the 
action of an 85-grain solution. When printed, the colour of 
each was as near alike as possible, viz. a reddish brown, but 
considerably deeper than was derived from the former 
trials ; but still the red was in the ascendant, and an 
hour's floating on the strongest solution produced but 
little difference, which fact, to my mind, affords con- 
clusive evidence that the silver penetrates a depth 
infinitesimally small when albumen undiluted is em- 
ployed for coating to the surface of the paper. And here 
I would observe that paper albumenizers make a great mis- 
take in the proportion of the chloride they mix with the 
albumen to be worked in its pure state. But more of this 
hereafter, as we have here to consider the conditions neces- 
sary to preserve the film of reduced silver uninjured during 
the toning operations. To do this, it is evident that gentle 
means must be adopted, or mealiness must assuredly follow ; 
to effect this object I first pass the points carefully, but 
rapidly, through several waters, until all traces of liberated 
free nitrate ceases, they are then removed, a few at a time, 
into a flat porcelain dish, and thoroughly sponged (without 
this operation it is impossible to remove the whole of the 
free salt), after sponging and rinsing in a couple of ad- 
ditional waters, they are finally placed in a tepid bath, 
where they are left to soak half an nour, and then they un- 
dergo the toning operations : having ascertained the nature 
of the surface to be exposed to the toning solution, I, in my 
experiments, deemed it necessary to modify the bleaching 
power of the chlorine. An excess of soda would have accom- 
plished this object, but at the expense of time and «>ld, I 
therefore had recourse to heat to produce a partial decom- 
position (thanks to Mr. Eliot for the idea). To the grain of 
gold I added 1} grain of carbonate of sodji, which I find by 
experience is sufficient to start decomposing action, to this 
I added about half a pint of boiling water, then keeping 
the vessel near the fire for about ten minutes, carefully pre- 
venting the solution from reaching boiling point. This pro- 
eeding, with a continual agitating motion, tends to drive ofif 
the excess of chlorine, and the small portion of soda preventu 
the solution decomposing too far for toning purposes. This 
done the solution was laid aside to cool, 

(To be continued,) 

Januabt 23, 1863.] 




IMAGE, &c. 


Thb constitation of the invisible photographic image has 
been the subject of nnmerons speculations and discussions, 
besides many important studies and researches, among 
which those of M. Testelin are of special interest. 
Without wishing to dispute the profouna deductions of 
those who have devoted their attention to the investigation 
of this phenomenon, it may be permitted to me to offer 
some ideas, which, if not altogether novel, have certainly 
the advantage of solving the question in the simplest 
manner posBible. It is indisputable, that wherever there is 
a modification of the material molecules, there is not only a 
change in the state of electrical equilibrium, but also a 
luminous and calorific modification ; these three effects 
being like three chords of an instrument tuned in unison, 
one cannot be touched without putting the others in vibra- 
tion. Nevertheless, we believe tnat a rational explanation 
of the phenomenon, under consideration, can be given by 
viewing the efficient causes from a more general point of 
view, instead of attributing them to an electrical influence, 
or to a kind of polarization produced by light. 

The question is. What takes place at the moment the 
bromo-iodized collodioned plate is exposed to the action of 
light ? If the exposure be sufficient, the image is visible 
upon the plate in consequence of the decomposition of the 
salts of silver; the luminous vibration causes this decomposi- 
tion, aa beat reduces various salts of silver to the metallic 
state, and, to make use of a rough comparison, as the axe 
splits a log of wood. The luminous agent insinuates itself 
between the atoms of the iodine and tne silver ; but before 
the separation has become sufficient to disconnect them, 
there is a road to travel, a limit to pass, a dilatation to be 
produced, before the final rupture is effected. 

There is also, what in chemistry is called, the ** nascent 
state,*' being the peculiar condition of a body at the moment 
when it comes out of a combination, or forms a new one, a 
state in which it takes its natural course only after the lapse 
of a given time, and in which it subsists under a more dilated 
form. Is not a collodioned plate, recently sensitized in the ni- 
trate of silver bath, more impressionable at this moment than 
later, either when left in the bath or preserved in any other 
way ? This is particularly appreciable in taking instanta- 
neous pictures. We may, without difficulty, admit that the 
action of (light brings the salts of silver to the extremest 
limits of the nascent state, before it effects their visible 
decomposition. If we pour the developing solution upon 
an exposed plate, the development, it seems to us, operates 
under the lollowing conditions: — The developer, whether 
sulphate of iron or pyrogallic acid, decomposes the nitrate 
of silver with which it is mixed, this aecomposition is 
moderated by the presence of a certain quantity of acetic or 
other acid. The decomposition would take place without 
the presence of a latent image. The molecules of nitrate of 
silver, before separating from their combination with oxygen 
and nitric acia, have a certain road to travel, and, conse- 
quently, a movement to perform ; like an edifice about to 
tumble down, carries with it an arch about to give way, so 
does the decomposition of the nitrate cause the iodide to 
resume its natural state, and this last modification cannot 
take place without motion, accelerated locally and through 
a quasi-reciprocal action, by the successive decomposition of 
the nitrate. It is not the molecules of the nitrate already 
separated that we see floating in the developing solution, 
extracted from the nitrate and fixed upon a place, in quantities 
which go to form the image by an attraction more or less great 
in one place than in anotner : but the molecules of silver are 
proportionate to the light, more or less, which has acted upon 
the several portions of the plate. 

(To be continued.) 



It affords me very ^at pleasure, indeed, to bring before 
your notice this evening, a system of photolithography as 
practised by Mr. Giboons, in Glasgow, as far back as 1859, 
and to submit for your inspection some impressions by it, 
being the same which I showed to the old society a year 
ago, and which I am satisfied this meeting will pronounce 
to be genuine photolithographs, having aU the appearance 
of the chalk-drawing mode. They are not shown as being 
perfect specimens, but as very creditable, and to show what 
might be done by its proper cultivation. 

fiut before explaining Mr. Gibbons's mode, if you will 
allow me, I will give you a short history of the inventor and 
of the art of lithography itself, which gives employment to 
thousands, besides ruiking as one of the most useful of the 
fine arts. 

Germany, where type-printing was invented, and which 
has been the means of spreading the light of knowledge all 
over the world, also claims the invention of lithography. 

Aloys Senefelder was born at Prague, in 1771, but soon 
after, he removed with his family to Munich. When he 
grew up he wished to be an actor, like his father, in Munich 
theatre; but his father was so much against it that he 
devoted himself to the study of jurisprudence, occasionally 
gratifying his histrionic appetite by performing in some of 
the smaller theatres, and employing his leisure hours in 
writing light dramas — one of which, he having been in- 
duced to publish it, realized him fifty florins clear 

At this time his father died, leaving a widow and family, 
and, being poor, he was unable to proceed with his aca- 
demical studies. 

The success of his iirst drama inspired him with such 
high hopes that he entered into theatricals, heart and soul, 
both as composer and performer, till, meeting with nothing 
but disappointment and misery for about two years, he gave 
up his profession as an aotor to try his fortune as an 

The next book he wrote turned out a failure, on account 
of the printer not having it ready for Leipsic fair ; but it 
gave him occasion often to be in the pnnter's workshop, 
when an ardent desire possessed him to have a printing- 
press of his own, so that he could not only be author but 
likewise printer and publisher of his own works. He often 
afterwards said that, if his wish had then been gratified, he 
would never have been the inventor of lithography ; but as 
this was not the case, he was obliged to have recourse to 
other projects. Amongst these was a sort of stereotyping — 
then etching with acids on different metals with various 
etching grounds, in which his knowledge of chemistry, 
gained at school, greatly assisted him. After trying a 
variety of etching grounds, viz., melted wax ; turpentine 
and wax; turpentine, wax, and mastic, &c., with all their 
failures and disappointments, the one made with wax, soap, 
lac, and lampblack, which being soluble in water and easy to 
work with, was perfectly successful. 

The repolishing of these metal plates, however, was so 
difficult and tiresome, that he was forced to give them up. 

A slab of German stone, which he used for grinding his 
colours on, suggested the idea that it would not only be 
cheaper but easier to practise upon, a fine surface being 
both easily and quickly obtained, and they were so 
plentiful and cheap that they were commonly used for floors 
and pavements. He coated the surface of the stone with 
sulphuric acid, which formed gypsum, and then engraved 
his work, which he printed (same as with a metal plate) in 
the copperplate-press, but he never could get more than 
fifty impressions off, as the gypsum surface soon gave way, 
whereas, by his matured plftn» and as now used, many 
thousands may be printed on by any careful printer. 

• Bead 1»efore the Glasgow Photographic Association, JanoaxT 7tb, 1868. 



[January 28, 1868. 

It was very fortunate that he found ont the wax, soap, lac, 
and lampblack ground, as it opened up the way to chemical 
lithography. And now comes the interesting part. 

A newly-polished stone was lying in his work-room, clean 
and ready to work upon, when his mother came in, and said 
to him : — " Aloys, please write down a list of the clothes for 
the washerwoman,'* who had then called, and was waiting 
for the " washing." He, having neither paper nor common 
ink at hand, wrote with his chemical inK on the clean 
stone, so that he might copy it at his leisure. Some time 
after this^'ust as he was going to wipe it off, the idea struck 
him — "What would be the enect of the writing, if I was to 
etch down the stone with acid, leaving the writing raised, 
and take impressions therefrom ?" He at once set to work, 
and was fortunate in producing printed work from the stone 
for the first time ; ana thus was the new art invented. He 
now laboured hard to make himself master of this in- 
teresting art ; but being unable to do so from want of 
means, he, for 200 florins, became substitute for a friend, as 
a private in the artillery of the Bavarian army, being con- 
fident that, with such means at his command, and devoting 
his leisure time to develop the art, he could soon be in a 

Sosition to procure his discharge. But, alas I he was 
oomed to disappointment; for he no sooner arrived at 
Ingoldstadt with a party of recruits, than he was discovered 
to DC a Bohemian, and, according to a recent order of the 
Elector of Bavaria, he was not allowed to join the army. 
He left Ingoldstadt bordering on despair, and when he 

Eassed along the great bridge over the Danube he wished he 
ad been drowned, instead of being twice eaved from drown- 
ing when a boy, as misfortune persecuted him in every ttep 
he took. 

He now resolved to serve as a printer ; and he soon after 
produced some good specimens of music by his new art, 
which he showea to a publisher and to the court musician, 
and got an order for twelve songs — 120 copies of each — 
which, being completed to their satisfaction, realised him a 

Srofit of seventy florins, when he thought'himself as rich as 
roesus. A copy of this work having been shown to the 
Elector, he gave 100 florins as a present, to be divided 
between him and his nublisher. 

Being now possessed of means, he began to invent presses, 
one of which was a wooden frame on imich was stretched a 
piece of strong cloth which he put on a table with hinges, 
the stone being fixed on the table, and oharffed with ink 
from a flat board covered with cloth (instead of the roller as 
now used) ; the paper was then put on, covered with a few 
sheets of damped paper, and the frame brought down like a 
tympan, when, after being well rubbed with polished wood 
or glass, the impression was made, and he was perfectly 
delighted at his success. 

Again, however, disappointment attended nearly every- 
thing he did for about two years more, till, fortune being tired 
of annoying him, he, with an improved and most excellent 

§ress, and an order to print a prayer-book, made a brighter 
ay dawn on the art. 

As all was written backwards on the stone, he used to 
sketch it with a dark lead-pencil on paper, and reverse it 
on the stone bv putting it tnrough the press, when he was 
able to proceed to work with ease. Afterwards, instead of 
the dark pencil, he tried his chemical ink, and thus obtained 
a perfectly clear reverse. And now came the idea of using 
transfer paper with his chemical ink. 

In the year 1796, after countless experiments, he was 
rewarded by the final attainment of his object ; and money 
being now at his command, he matured the art, and produced 
work in every variety of style which is known and practised 
even at the present day, except photolithography. 

In the year 1810, honour, money, gold medals, a pension 
from his Government, and an appointment as Inspector of 
Lithography, with a salary of 1500 florins a-year, permitted 
him to pass the remainder of his days in ease and comfort, 
when he not only painted some very creditable pictures, but 

compiled his work on lithography, embodying all he knew 
with formulse invaluable to his successors; 

In issuing this work, he finished his introduction with 
these liberal words : — " God grant that it mav soon spread 
all over the world ; that it may prove useful to mankind, 
and contribute to their improvement: and that it may 
never be abused to any dishonourable or wicked purpose, 
and I shall then never cease to bless the hour in which 
I invented it." 

In reading over the report of the first meeting of this 
session of the London Photographic Society in the Journal 
of the Photographic Society, when Mr. Osborne, from Australia, 
read a most interesting paper on photolithography — and 
which I think is the best mode for line work — it must have 
struck you, as it did myself, the rather unseemly way in 
which Mr. Pouncy pounc-ed on him, demanding an expla- 
nation of his mode of producing gradation of tint on the 
stone, and stating that nobody could do it like himself, which, 
nevertheless, he kept a profound secret. It reminds me of 
the little boy who, thinking himself very precocious, said to 
his father one day — " Papa, I can do what you canna do." 
"Aye," says the father, "and what's that?" "I can rin 
through between your le^s, and you canna rin through 
between mine " — an idle boast, but comical withal. Mr. 
Osborne, in going through the subject, knocked the legs 
from Mr. Pouncy by his " clearing-up " process, and proved 
M. Poitevin to be the real inventor oi photolithography. 

In working on the stone, either with the pen or hair 
pencil, a liquid ink is used, having a fatty substance as the 
principal ingredient ; or if drawing with chalk on a grained 
stone, the chalk has also a fatty ingredient, which has been 
found to be the best medium to resist the wear and tear of 
printing thousands of impressions ; and by transfers, with 
re-transfer ink, you may go on cut inJinUum, The system 
of photolithography, therefore, approaching the nearest to 
this in principle will, I think, be found the simplest and 
best ; and Mr. Gibbons*s plan coming about the nearest to it, 
will be probably the soonest brought to perfection, if dili- 
gently practised, as it should be, when he freely gives it to the 
public at large, knowing that it is only "practice that makes 
perfection," and that it is impossible for him, alone, situated 
as he is, to give it the attention it deserves, and that he 
would only oe keeping back his portion of what is yet 
destined to play an important part in the art-world. 

I will now submit Mr. Giboons's system of photolitho- 
graphing gradation of tints : — 

1. Grain a lithographic stone with fine sand or emery- 
flour, taking care to avoid scratches; wash it well, and 
thoroughly dry it before using. 


SxNsiTiVE Solution. 

Copal varnish ... 1} ounce 

Baw linseed oil } „ 

Bi-chromate of potash 2 J ounces 

Grind these three very finely, and pat into a bottle ; then 


Brunswick black 1 ounce 

Mastic varnish ... ... ... ^ „ 

Turpentine ... ... ... 1 ,, 

Put these three also into the bottle, and mix well together. 

3. Coat the stone carefully with the above solution, by 
pouring a little on the stone, and roll over with a clean 
lithographic roller till it has evenly and thinly spread over 
its whole surface, which dries in a short time. 

4. The glass negative is placed collodion side next the 
stone, and is kept from shifting by being stuck down by 
gummed paper round the edges. Exposure — from one to 
five hours, according to strength of light. 

5. After exposure, remove the negative, and with a tuft 
of fine cotton-wool, soaked in linseed oil, rub eently over 
the stone, when the parts of the picture not acted on by the 
light will gradually come away, leaving the gpraduated tints 
quite firm. The proofs now shown were produced by this 


Januabt 28, 1868.] 






6. The oil is now cleaned off the stone to prepare it for 
etching, which is done as follows : — ^Take a tall jug, nearly 
full 01 clean water, and place it in the hydrometer No. 1, 
when it will float at 0; then add dissolved gmn-arabic, 
mixing it well till it floats at 6 ; then add nitric acid, 
mixing it intimately till it floats at 7, which is the strength 
found oest for etching. 

Anothbb, Makneb. 

After the atone has been prepared as before, after exposure, 
it may be placed in a bath of turpentine or naphtha, keep- 
ing the atone in motion till the picture is developed. 


By which very good pictures have been got. 

Brunswick black 1 ounce 

Copal varnish 1^ 

Elastic „ ••• «.* ••• m 

Turpentine... ... ... ... ^ 

This is very much slower, the bi-chromate of potash being 
a very great accelerator. 

7. With shoemakers' resin— or common pipeclay will do 
— ^make an embankment round the edges of tne stone about 
one inch high (to prevent the solution running over the 
sides while etching) ; pour on the etching solution, and let 
it remain ten to fifteen minutes ; wash off and charge with 
ink in the usual way, when the printing may be proceeded 
vith. Care, howevei*, must be taken that the stone is quite 
cold before doing so. 

Mr. Gibbons has printed as many as between 2000 and 3000 
from the one single positive, which completed a business 
order, and as many more could easily have been done, as 
the condition of the stone was perfectly good. He has 
always been fortunate, having scarcely ever failed while 
working in the country. 

It ii very interesting to examine the vaiious steps by 
which photolithography has attained to its present position, 
which I will just glance at. 

1. M. Ni^poe, long before Talbot or Dagnerre found out 
their processes, discovered the action of light on bitumen, 
and by it etched on ateel plates. Then Nidpc^ de St. Victor used 
bitumen diwolved in essential oil of lavender, also for metal 
plates ; and shortly after Mr. Macpherson, of Rome, adapts 
the same subatMice io the lithographic stone, and takes 
out a patent for photolithogn^hy by the *' bitumen " 

2. In 1838-9, Mr. Mungo Ponton, of Edinburgh, observed 
and pointed out the peculiar action of light on bi-chromate 
of potash, which made it insoluble. 

1853. Afterwards Talbot finds that it is the organic 
matter which is in combination with the bi-chromate of 
potash which becomes insoluble, and invents engravings 
oy that process. Pretsch works on a similar idea, but makes 
a matrix from which he electrotypes his plates. 

1855. Poitevin is the first to use the bi-chromate of potash 
for the lithographic stone. 

1859. Aflser, of Amsterdam, invents the transfer process. 
It may be remarked here that Sutton noticed that printers' 
ink, put on gelatine paper, would come away if soaked in 
water, leaving the paper quite clean. 

Then Colonel Sir Henry James and his assistants improved 
upon Asserts mode, by passing through the press, on a stone 
charged with re-transfer ink, the exposed paper, instead of 
passing the ink roller over the wet paper, after the parts 
unaffected by the light have been washed away. Mr. 
Osborne hit upon a plan almost identical with Colonel 
James a aimnltaneously, being, at the same time, unaware 
of Asser's plan. 

There are othen deserving of great praise — ^Mr. Pouncy 
zmong the rest — ^for their ingenuity ; but the names men- 
tioned stand out in bold relief in connection with the diffe- 
rent modes. 

I may state here that the great retarding influence to 
photoUtnogmphy is the dread of coming into collision with 

" patent " rights ; and I think it is a great pity to see auoh 
a grasping disposition shown by those who patent the various 
modes, especially as they are themselves so mxuk indebted 
to those genuine liberal-minded men, who felt it a pleasuie 
to give to the photographic world any knowledge they them- 
selves possessed. 

I may state that I became an experimenter after seeing 
Macpherson's pictures, which were exhibited in Glasgow at 
the meeting of the British Association, in 1856 ; but being 
afraid of patent rights, I ^ave it up, as the safest way of 
steering clear of those who intimated that proceedings would 
be commenced against anv infringement. 

It is now pretty generally believed that no patent is valid 
in this country. Should such be the case, and the various 
journals would g^ve publicity to the fact, a great start and 
impetus would be given to it ; and by all working diligently 
it would very soon occupy a very important place in the fine 



It may seem strange (to some presumptuous) that anyone 
should wish a body Uke this Society to give an evening's 
consideration to that reminiscence of the nursery, the Galanty 
Show, to that toy ci our boyhood, the Magic Lantern. Many 
scientific phenomena, when first discovert, either from their 
remarkability or beauty, have excited much interest in the 
popular mind, but have only been regarded by it as pleasing 
toys, till in the course of time their practical value has been 
discovered, and they have been ranked thereafter in the list of 
applied sciences. 

Such was the globe of water, magnifying in distorted form 
the fly or flower, tul in the hands of science it sprang into that 
exquisite refinement of optical knowledge, " the Microscope," 
that discoverer of ]}idden worlds and life, and the seat or mrm 
of disease within the inmost wcQls of the human frame. Such 
the Kaleidoscope, the tin case with its bits of coloured gloss, 
regarded long only as a wonder from the fair, till in practical 
hands wo find ourselves indebted to its aid for many of the 
beautiful geometric designs which ornament our walls or 

So, likewise, the Camerarobsoura, the discovery of Baptista 
Porta, of Padua, till the progress of chemiod knowledge 
revealed to us the meant of fixing its fleeting images ; and 
even then its products, together with its adjunct, the stereo- 
scope, were little thought of in their most valuable practical 
bearings. Of late, however, this has rapidly impressed itself 
upon us, though we cannot as yet even see the limits of its 
educational utility. 

In Microscopy, Natural History, Physiological, and Patho- 
logical research, what an invaluable agent does photography 
prove ; for nature here depicts herself with her own pencil, and, 
possibly, ere long from her own palette, and in this resides one 
of its greatest vfdues, for truthfulness is insured, and our studies 
are delineated with a faithful and unbiassed hand ; with what 
minuteness of detail the photographs I shall exhibit will bear 

I trust that I shall be able to prove this evening, to many who 
may not previously have given attention to the subject, that 
the magic lantern is likewise, with attention, destined to be- 
come an instrument of great educational value. We are most 
of us aware that natural history designs have been produced by 
the ordinary magic lantern colourist, and many such subjects, 
even when produced with care, have made us exclaim with 
Polonius that the representations havebeen — " very likea whale." 
Undoubtedly many subjects paintedfor the lantern are really ar- 
tistic productions ; but can the best artist for one^oment pretend 
to cope with Dame Nature in her artistic moods ? Can any 
artist (even if he be a pre-Raphaelitej for one moment hope to 
introduce the amount of detail she, with her undulating brushes 
of light, fixes upon the film, which her assistant the chemist, 
has prepared for her ? For it must be borne in mind, that while 
the artist delights in broad effects, the naturalist regards detail 

* B«ad before the London Photographic Society, Jftnnaxy 6th, 1863. 



[Jahuabt 23, 1863. 

u k (Aw jua non, their uma b«lng different ; and it moil 

elent to every one, that while the paiated Tiem ve have long 
ea Bccoalomed to, meet every requirement, where 
amnwment ii coQcemed. photo^phic trtuiBpiirenciea on alaaa 
will be the greRt meanB by which the magic laQtera wifi be 
rendered BabacrTient to the purposea of instruction. 

Although manj peraana in private have employed pho- 
tograpba for the magio lantern, I believe that to Heaaia. 
Negretti and Zambra the honour is due of having flrat pro- 
duced for peblic sale aubjects of geographical and artistic inli 
apecially prepared for the lantern ; but I am not aware tha 
one beaidea myself hag entered upon thia branch of trade 
apecial educational aims. I have long been impreaaed with the 
conviction that the lecturer on Botany, Zoology, MiCToecop;, Geo- 
logy, Aatronomy, and even on Pathology, wonld welcome aa a 
boon truthful tronacripta of nature that could be packed in a 
small apace, and then ahown on a acale to arrest attention in 
the atudent. Thia idea ia actnatod by no Bhowmau'a feeling ; 
for all petaons who have had any experience in acientiflc 
edocBlJanBl matlera know the value of appealing to the eye. 
Book knowledge, or that experience, gained even from the 
moat graphic deacription, ia of little value to the atudent who 
would become a true natnraliat. He muat aee — if poaaible, 
handle — the objectaof hia stady. The next beat thing to this 
ia to be familiar with the moat accurate delineationa of the 
forma he wiahea to become acquainted with; and here photo- 
graphy offer* her aid, and the magic lantern popnlariaea her 

But the naturalist is not the only favonred teacher ; the 
art-profesaoT may likewise avail himself of theaa aida to 
education, and so ma^f the teacher of litaratate. In high- 
prssanre steam days, like the present, the student baa enough 
to do to make himaelf fiimiliar with all that he ia expected 
to be acquainted with ; and if he really maeta all the require- 
ments of the Board of Education examiners, he oueht to rank 
OS the eighth wonder of the world. But, by the aid of Photo- 
eraphy and the magic lantern (would that same more scientific, 
if not so familiar, a name for our instrument were recognised), 
teachers could kill (wo birde with one atone ; for, while they 
were famiiiariaing their pupils with the peculiarities of style of 
eminent artiats, they might aimultaneoualy convey to them the 
leading features in the works of celebrated antbora such artists 
bad illustrated. Thus I shall preaently show on the at 
how Kaulboch's wonderliil style and Goethe's bitter satire may 
be illustrated by the photographic illuatrationa to "iteyuard 
the Fox." Again, how Hogarth and morality may be com- 
bined, in the counterparta of the celebrated engravings of the 
"Good and Idle Apprentices;" and how the great stories of 
the Bible may be illustrated simultaneoualy with diaaertationa 
on the bold and vigorous designs of 'Schnorr. I will also show 
how the iingtng-master may avail himself onr method, so as 
to place the words and masic of a hymn, or other apprupriate 
song, before a choir, when such subjects as Schnorr's Bible 
pictures are being exhibited in the dark. 

And now to Ihe means by which we accomplish onr poTpoae. 
In |the first place, Ihe negatives may be those of the uaual 
character ; but, if taken expressly for the laotem, it should he 
borne in mind that the pictures should be included within 
circlea. Whenever it is poaaible the negatives should be taken 
from nature, animate or inanimate ; but there are many coaea 
whero this is impossible, and when a diagramatic treatment 
oftbe subject is desirable. Thia specially liolds good with many 
oceanic forma of life; for, when out of a sufficient bulk of 
their native element, they callapae, and look anything hut 
" from the life." 

Again, fromihe rarity of the subject desired, it maybe neces- 
aaiy to resort to engravings ; but no expense should be apared to 
procure them from the works of the best authorities, and in 
such a style of execution as is to be found in tbe works of Ray 
and Palnontograpbical Societies. If artistic, the negatives 
should always be taken from the originals, so that the cha- 
racteristic tonch of the artiat may be ensured. Where nega- 
tives of microscopic objects have to be aecured. we must adopt 
one of aeveral arrangementa that are founded on a common 

Negatives of microscopic objects may be produced by the 
method originally propped by the late Mr. Joseph Delves, 
which simply consists of placing an ordinary microscope (from 
which the eye-piece has been removed) in connection with a 
solid or bellowa-bodied camera, having a focussing range of 
fitaa two to towc f««t, or a loltti micnKope ammgemeat, 

fitted to the window of a darkened room, the room itself 
being used as a camera, as preferred by Mr. Wenham, or 
my own arrangement, which conduces to compactness of 
parts, and the optical portions being always in adjuatment 
when required for uae ; or the arrangement of Dr. Maddox, 
who replacea the reflecting mirror with an Abroham's achro- 
matised rectangular prism, and employs a Coddington lens 
for the condenser; or the arrangement of tbe Rev. W. T. 
Kingaley, who employs a very complex system of condensers, 
an achromatic eye-piece of peculiar form, the oxyhydrogen 
light, and determinus the poaition of the chemical focoa by 
means of a fiuoreecent screen. If low powers are to be em- 
ployed, a microscopic plane mirror collecta the light, and re 
fleets it through the object-glass on to the sensitized collodioa 
film, ai shown in Hg. 1. if however, the higher powen are to 

be nsed, it ia sometimea preferable to collect the son's raya by 
a long plane mirror, mounted with a rackwork rotating sup- 
port, and adjusting screws, so that it can be mode to follow 
the sun'a course, and the light ao collected is condensed on U> 
the object either aa parallel or convergent rays ; in the latter 
inatance by means of achromatic lenses having the aame 
angular aperture aa the microacopio object-glasa in use, »a in 
fig. 2. Aa, however, all micrascopic object-^aase* ore " over 


corrected." it is necessary to adopt some method for bringing 
the chemical image intofocua on the him, alter the viatial focua 
has been determined on the greyed gloss screen, and (hia ia 
eOected by aid of a micrometer head working on a screw 
attached to the stage (the parla being "kept up to their work" 
by means of a strung spring), the difference between the 
chemical and visual loci being determined experimentally for 
each object-glass for a given distance between the object and 
film : or, if great precision is desirable, special correction must 
be made for every objuct, for Ur. Maddox has found that llie 
medium in which the object is mounted, its thickness, and the 
thickness of the cover, all have to be allowed for in securing 
perfection in the negative. 

While, however, a considerable difference exists between the 
poaition of the chemical and visual foci in object glaaaoa of low 
power, with the higher powers the difference is practically nil. 

The groat art in producing negatives of microscopic objects 
in the utmost perfection depends upon skill in tbe manipula- 
tion of the illuminating appliances, and I do net think any- 

which (though, unfortunately, a faded one), is on the table. 
Negatives of microacopic objects may he produced by artificial 
-ourcea of light, as tbe electric, oxy-hydrogen, campbine, 
lapthalised gas, or photogenic pyrotechnic mixtures, aa recom- 
mended by Wenham, and employed on a large scale by Uoule. 
[Tobt eonlmutd.) 

Jaota&t 28, 1868.] 






Ijff 1852 Mr. fox Talbot patented the use of bichromate of potash and 
gelatiBe in connection with a process of photo-engraying. In 1866 M. Poitevin 
deposited, at the office of the Prefect of the Seine, a description of a process 
in which bichromate of potash and gelatine were combined with colouring 
loatter for the production of photographic impressions. Knee then a Tariety 
of processes, all of which haye been modifications of the same idea, have been 
proposed and tried with greater or less success, and by means of some of 
whidk Toy beantifhl results haye been obtained. 

It is needless to refer at length to the yarious other methods that haye 
been proposed of producing permanent photographic impressions. The salts 
of iron, the salts of uranium, and other materials naye been tried, but without 
that amount of success which would lead to their popular adoption. At the 
present time the salts of silyer form the basis of all photographic processes 
eommonlj aymilable ; but the results obtained by some of the yarious carbon 
processes are such as to Justify a hope that they may ore long take an estab- 
lished podtion in the production of photographic prints, and thus obtain a 
d^ree <rf permanency equal to that secured by any other method of pictorial 

PhiOt^'awravino and PkotolUhoffraphy.—Amongit the most important 
methods eS multiplying photographic impressions, are those in which an 
etched <»> engrayed plate, or an impression upon the lithographic stone, 
areprinted at the ordinary copperplate, typographic^ or lithograpnic press. 

The importance of these methods, as a question of economy, cannot be 
OTcr-esttmated ; already a high degree of excellence Ui obtained, and there 
is erery reason to hope for ftirther improyements. In October, 1862, Hr. 
fox Talbot patented a process for engraying photographic impressions on 
iteel plates. This process Is similar in principle to many which haye followed. 
It consists in coating the steel plate with a preparation of bichromate of 
polssh and gelatine ; the action of light upon this compound is to render it 
insolnble. A transparent positiye picture being placed upon such a surface, 
the image Is piodnced in insolnble gelatine, whilst the protected parts, con- 
sisting of the shadows, continue soluble in water ; the plate after exposure, 
being washed* the soluble parts are remoyed, the insoluble remaining. The 
plate is then submitted to the action of an etching fluid, consisting of a solu- 
tion of bichloride of platinum, which fills in the shadows, leaying the lights 
ontoochedL Mr. Talbot has, since his first publication, made many improye- 
ments in the process, the chief of which is a method of obtaining half tones 
by cwnmunicating to the plate a grain or aquatint ground, which is effected 
by dusting the plates with a coating of powdered resin preyious to etching, 
and which is now done by perchloride of m>n. 

It will be seen that the principle upon which this process Is based is capa- 
ble of extenslye application and modification : by a slight yariation of the 
esrlier details it is nossible to obtain, not an engrayed plate, but a mould or 
saatrix, trom whi<m an image in relief can be produced capable of being 
printed at the ordinary typtograjphic press. Considerable progress has been 
made both in this direction, and in photographic intaglio engxaying, by Mr. 
Paul Presteh, who, by the Judicious combination of photo-engraying and the 
electrotype, has produced some results which are fhill of promise. 

Other methods of engraying haye been also suggested, one of which is 
based upon the principle by which the first permanent photographic im- 
wessions were eyer obtained! The action of light renders insoluble certain 
ntmnens. A plate of copper or steel, coated with such a substance, and 
exposed to light under a photographic image, is capable, after the parts not 
acted on haye been dlssolyed away, of being etched by any corrosiye fluid in 
the oaoal way. Other processes haye been tried, but none haye been 
hitherto brought to a higher state of perfection than that the principle of 
which has been described, and which, in the skilful and perseyering hands 
of Mr. Paul Pretsch, affords considerable promise that it may ere long be 
snecessftdly nsed for book illustrations and similar purposes, with yery slight 
sld from the engrayer. The lesults are already yery good, and in the repro- 
dnction of lines and points in any subject where the effect is not obtained by 
gradation of tints, the untouched image leayes yery little to desire. 

Vot less impcntant, and perhaps still more adyanced to perfection, are the 
processes of photolithography,! and photosincography. The principle upon 
which the uoceases is based is anuogons to that Just referred to, but is 
entirely different in detail, and is so full of interest that a brief sketch of the 
opentums is desirable. 

* Continoed firom p. 3i. 

t The following may be considered as a classification of photolithographic 
pocesses: — 
On stone direct, using asphaltnm as the sensitive snrlkce on the stone— 
2. MM. Lemercier, Lerebours, Barreswill, and Dayanne, Paris ... 1868 
9L Mr. Macpherson, Rome ... ... •.. ••• ••• ... ... 1866 

T. Printing Office, Tienna 1869 

JH« XwC||§aC| M^mTlS •#• ■•• ••« ••■ ••• ••• •»• ••• *^ 

On stone direct, using gelatinous substances with bichromate of potash 

w the stone — 
4. M. Poiteyin, Paris ... •.. ••• ••• •.. ••• ••• 1866 

6l Mr. Cutting, Boston, U. S 1868 

On Photographic "transfer naper," using gelatineous substances and gum 

with biciiromate of potash on the paper->- 

8. M Asaer, Amsterdam, gum ana blotting-paper 1869 

9. Mr. Osborne, Melbourne, who used gelatine and albumen ... 1869 

10. Col. Sir Henry James, Southampton (Ordnance Suryey) 1860 

Other proeesscs — 

1. U. jobard, on stone and zinc direct, with the help of iodine, 

J^ngMmClM ••■ ••• ••• ••« ••• ••a ••• ■»» ••« •■"• 

11. Mr. Austen A. Turner, Boston 1860 

6. MM Rousseau and Masson, France, on stone direct with geUi- 

tine and bichromate of ammonia, Ac. 1866 

Br. H. Halleur, Bochum, on stone direct ; two processes, one with 
oxalate of iron, the other with asphaltom 1864 

In photosincography, GoL Sir Henir James proceeds thus :>-A sheet of 
engrayer's tracing paper is washed with a solution of bichromate of potash 
and gum, and exposed under a negatiye collodion to light ; it is then passed 
through the press on a sine plate charged with lithographic ink, the paper 
being perfectly and eyenly coyered. It is then turned oyer on a plate of 
glass, the back moistened with gum and water, which, passing through the 
paper, dissolyes the gum and soluble portion of bichromate of potash to 
which the ink adheres, whilst the insoluble portion on which the Unes and 
letters are is unaffected. The hold of the ink to the blank part of the draw- 
ing h&ying thus been destroyed, the paper is again passed tnrough the press 
on a nlate of zinc charged with ink. The second coat of ink brings away 
with it all that was on the blank parts, at the same time leaving a second 
charge of ink on the lines or letters. Some skill is requisite in all these 
operations. The transfer to sine is made by the anastatic process, and so per- 
fectly are the letters and lines charged with ink, that even four plates can 
sometimes be produced from one and the same photograph. 

Mr. Osborne's plan is this : — A sheet of paper is prepared with albumen 
and passed through the press upon a polished plate of metal, then coated 
with a solution of bichromate of potash and gelatine, and again passed through 
the press. It is now exposed to the light, covered with the negative it is 
desired to copy ; the paper is then* passed through the press, face down- 
wards, upon an inked lithographic stone, which gives the whole paper an 
even coat of ink, and the back of the paper Is then placed upon boiling 
water, which coagulates the albumen ; a subsequent short soaking swells the 
unaltered gelatine, and with it raises the corresponding ink ftrom the surface, 
which a slight friction with a sponge removes. When the lines appear well 
defined, boiling water removes the last traces of the gelatine, and the print 
is dried. A lithographic drawing in greasy ink remains, which is transferred 
to the stone in the ordinary passage under the press. For the invention of 
this process, which Mr. Osborne has patented in Australia, the Government 
of the colony of Tictoria awarded him £1,000. 

Another process of photolithography now in use in the Imperial Printing 
Office, at Tienna, and used with much success, consists in taking a properly 
prepared collodion negative coated with gutta-percha, and removed nom the 
glass in the way which was patented by Mr. Archer, in August, 1866. fHie 

Silished surface of the stone is coated with one part of powdered asphaltnm 
ssolved in thirty parts of chloroform ; when dry, the negative is placed 
upon it and exjMsed ^for thr<>e hours in the sun, taking especial care that 
close contact is preserved ; the negative is removed, and oil of turpentine, 
and, at the same time, water are quickly poured upon the stone ; wnen dry 
it is ready to be handed to the lithographic printer, who first gums it in and 
then applies ink by the roller as if he intended to take impressions. When 
the stone is perfectly inked it is to be slightly etched, and again gummed, 
which completes the operation. 

A variety of other modes have been proposed and practised with various 
degrees of success ; but the most satisfactory processes are those described : 
although the production of half-tones yet remains to be accomplished, so far as 
the reproduction of lines is concerned, little now remains to be obtained. 
The saving effected to the country in Ordnance maps alone amounts to many 
thousands per annum. As another illustration of the economic value of pho- 
tolithography, it may be mentioned that one of the Australian maps repro- 
duced by Mr. Osborne, which formerly sold at two guineas a copy, nas been 
reduced in price to three shillings. As a means of indisputM>ly accurate 
reproduction of any document, eiUier the same size, or on reduced or enlai^ed 
scale, it is impossible to overstate the value of the processes ; for the copy- 
ing of scarce and valuable literary works it is of the utmost importance : it 
has already been applied successfully to several such purposes. 


Leaving the methods of printing, or multiplying photographic impr^sions, 
and briefiy recording the production of negatives, it is important to glance at 
what are termed the dry processes. 

The wet collodion process having already superseded to a large extent all 
other methods, it soon began to be apparent that the necessitf of taking into 
the field a dark tent, or portable laboratory, involved an amount of labour 
incompatible with the convenience of the amateur photographer. Attention 
was turned to the possibility of preparing the plate at home, and presenring 
the sensitiveness ror use abroad. 

The use of the dry albumen of Niepce de St. Ylctor did not become popular 
for a variety of reasons. 

On the first introduction of collodion, in 1861, Mr. Archer, Dr. Diamond, 
and others had used the collodion plate, simply washed and dried, with some 
degree of advantage, but they were not enabled to secure satisfhctory results. 
Messrs. Spiller and Crookes, in 1864, suggested the application, to the sen- 
sitive surface, of a solution of the nitrates of zinc, magnesia, 4c., by which 
means it could be preserved for some time without ipjury, and kept ready for 

The idea of using a neutral hygroscopic preparation fw preserving intact 
the sensitive condiUon of the film, being once suggested, various other plans 
followed, and the use of glycerine, oxymel, and syrups of various kinds was 
proposed, each process, moro or less satisCsctory in the hands of those who 
advocated them. Mr. Shadbolt and Mr. Maxwell Lyte, previous to Messrs. 
Spiller and Crookes's experiments, had used honey with much satisfaction in 
the results. These methods, as preservative processes, were attended by 
several inconveniences arising fVom the moisture of the preserved surface. 

The process by which some of the best results have been produced, and 
which has grown, rather than declined, in popularity as time has advanced, 
is that known as the coUodio-albumen process of Dr. Taupenot, which was 
published as early as September, 1866. This is an absolutely dry, and not 
merely a preservative process ; it consists in applying to the excited and 
washal collodion film a coating of iodized albumen : this is then submitted 
to the action of a bath of aceto-nitrate of silver, washed, and dried. The plate 
is now ready for use ; its chief drawback has arisen from its want of sensi- 
tiveness. Yarious modifications of recent date have, to some extent, removed 
this drawback : the process is practised with great success by some of the 
ablest devotees of the art. 

The use of gelatine, metagelatine, malt, gum, and of a variety of other 
materials have also been proposed, and many of these substances, as coatings 
to the sensitive collodion film, aro used by their promoters with success. 

In 1868, Mr. Fothergill published, in the Times, a jprocess based upon that 
of Taupenot, by which, not only were the manipulations much simplified, 
but additional sensitiveness was obtained. It consisted in applying to the 
excited and washed collodion film a coating of dilute albumen, wnich, having 
been allowed to remain a short time and penneate the pores of the collodion. 



[January 23, 186S. 

WBB wuhfld off, and the plate dried and kept ready for use. This process con- 
tinues to be successfully practised hj many photographers, especially for 
snuill plates. 

Without reCerriog to the many modifications from time to time proposed, 
the next imnortant is the tannin process, discovered by Major Russell, which 
promises to be one of the most useful, simple, and popular methods of using 
dry collodion. It consists in the application of a solution of tannic acid to 
the sensitive film of collodion, which has been well washed, to remove any 
firee nitrate of silver. The plate, when dried, is ready for use, and may be 
kept a very considerable time without deterioration. The simplicity of the 
operations, and the beauty of the results, are high recommendations to the 
adoption of this process. Some modifications have also been proposed with 
a view of increasing the sensitiveness of these plates, and from which, pro- 
bably, more rapid results will be obtained. Dry collodion has, also, again been 
lately used with considerable success, simply by the addition of various 
resinous substances to the collodion employed. 

The great desideratum, which, in dry. processes, yet remains to be satisfoc- 
torily supplied, is an amount of sensitiveness equal to that of wet collodion. 
The use or hot derelopment has been found an important auxiliary in this 
respect, which, with some other methods recently proposed, are now on their 
trial, and give great hope of success ; but, with the exception of certain plates 
prepared by Dr. Hill Morris by a secret process, the results of COrj collodion 
oontinne inferior in sensitiveneis to those of recent collodion. 

(3b be continued.) 

[riox ouB BPMUL aoKusponnT.] 

Paris, 2l8t January, 1863. 
M. Omxioahok oonfirma M. TAbbe Laborde's recommenda- 
tion, on the score of economy and better z«sults, of the in- 
troduction of a certain quantity of alcohol into the silver 
baths for paper positives. He employs the following 
eolation : — 

Alcohol ... 33 parts 

Nitrate of silver 8 to 10 „ 

The result, he states, has greatly exceeded his expectations, 
as well as that of certain friends who have made uie experi- 
ment. The paper is allowed to remain two or three minutes 
on the bath ; it dries very quickly, prints more rapidly, the 
tones are infinitely superior, and are obtained with great 

A series of clear fine days has caused our photographers 
to raise up from their winter apathy, and put their houses 
in order Tor the coming spring campaign. Public taste 
seeins pretty equally divided between the miniature carte de 
visiU portrait and the life size ; photographers, however, do 
not appear at all ambitious to cultivate the latter phase of 
portraiture, so many difficulties attend its successful and 
profitable practice ; and, as before, doubtless the carte will be 
the principal branch of the art carried on during the 
coming season. 

There is not much left to say upon the miniature photo- 
graphic portrait. With respect, however, to the life size, it 
may be remarked that herein lies a fine field for the artist's 
■kill and taste, and, it may be added, profit also. A success- 
ful life-size photograph, enlarged from an instantaneous 
microscopic negative, possesses qualities which cannot fail 
to command the attention both of artists and the public. 
Those who are very exacting in demanding that a photo- 
graphic portrait be truly correct as a likeness, insist that 
only instantaneous pictures can possibly fulfil that condi- 
tion. The life-size portrait, when produced upon chloride 
of silver paper, owing to the length of the operation, requires 
the aid of aheliostat — ^a piece of apparatus necessarily costly, 
from its clock-work movement. Paper prepared with iodide 
of silver enables the operator to dispense with the heliostat ; 
but perhaps the best medium of all for taking life-size por- 
traits on, will be found in collodion on paper. The pictures 
are remarkably delicate in detail, of very fine tones, and 
unquestionably durable. A portrait life size may be ob- 
tained, even in dull weather, in five minutes, and with the 
simplest apparatus. 

* Bee letter on p. 30 on tUa snlijeet. 

nitrate of silver solution, or by reversine this order of pre- 
paration. This method may be modified by moistening the 
paper with a liquid holding iodide of silver in solution. 
We know of two solutions of this kind which, probably, 
might be advantageously employed on account of their 
sensitiveness. Both iodide of potassium and cyanide of 

Eotassium freely dissolve iodide of silver, forming a oolour- 
)ss liquid insensible to light, both of which, upon contact 
with nitrate of silver in excess, precipitate the iodide of 
silver dissolved, forming in the first instance a new portion 
of iodide of silver corresponding to the iodide of potassium 
in excess, and in the second instance cyanide of silver corres- 
ponding to the cyanide of potassium in excess. In these re- 
actions the iodide of silver is precipitated under peculiar 
conditions, from whence i-esults a much greater sensi- 

Photographers have a great prejudice against the access 
of iodide and cyanide of potassium during their operations ; 
this prejudice is justified oy the property these salts possess 
of paralysing the action of light wherever they exist in 
exoess ; but inien the salt of silver predominates, all the con- 
ditions are changed, and there results only a formation of 
nitrate of potassa. 

We do not know much about the sensitiveness of cyanide 
of silver to the action of light, and still less about that of 
the cyanide associated with iodide of silver in the nasoent 
state. If the <paper prepared according to the last process 
^hows a great sensitiveness, we can perhaps apply this process 
to collodion, by adding to the iodide a minute quantity of 
cyanide of potassium, which, when pure, dissolves very 

In employing cyanide of potassium with paper or collo- 
dion, we may perhaps be obliged to fix with cyanide of 
potassium, if hyposulphite of soda be insufficient. This 
would be inconvenient and objectionable, because the cyanide 
rapidly dissolves the more delicate portions of the negatives; 
but if its sensitiveness be proved, it will be easy to find a 
less objectionable fixing agent. 

We can also prepare sensitive papers, for enlarged por- 
traits, by floating them on a nitrate of silver solution to which 
a small portion of gelatine has been added, thereby increas- 
ing the effect of the sizing. 

To develop the picture, we must employ, instead of the 
acid sulphate of iron (which yields only grey tones of 
metallic silver), gallic or pyrogallic acid, with a small propor- 
tion of tannin, to fix the gelatine. We shall in this obtain 
very fine tones ; and this silver bath, applied to a paper im- 
bued with an extremely dilute solution of iodide of silver 
dissolved in iodide of potassium, will certainly combine all 
the conditions of a great sensitiveness, especially when in 
the moist state ; leaving it, however, to dry partly, before 
developing, to prevent the gelatine from detaching itself, 
which it does, notwithstanding the tendency of the tannin 
and the reducing acids to fix tne product. 

From the infinitely small quantity of iodide of silver thus 
employed, these proofs might almost be fixed by simply 
washing them in water. They never fade, and if their hue 
be too red, they may be toned in the usual way by chloride 

The great perfection of the mechanical and chemical ele- 
ments of photography to which we have attained, and 
which every one desirous of practising the art can so readily 
acquire, leads to the conviction that the differences we now 
observe in the portraits taken by various operators are due to 
the good or ill lighting of the operating-room. The pre- 
yailinff error I observe to be too much light, by which a flat, 
insipid picture results. In the supposed necessity for 
having an entire glass house to operate in, there is involved a 
great difficulty, and constant annoyance, in seeking to regu- 
late the liffht, or get rid of the excess. There is plenty of 
room for the exercise of a little common sense in this direc- 
tion, which would also lead to a great saving of expense in 
fitting up the studio. 

Jahuart 23, 1863.] 




Mt DBAS Simpson, — Your oorreBpondent, Mr. Angelo 
Bianchi, writes as if it were a yery easy matter to prepare 
mj patent albumenized paper with the rubber solution, and 
he idhides vaguely to several persons who have employed 
this process. 

To me it has had many difficulties, and the novelty of my 
patent consists in the mode of overcoming these practical 
iiifficnlties, in great measure. All these novelties will be 
fully explained in my complete specification, if I complete 
my patent in the spring. In that case, your readers will 
know how I manage to succeed. But if all these things 
have been published before, and are generally known, there 
will be no necessity for me to tell people anything about 
them, and they can prepare their paper by M. Graum4's, or 
anybody else^s published formula, if they please, while I 
use my own process. If I am badgered aoout this patent, 
that IS exactly what I shall do. My secret has not yet 
leaked out, and if I have to deal with many such gentlemen 
as Sig^or Bianchi it never will. 

I send you a sheet of my rubber paper in which the albu- 
men has entirely sunk in instead of lying upon the surface. 
You see there are many queer things which do not exactly 
lie upon the surface. Permit me to take this opportunity 
of publicly thanking you for the very kind manner in 
Trhich you have reviewed my new work on the Collodion 
Process. I only wish it deserved half the good things you 
have said of it. — ^Youre faithfully, Thos. Sutton. 

jS2. Brdade, Jersey^ January Zrd, 1863. 

[We have pleasure in inserting Mr. Sutton's letter, and 
take occasion to add one or two remarks on the subject. 
Whilst we shall have mnch pleasure in ventilating the 
subject fully, we would suggest that, until the complete 
specification of any patent is published, any question either 
as to its validity or efficiency is premature. And f^ain, it 
should be borne in mind that the protection of any inven- 
tion or discovery by patent is by no means necessarily a 
d>.*privation to the public, but often the contrary. If, for 
instance, a patented article be manufactured well and 
cheaply, the public are gainers by having the matter kept 
in good hands, instead of being at the mercy of many of 
those who, having no reputation in connection with the 
invention to lose, manufacture it with a view to profit 
rather than efficiency. Taking a patent is a more lioeral 
course than maintaining a secret. The piece of paper 
enclosed forcibly illustrates the fact, that preparing paper 
with india-rubber and albumen is by no means all plain 
galling. As we had before conjectured, Mr. Sutton intends 
permitting amatenrs to use his patented process for their 
o^m prints with impnnity. It is simply the commercial 
use he reserves to himself. ~ En.] 


Sir, — ^The letter of your Paris correspondent in a recent 
number of the News, page 8, reminds me of a circumstance 
which happened to mysdff on one of the very fine afternoons 
we enjoyed last Autumn. I was exposing a trial plate 
(Fotheigill), the subject rather a difficult one to bring out, 
being the front of my house — ^white, with a middling sized 
yew tree before it, two broad carriage drives coming to a 
point at the yew-tree, and a foreground of grass with dwarf 
Du^es of laurustinus box and yew scattered over it — ^in 
raising the slide I incautiously allowed the back to be lifted 
about an inch, thus admitting a momentary flash of light 
to the interior of the camera, and by reflection thence, to the 
to the sensitive tablet; however, I went on, exposed the 
plate in the regular way, and took it back to the yellow 
room, where I developea a positive by transmitted light The 
collodion was not very suitable for the Fotherfirilf process, 
and the picture not a very good one, the sky being much 
marbled, out every spray of tne dark evergreens is well made 
out, wad so is the while house in the back-ground* 

J!I,With the exception of the flash of light into the back of 
the camera, the manipulations and chemicals were the same 
as I generally make use of for negatiw, and ihey have no 
novelty to photographers. I may mention, however, that 
the bath was slightly acid with acetic acid, and the developer 
was pyro and citric with a little nitrate of silver. 

About six years back, when using the waxed papar process, 
I met with a somewhat analogous circumstance. A negative 
I was developing began to come out so foggy and bad that 
I took it from the bath and threw it into the open air. It 
caught my eye by accident two or three minutes afterwards, 
when, to my great surprise, it was developing into a positive 
80 beautiful in half-tone, and other artistic qualities, that I 
have never seen anything in photography to equal it. I 
tried anxiously to fix it, but all the beauty disappeared in 
the hypo as rapidly as it had been devel(^^ Very truly 
yours. — Rho Dblta. 

January, 6^, 1863. 

Instantaneous Dry Plates. 

Sib, — From the facts that are recorded from week to week in 
your Journal, it would seem that the problem ofproducing instan- 
taneous dry plates will ere long be solved. I wish to suggest 
a probable method by which those plates may be produced, 
and some of your numerous readers may perhaps test its value 
before I shall be able to do so myself. 

Mr. Keene and Mr. Frew have just published their |dans of 
making tannin and honey, and tannin and gum plates still 
more sensitive, by leaving free nitrate in the film; theoretically, 
Mr. Frew's method seems the best, being less Ukely to produce 
unequal sensitiveness. Mr. Sutton's gum process is even more 
rapid than the above. Major Russell and others have also 
found the use of ammonia in the developer to lessen the 
required exposure. 

I would therefore suggest that the plate be coated with 
Sutton's collodion, and excited in a bath containing no more 
acid than absolutely necessary, and thoroughly washed. Next, 
that it be coated with gum preservative newly made, to which 
i drachm of a 80-grain solution of nitrate of silver and } grain 
of citric acid has been added. Ammonia development at a 
moderately warm temperature would complete the process, 
which, from the facts I have cited above, should give rapid 
results. — ^Yours truly, W. H. Hasbibon. 

Hiveit, December 80M, 1862. 

New Mode of Pibaot. 

Sib, — ^A species of piracy has lately made its appearance, 
which, if unchecked, is calculated to e&ct considerable injury 
to the numerous class of persons who gain their bread by tho 
honest exercise of their professional abilities. I allude to 
parties extensively advertising for prints of cartes de visits, 
and other portraits, with a view to furnish the owners with 
a great number of copies at a reduced price. It is true that, 
with individuals who can appreciate and value a flrst-rate pro- 
duction, such a scheme will find but little favour ; as a copy, 
however well it may be executed, can never be made to com- 
pare, satiofactorily, with a proof from the original negative. 
But the mischief arises from the fact that, to a great naany 
persons requiring photographs, excellence of execution is of 
only seconoary importance compared with the temptation of 
getting a great number for a little money. 

I herewith send a vignetted " carte," which was furnished 
to a customer two or three months ago, for 8s. 6d. ; future 
prints would have been Is. each, or 128. the dozen. I do not 
think this charge excessive for a good picture; and most 
persons, after taking a similar negative, would have reasonably 
expected to furnish lOs. or 15s. worth of prints from it. My 
customer, however, sent the print to a pirating establishment, 
got it copied, and received fifty proou fsuch as they are), 
post free, for half a crown I the name ^ the copyist being 
substituted for my own on each of them. 

Now, sir, I have no desire to comment on the moral atti- 
tude assumed by the respective parties to this transaction. 
To me it seems a simple act of robbery on the one hand, and of 
very great meanness on the other. But this is only my own 



[Janttart 23, 1863. 

private opinion ; and, as I fear I may be a considerable snfferer 
toy snch practices, I am anzionB, if possible, to hit upon an 
efficient remedy. * 

The new Copyright Act enacts that any person executing 
a photograph, by oraer of another person, shall not be entitled 
to copyright therein, except an agreement in writing, expressly 
reserving such copyright, oe signed by the parties at the time 
the work is executed. I, therefore, propose having a book, 
with a general form of agreement, written on the first page, 
followed by the signatures of parties for whom negatives are 
taken — non-compliance being the subject of an extra charge. 
I should thus be furnished with the legal means of punishing 
parties who infringe my copyright. I should be glad to know 
if you think this plan efficient and possible? I am pleased to 
find that unscrupulous copyists receive no mercy at your hands ; 
and if you think the insertion of this note of sufficient interest 
to photographers at lar^, and likely to assist in exposing such 
practices, I nave no objection to your publishing it. — I am, sir, 
your obedient servant. Fair Play. 

Poole, January Vlth, 1868. 

[We apprehend that if sitters wiU consent to such an arrange- 
ment, and the pictures be registered, the plan will protect por- 
traitists. The agreement should be so worded as to protect the 
public as well as the photographer, and secure sitters against 
the publication (without permission) of their portraits. — £d.] 

%• Wanted, for full prices, or in exchange, the following 

numbers of the Photogeaphio News:— 6, 9, 41, 49, 76, 80, 

81, 91, 101, 104, 127, 197, 198. 200, 202, 208, 218, 214, 215, 

Not los.— With a good leu, and jadiciouB manlpolation, it would be possible 
to get a group of fifteen figures suifioientlj sharp in a small negative to 
produce a good enlarged picture. 2. The precise details of composition 

Srinting vary in different nands. Each figure or group of two or tliree 
goresls taken on a separate negatiye, the general design and relation of 
each part to the whole having been determined beforehand. Sach nega- 
tive in succession is then printed on a sheet of sensitive paper sufficiently 
large for the whole picture, the whole of which is carefully covered from 
the Ught except the figure to be printed in, which in its turn is covered 
until all are finished. The mode of masking or covering up may be varied 
according to the ingenuity of each manipulator; the subject is too lengthv 
for detail in this column. Much depends on circumstances as to which 
plan would be best for a large group, a small negative of the whole en- 
lu-ged, or a composition picture. The first would be probably the least 
trouble, the latter, in good hands, would probably give the best oicture. 

0. Upton. — Mr. Sutton's recent work is a very good one. The other works 
you name, especially the new edition of Bland's " Practical Photognphy," 
are very good. 

F. L.— The advantage of a portrait lens over a view lens, as regards rapidity, 
arises firom the fact that they may be used with a much luger aperture 
than the latter. 

Mb. Q. S. Pimnr offers a suggestion relating to alleged spirit-photography. 
He says : — " My request is that our cousins who operate on this particular 
class of subjects would send us for inspection a binocular picture of a 
material and spiritual pair. If o polite spirit, so condescending as to sub- 
mit to the scrutiny of one lens, would, I am sure, offer any objection to a 
sitting before a pair of lenses, provided no greater tax were made upon its 
time ; and it would afford us valuable Information as to its whereabouts, if 
not of its nature." Regarding Spenser's magnetic filters we cannot, un- 
fortunately, give you information, as the subject has not come under our 

Tbos. CoLLixs.^We have more than once in different places called atten- 
tion to the fact to which vou refer, which is one well recognised by expe- 
rienced portraitists both in photography and painting. In our own obser- 
vation the nose slightly inclines in the majority of cases, to the right side. 
Thank you for the paragraph, which may be useful to many. We will 
make use of it. Thank you also for the suggestion regarding the Tbab 
Book. It is one we have more than once thought of ; our chief ground of 
hesitation, hitherto, has been the desire not only to make it useftil to all 
classes of photographers, but to keep it within their means. 

JT. B. Hratoh.— It is not necessary to varnish glass traiuparencies, unless 
fjrom slight over-exposure, or from over-development, or from something 
in the condition of the film, they seem to require it. If it be deemed 
necessary, any good varnish giving a glassy, textureless surfluie will do. 
The fine ground-glass for transparencies may be had of most d the dealers 
in photographic glass, such as Claudet and Houghton. Crystal varnish, 
with a little white wax added will answer the same purpose, as will also a 
little thin colourless starch. 

Air Amativb.— Tour negative Is considerably under-exposed. In toning, 
the print should be immersed, not floated. If the bath be in proper con- 
dition ten minutes will generally be amply sufficient to tone a pruit ; but 
in all cases the colour, rather than the time should be tiie guide. Always 
see that the print is sufficiently toned before removing it. 

EzcBUsiOB.— The addition of cyanide of potassium to a nitrate bath would 
simply cause a precipitate of cyanide of silver, which is insoluble, and after 
filtration no harm would be done beyond slightly weakening the bath. It 
has been recommended for purifying a bath, and is considered by some a 
valuable secret dodge. The cyiuiide of commerce is, however, so impure 
that it is difficult to say with certainty what the effect of adding it would 
be. In the case you describe, it is probable no great harm is done. Try 
the bath, and ascertain, if It work unsatisfactorily, sun it, and add a liUle 
lUtric acid. 2. It is very easy to keep an iron solution for developing 

positives a few months without much deterioration of its developing powen. 
Make the solution concentrated, 60 grains or more to the ounce, and add 
half as many minims of glacial acetic acid as there are grains of the inm aalt. 
Keep it in a well-coxked bottle, always inverting it, or placing it bottoa 
upwards, so Uiat the solution then fiows round the cork, and less air is 
admitted than if the bottle were upright The onlv chuige which will take 
place may be a slight amount of peroxidation, which will slightly weaken 
the developer, but will also, in our opinion, make it give a better positive. 
Dilute for use with once or twice its bulk of water, adding a drop of nitric 
acid for each ounce. Such a developer will give bri^t positives. Report 
on your glass in our next. 

A Cabxjslb S(7B8CBibbb. — The best mode of rectifying the condition of a col- 
lodion which gives comets, is the addition of a little bromide. From a 
quarter of a grain to half a grain per ounce of collodion wiU generally make 
tnem disappear. If the defect anse ttmm floating particles there Is nothing 
but filtration, or settling. The collodion filter is said to be usefiil, bat we 
have neyer tried it, alwajrs preferring subsidence for turbid collodion. 

W. O.—Thank you for the cutting, we shall make a note of the case. We 
have not worked the morphine process, and cannot with certainty atate 
the cause of the watered silk markings. Perhaps our correspondent Mr. 
Bartholomew can help you. In some other drv processes a similar defect 
is sometimes found ; various suggestions as to its cause have been oflfered ; 
but the most efficient remedy is, we believe, the use of an older collodioa. 
2. A single view lens of 6 inches focus, if worked with a large aperture, say 
half an inch, will, in a good Ught, and with flrat-class chemicals, in good 
order, give instantaneous picture ; but so fiur as we know, the particulaLT 
lens you mention will not do it better than any ordinary good single lens. 

Abovb.— We are always obliged to any one, whether friend or enemy, who 
points out an error. The wish and attempt to do so without success, how- 
ever, merely shows incompetency and spite. One or two of the statements 
were correct, and the result of a printers error. Such, for instaAoe, as P. 
for platinum, which should have been PL, as the opposite page shows. 
The other remarks present some curious blundering in the writ», but it 
is not worth while to answer them. Tarious authorities state equivalents 
differently. The Ust of inconsistencies and blunden in the simiUr table 
given in the other little publication you name are amusing enough ; bat 
we don't care to make reprisals. Besides, it would be breaking a fly on 
the wheel to criticise it It is a compliment that oun is selected to examine 
for errors rather than the more abundant field at home. 

W. O. H.— If you cement over the water-tight top a thin sheet of gutta-percha, 
or a piece of vegetable parchment, that is, parohmenUsed paper, it will 

W prevent the sticking of the india-rubber. 
. Wilson. — ^There is no disadvantage, except the expense, in using anj 
quantity of alcohol in the developer which does not precipitate the iron ; 
neither is there any advantage in using more than is necessary to make 
the solution fiow without causing greasy lines. 2. In introducing a ghostly 
figure into a photograph, let the figure enter for a few seconds at the close 
of the exposure, so that the figure may appear superposed upon the image 
already impressed, the flnt image being seen, as it were, Uurough the last* 
giving it an unnatural or transparent effect. 

J. H. Umdbbwood. — We shall take an early opportunity of noticing year 
charming slides. We think it decidedly wise to publish them. 

SioiLLi. — ^The plate sent had the appearance of having been left some time in 
a bath imperfectly saturated with iodide of silver, the film being conse- 
quently deprived of its iodide. The bath, however, smeUs very strong^ of 
ether, as if it had been much used. On trying a plate with a good sample 
of collodion in the bath, universal fog was the result, indicating the pre- 
sence of organic impurity. We added a solution of bicarbonate of soda, a 
Uttle at a time, until there was a slight turbidity, which no longer dis- 
solved on agitation. We then placed the bottle in the sun for an hour or 
two. The solution darkened very considerably, and threw down a black 
precipitate. The solution was now filtered into a bath, and a plate tried. 
The result was a clean, bright, good image. You may doubtless treat the 
remainder of your large bath in the same way with like success. 2. The 
collodion appean to be simply iodised, and has a tendency to give comets. 
The addition of a traoe of bromide removed this. Adding a little of some 
bromo-iodised collodion will answer the same end. 

J. Albxandbb. — The stops of lenses are made black by a solution sold by 
chemists as *' chemical oronse,** which consists, we believe, of a solution of 
bichloride of platinum. The metal should be made quite clean and free 
tcQim grease, and slightly warmed. The solution is then applied with a 
camel-hair brush. When dry apply a little blacklead with a brush. The 
tannin process, or the ooUodlo-albumen process will probably anawer your 
purpose best 

J. H.— You will find several articles in our last volume on the deteils of pro- 
ducing photographic transparencies. Thev are too lengthy to be given 
in this column. If you have not the volume we can rner you to the 

JoHH Shbltob.— We fear the volume of "Photographic Proverbial Philo- 
sophy " will not be published. 

E. G. Loou, D. M. A., Ohablbb Dxbbt, Samubl Pbt, and sertral other 
Correspondents in our next 

Bt Mb. Obobob Jambs Kbbl, 92, Renshaw Street, Liverpool. 

1. Tignette Portrait of Rev. Robert William Porreft 

2. Ditto large half-length. 
8. Ditto smaU half-length. 

Bt Mb. Johh Thobpb, 20, Grand Parade, St Leonard's-on-Sea. 
Carte de Visite of Roger Cooper Gardiner, Bsq. 

Bt Mb. Fbaxk Rbtholds, Churchtown, Dundrum, county Dublin. 

Portrait of Garibaldi leaning on a spade, and surrounded by 
his goats. 

Bt Mb. Edwin Thomas Hicks, 46, Mackensie Street, Everton, Liverpool. 
Vignette Portrait of Barry Sullivan, as " Hamlet" 

*«* Thb Publisher desires to call the attention of photographers sending 
photographs for registration, to the instructions given in No. Wb (seep. 613). 
The photographer should himself fill up the form and sign it It is also 
especially desired that care be used in writing proper names to secure 
legibility, as, otherwise, errors detrimental to the validity of a copyright 
may occur. 


Vol. VII. No. 2S0.~January 80, 1868. 



PrlTat« Pbotographic Bxhibitloo at NoUlnghAm 49 

Another Toning Bath with Gold and Lime 49 

The Photographic Exhibition— Third Notice 60 

PriotiBg Difficoltieaw By a Photographer's Aisi«tant 61 

Reaearches in Heliochromy. By SI. Niepce de Saint Victor ... 61 
Meokorandam of a PhotograpMc Trip in Norway. By the Rey. 

Arthur Cotton, M.A 63 

On the Action of Nitrate of SUrer upon Albamen. By MM. 

DaTanne and Oirard „ 63 

A Short Leeaon in Photography.—No. 8 ....„ 64 


Copyright of Photographs 66 

Proceediogs of Societies 60 

International Exhibition. — Report of the Jury on Photi^paphy 

and Photographic Appaiatos 67 

Correspondence. — ^Foreign Science, Ac. 68 

Photographic Notes and Qaeries 60 

Talk in the Studio 60 

To Correspondents 60 

Photograptis Registered during the Week 60 



Wi have received a large number of inquiries regarding an 
aDnonncement which recently appeared in our advertising 
columns, and has been also widely circulated by means of 
circulars, referring to a projected photographic exhibition 
at Nottingham. Not a few of our correspondents suspect 
the scheme, others denounce it very freely, and some send 
for oor private information particulars of a very damaging 

When the matter first came under our attention, we must 
confess we viewed it with some degree of distrust. But, as it 
is mrf " our nature's plague to spy into abuses," we felt dis- 

adjudgiD^ prizes. We might have answered privately; 
the inquiries of many correspondents compel us, how- 
ever, to adopt this method, and if we do not supply 
injurious information, we must at least offer an opinion. 
That opinion is in no sense favourable to the scheme pro- 
posed. In the first place, this is purely a private speculation. 
At the invitation of an unknown private individual, residing 
in a provincial town, photographers are requested to send 
him their productions for exhibition or sale. A " Con- 
tributors' Guide " is offered on receipt of six postage stamps. 
This, when received, consists of a circular of three octavo 
pages, containing the conditions of exhibition, one of which 
U very singular, and runs thus : — 

"5. All articles intended to be competed for must be 
ciitexed in the Secretary's book before the 1st of March, the 
charge being One Guinea, which shall be used for pur- 
chasing fifteen prizes, and procuring three impartial judges 
to be chosen by a majority of the contributors." 

To say the least of it, such a system of raising the money 
for prises, even if adopted by a responsible society, is 
vicious in the extreme. For the satisfaction of contributors 
it is announced : — 

"3. That this exhibition will be protected by a joint 
btock company of ^ve shares of twenty pounds each, to 
defray all expenses not covered by the charges on admission 
and iolutUary contribtUion." 

How the ** joint stock company " is to protect the exhibi- 
tion is not quite clear, neither is it clear whether such a 
company exists, or is yet to be formed. There arc some 
other curiously worded conditions ; but it is unnecessary to 
pureue the matter further. Neither do we intend to make 
use of the information forwarded to us bearing unsatis- 
factorily upon the projectors of the scheme, whatever 
the respectability 01 the persons, the proposition is a 
blunder. Photographic exhibitions can rarely oe successfully 
^'ot up in provincial towns; but if the thing be a possibility 
at all, it can only become so in the hands of an active photo- 
graphic societv, of whom it is the legitimate province 
o manage such undertakings. When such a project is 

attempted by private individuals, they lay themselves open 
to the suspicion of some kind of trade scheming for 
private purposes; and in this attempt the mode of pro- 
cedure, and the conditions laid down, are such as cannot 
fail, we apprehend, to destroy confidence, and issue in entire 



M. jEAiniENAUD proposes a modification of the toning bath. 
Considering that the process by chloride of gold and acelaU 
of soda weakens the aepth of the tones obtained by proper 
exposure, necessitating over-printing, he has sought a 
process free from these objections. He fills one bottle with 

A. Distilled water 9 ounces 

Chloride of gold 15 grains 

B. And another with distilled water 1000 grains 
Acetate of lime 10 grains. 

The positives are printed strongly, then freely washed in rain 
water, and the toning bath is prepared in quantity propor- 
tionable to the number of proofs to be fixed. Thus for 2 or 
3 proofs 12 by 10, take one ounce from bottle A and add to 
it two ounces from bottle B, and place the mixture in a 
porcelain dish, over a spirit lamp. When the liquid 
becomes heated it gives on faint nitrous fumes, which are 
immediately succeeded by a slightly acid vapour, arising 
from the acetic acid. The liquid soon becomes colourless, 
and commences to boil. A combination now takes place, 
and in this state the chloride of gold has no longer that 
corrosive action upon the proofs, which causes so many to be 
rejected. This operation is verv rapid, as only very small 
quantities of liquid are made to boil at a time. The ebulli- 
tion must not be prolonged beyond a few seconds, because 
the liquid, which becomes colourless just at the moment it 
comes to the boil, has then a tendency to become yellow, and 
thick, and in that state acts with less regularity, and may 
weaken the proofs. 

The gold solution is now ready for use ; it is only neces- 
sary to add sufficient distilled or rain water to immerse the 
proofs in, pressing them down below the surface with a glass 
triangle. It is best to keep a glass dish specially for the 
bath. The time required for toning depends upon the 
quality of the paper ; a quarter of an hour suffices for French 

Eaper, half an hour for German ; but with the latter the tones 
ave much more strength and solidity. Lastly, to take every 
precaution against sulphurizing the proofs, before fixing 
them with a solution of hyposulphite of soda, strength 20 
per cent., they may be passed through a bath containing a 
solution capable of neutralizing acids, such as water contain- 
ing 6 or 7 per cent, of bicarbonate of soda. 

This process is very economical, as with 15 grains of 
chloride of gold 25 to 30 half sheets may be toned. It is 
very convenient for amateurs, who, not having a large 
number of proofs at a time, require new baths frequently, and 
the consumption is in exact proportion to the work performed 



[January 30, 1863. 

as the solutions are kept separate until the moment they are 
required for use. 

All the other acetates, such as those of strontian, barytes, 
and zinc, give nearly the same results ; but the acetate of soda 
employed in this manner does not appear to combine with 
the chloride of gold, which it does not render colourless, at 
least when employed at 3 per cent., and it also acts very 
slowly. ^ 



Wx have received numerous communications, from operatoi-s 
and others, regarding the opening of the exhibition in the 
evening, seconding our remarks, and urging us to press 
the subject on the attention of the authorities. We find 
those gentlemen upon whom the responsibility depends 
are most anxious to afford every facility, to every class, for 
visiting the exhibition, and profiting by the pictures exhi- 
bited. But opposing their desire to open in the evenings, they 
find the stern fact that, on former occasions, the cost has been 
greater than the receipts. As a means of meeting the diffi- 
culty, however, it is in contemplation to keep the exhibition 
open in the evenings during the last fortnight of the season. 
We cannot promise this as an absolute certainty, but 
believe that the authorities are so far desirous to meet the 
wishes of the photographers, that they will undertake this 
even at the risk of a little loss. Due announcement of the 
fact will be made. 

We hope, before long, to be able to announce the decisions 
of the adjudicators in reference to the prizes to be awarded. 
The gentlemen who have undertaken this delicate task are 

£re-eminently well fitted for its satisfactory discharge. 
[r. Joseph Durham, photographers know as a sculptor of 
eminence, a gentleman of highly cultivated taste in art, 
and a member of the council of the Photographic Society. 
Mr. Roger Fenton is known as a very able photographer, 
and one of the chief founders of the Photographic Society, 
and, having recently retired from the actual practice of 
photography, his decision must be free from the slightest 
suspicion of personal bias. In case of difference of opinion 
between these two gentlemen, they ^ill elect an umpire 
t o decide. The council have enlarged their intention, and 
six medals will be given instead of four, as was original] y 
contemplated. These will be thus distributed : — 

1. For the best portrait, or portraits. 

2. For the best landscape, or landscapes, 
f 3. For the best instantaneous picture, or pictures. 

4. For the best contribution by an amateur. 

5. For the best composition picture from life. 

6. For the best reproduction or composition from still 
life, or copy of paintings in oil or water-colours. 

In regard to several of the subjects there is sufficient dis- 
tinctive superiority as to make the decision comparatively 
easy; regarding tne landscapes, however, there are several 
so nearly balanced that the task of selection must be very 
difficult. We will not, however, anticipate the decisions. 

Proceeding with the chief contributions in the order of 
the catalogue, we find a series of reproductions from paintings 
by Mr. M. H. Phillips. These arc very excellent as repro- 
ductions, but the especial point which strikes us is the 
singularly photographic effect of some of the pictures. 
Here are two copies of pictures by MacCullum, "Autumn " 
and " Winter," either of which might very easily be mis- 
taken for photographs from nature. The " Autumn " is a 
little dark and heavy, from the profusion of rich and warm 
colours in the original ; but the " Winter " is an admirable 
picture, with a perfect vraisemhlance which suggests forcibly 
the idea that the original was painted from photographic 
studies. Mr. G. R. Main waring has several frames of 
flowers and fruit, grouped with great taste, and exceedingly 
well photographed. These do not generally exceed the 
half-plate size, and are much more suitable for such subjects 

than the large photographs of similar subjects exhibited 
by Mr. Fenton two yeare ago. 

Still, amongst the finest landscapes are the contributions 
of Mr. Mudd. They are always well chosen and picturesque 
subjects, and, generally, at once brilliant, soft, and atmo- 
spheric. No. 29, the " Heimitage Bridge, Dunkeld," across 
tne Braan, if we remember rightly, is a wonderful study 
of foliage, water, and large bouldcw. The thick masses of 
foliage are rendered with perfect detail, the water is trans- 
parent, and the large light-coloured stones in the foreground 
free from the slightest chalkine&s. " Castle Crag, Cumber- 
land " (No. 48), is another charming picture. Mr. J. H. 
Morgan has some very excellent landscapes. A couple of 
** Studies of Sheep," from life (Nos.26 and 27), are very good, 
and giving just the head and bust, have a quaint and 
amusing effect. Mr. Mayland exhibits some fine landscapes 
of views in and about Cambridge, and some good interiors 
of difficult subjects, which have before been noticed in onr 
columns. The Hon. W. Vernon exhibits some pretty good 
landscapes, but which do not, on the whole, justify that 
gentleman's reputation. Messrs. Fothergill and Braiitill 
exhibit a number of pictures, from tannin plates, of scenes 
in Genoa. The majority of these have been exhibited 
before ; they are clean and bright, wanting a little attno- 
sphere, and sadly defaced with white-paper skies. " The 
Pieta," by Michael Angelo (No. 41), is a charming picture 
of a fine relievo. Mr. C. Alfieri exhibits some good and 
some indifferent landscapes, those of " Fumess Abbey *' 
being best. Lady Jocelvn exhibits some views of Broad- 
lands, Hants, which are delicate and detailed, but some of 
them a little wanting in atmosphere. One is a charmingly 
sunny thing, the fantastic shadows of foliage on a wall 
almost seem to flicker before the eyes. Mr. D. Combe ex- 
hibits a figure of a mounted volunteer, which is beautifully 
soft and round, but a little stiff and formal in the lines. 
Mr. Eidman exhibit* a view of St. Martin's Church, from 
Pall Mall, intended to represent twilight. It is wanting in 
transparency, and looks dingy. Mr. Stephen Thompson 
exhibits a large number of landscapes, and some statuary. 
Amongst his contributions are many excellent pictures, 
of which we shall have to speak further, but many of them, 
especially those immediately before us, have the unfortunate 
fault in lighting, of which we have before spoken in this 
gentleman's productions, which gives them a nat and mono- 
tonous effect. "Kelso Abbey " (No. 34), "Tarsel Bridge, 
Flodden Field " (No. 40), and " At Richmond, Yorkshire " 
(No. 54), are notable examples of this characteristic. 

Another little genre picture (No. 45), which, being un- 
fortunately hung very high, is likely to escape attention, is 
well worthy of notice. It is entitled " A Happy Dream," 
and is by Messrs. Ross and Thompson. A pretty child lies 
sleeping, with happy peaceful countenance. A fairy-like fe- 
male figure bends, or novel's about it, suggesting the idea of 
the " Angel's Whisper," as described in Lover's ballad. The 
general ensemble of the composition is good, and the trans- 
parent immaterial effect of the angel visitant is well 
managed. We commend this effect to the attention of 
Bullock Brothers, who made a great mistake not to call 
their " Footsteps of Angels " simply a fire-light effect, as 
which it would have won golden opinions. We regret that 
the hanging of " A Happy Dream " does not permit a more 
detailed examination. 

We conclude for the present with a brief analysis of the 
processes represented in the exhibition. The number of 
contributions which are hung is larger than on any pre- 
vious occasion, 825 frames being catalogued, whilst between 
one and two hundred have not found places. This sho\iis 
an excess of contributions exhibited over the last exhibition 
of not less than two hundred frames. Wet collodion is now 
almost universally used, the proportion of other processes 
being less than ever. Upwards of seven hundred of the pre- 
sent contributions are by wet collodion ; twenty-five by the 
collodio-albumen process, the chief of these being by Mr. 
Mudd ; eighteen by the tannin process ; eight by Dr. Hill 

January 30, 1863.] 



Norris's plates ; twenty by the waxed paper process, all 
these being by French contributors ; sixteen by various 
carbon and photolithographic processes ; five by the Fother- 
gill process; four by the tannin and malt process; two 
simply described as di-y collodion ; two by the honey pro- 
cess ; two by the collodio-albumen and honey process ; two 
by the metagelatine process : two by Gorbin's collodionized 
paper process ; one by the morphine dry process ; one by the 
albumen process; and half a dozen daguerreotypes. The 
numbers of coui'se refer to contributions or frames, which in 
many cases include several pictures. It is a somewhat 
singular fact, that whilst dry collodion processes have occu- 
pied so large a share of public attention, they are so meagerly 
representea here. In excellence, however, the dry processes 
present a more satisfactory result ; some of the best pictui-es 
in the exhibition having been produced by the collodio- 
albumen and tannin processes, and their modifications. The 
Fothergill process puts in a very poor appearance this year ; 
of the small number of contributions the majority being 
very poor indeed. The process has evidently been declining 
in popularity, and the results here exhibited will not be 
likely to give it a fresh impetus. 



Thb advantages derived from the method described, for 
separating a portion of the chlorine from the gold, cannot 
be too highly estimated, as it gives us entire control over the 
bleaching power necessary to be exercised in toning opera- 
tions ; by the addition of soda in excess, the same results may 
be obtained ; but, beyond a certain point, our controlling in- 
fluence is lost, or at least uncertain in its operations. To those 
who have not made the science of chemistry their study, it 
may appear strange that the application of heat, whilst 
separating a portion of the chlorine, leaves the solution in a 
condition as acid as before, thus rendering necessary the 
same quantity of soda to produce an alkaline reaction; for 
the information of this class of inquirers, I shall endeavour 
to explain the reason why the separation of chlorine has no 
influence on the acid introduced with the gold into the 
toning solution. The chloride of gold usually sold for 
toning purposes, is made by dissolving a portion of the 
metal in a mixture of nitric with hydrochloric acids, or what 
is termed aqua regia : from the hydrochloric acid it derives 
its three equivalents of chlorine, so that, when separated by 
evaporation, it exists as a terchloride plus free acid in un- 
certain quantities ; and this acid, which is a mixture of 
chlorine, nydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen, we have reason to 
believe, separates itself from the chloride of gold immediately 
it is brought into contact with water; so that the heat, whilst 
exercising its decomposing influence upon the chlorine in 
combination with the gold, leaves unmolested the free 
acid, be its quantity great or small ; consequently the same 
proportion of soda .is required to produce alkalinity as 
would be required with the gold when in combination with 
its full amount of chlorine. Strictly speaking, the presence 
of soda with the terchloride is unneeded, whilst tnis last- 
named substance is undergoing the process of evaporation. 
But I am inclined to think that the presence of a small por- 
tion of soda hastens decomposition, not by its combination 
with the liberated chlorine, but by combining with the 
free acid it prevents the gold obtaining a fresh supply of 
chlorine from this source ; so that, when a toning bath is to 
be used directly, it w^ould, doubtless, be an advantage to add 
a larger quantity of soda than I have before named, the 
quantity lieing regulated by the amount of reduction re- 
quired ; but in no case where heat has been applied should 
the solution be strictly alkaline; for, except a trace of the 
stronger or the more faintly marked liberated carbonic acid 
be present, toning action will proceed but slowly indeed. 
It should ever be remembered, that the presence of an 
acid increases the bleaching power possessed oy the toning 

solutions, and here I woul d suggest, that this application of heat 
be resorted to for the purpose of giving the necessary qualities 
to the toning solutions hitherto considered unfit for use, 
until they have undergone a term of probation in peniten- 
tial solitude upon some dusty shelf (not making use of 
those fanciful solutions, I merely give this hint on theo- 
retical grounds). 

Before proceeding with the details of my recent experi- 
ments, I would just observe, that I shall have occasion 
to offer remarks that may lay me open to the charge 
of inconsistency, they being somewhat at variance with 
the teachings contained in my letters recently published ; 
but, be it remembered, I have been, and still am follow- 
ing, an almost unbeaten track ; and, as I grope my way, 
I need not the stones behind, though they for a time 
have supported my faltering steps, fixing my eyes steadily 
upon the goal of entire, undoubted knowledge of the sub- 
iect, and throwing aside theories, useless as they are lum- 
bersome ; after their work is accomplished, stepping from 
stone to stone, I move slowly forward, at the same time 
giving the photographic world the benefit of the faint 
gleams of light that have dawned upon my mind ; and aa 
the amount of light increases, I bring my increase of know- 
ledge (if increase it be), and humbly add it to the stock of 
information contained in that best of photographers' hives, 
viz., the Photoqbaphic News. 

And now, without further remarks, I proceed to tone 
the prints described in the former portion of this paper : 
for, Dy this time, the solution is cold — or, at least, 
lukewarm — a condition most suitable for the present 
season of the year. Pouring this solution into the por- 
celain dish, for the sake of further tests, an addition of 
soda was made from time to time, commencing with half a 
grain, which, of course, left the solution still in an acid con- 
dition. The prints, which had been all printed the usual 
depth, viz., a full allowance made for reduction, I now 
commenced exposing to the action of the toning bath. 
No. I, short floating, on sensitizing solution, became faint 
and slaty, with mealiness, though in a greatly modified 
form. No. I, long floating, on ditto, retained a large por- 
tion of vigour, but still a faint trace of the same description 
of mealiness. The other prints followed in succession; 
those floating upon the strongest bath, though reduced 
rapidly, gave no trace of the disease until the slatiness began 
to appear. I now added another half a grain of soda to the 
bath. The reduction was not so rapid, but dark tones could 
not be obtained until mealiness in somewhat the same form 
made its appearance in the light background of the pic- 
tures; and now another half a grain was added — making in 
all three grains of carbonate (not bi-carbonate, remember) of 
soda to the grain of gold; the prints now toned more 
slowly, increasing rather .than diminishing in vigour; those 
floated on the strong solution giving the most satisfactory 
results, although, for want of the strong bleaching power, all 
retained their over-printed appearance. This was just what I 
was in search of, a process tnat would give vigorous prints 
without any over-printing. 

(To be cofUinued.) 



On the Eeprodudion of Colours in Heliochromy* 

I NOW state the results of the observations I have made 
during the past year, and, although the summer has not 
been favourable to my experiments with the camera obscura, 
still I have been able to obtain some proofs. 

The obtaining of colours in the camera obscura best shows 
what heliochromy can give us ; for here there can be no 
illusion, heliochromy cannot reproduce everything; but, 
nevertheless, it can give us many things; and thus it is 



[January 80, 1863. 

that I have the honour to present some proofs to the 
Academy, and, at the same time, of showing my mode of 
preparing the plates. 

1 have always found yellow the colour most difficult to 
obtain in the same space of time as the other tints ; but 
I have recently discovered the means of developing the 
yellow with certainty, and of obtaining it in the same time 
as other colours. 1 had previously obtained, with great 
facility, red, green, and Wue ; but when yellow was pro- 
duced, it was accidentally. 

I have arrived at obtaining yellow in all my repro- 
ductions, by employing, as an agent for chlordizing my 
plates, a bath composed of hypochlorite of soda, in pre- 
ference to the hypochlorite of potassa. This bath must be 
in the following conditions : — 

Take a newly-prepared hypochlorite of soda, marking 
six degrees of the areometer ; dilute it with one-half its 
bulk of water, and then add alcohol in quantity equal to 
i per cent, of the soda, and heat the bath to a temperature 
of 180*=* to 190^ F ; then pour it into a flat capsule, half- 
plate size, stirring the liquid for a few seconds, immerse the 
plate in it at once, a time sufficient for the plate to take a 
black tint. It is then rinsed in abundance of water, and 
dried over a spirit-lamp. 

In 200 grammes (6| oz.) of thb bath we can chloridize 
five or six quarter-plates, amone which some will give 
better results than others, according to the thickness of 
the film and the degree to which the plate has been heated. 
In these conditions of chloridization the colours are pro- 
duced (especially by contact) with very vivid tints, and, 
very frequently, the blacks appear in their full intensity. 

To operate in the camera ooscura, we select plates which, 
by the action of heat, have received a fine cherry-red tint, 
as well as those which are more slightly reheated, because 
they are the most sensitive to light. On this account the 
film of chloride of silver must not be too thick. But, to 
obtain the effects which I now describe, the chloridized 
plate must be covered with a varnish with a base of chloride 
of lead, as I pointed out in my last report, only we must 
take an aqueous solution of dextrine with chloride of lead, 
in order to neutralize the action of the alkaline bath upon 
the chloiide of silver, and whiten the ground of the picture, 
which, without it, would remain rose colour, or dingy. 

With regard to the problem of fixing the colours, I have 
only succeeded in donbliufi^ the time of duration announced in 
my last report. Many substances, added after the action of 
heat upon the chloride of lead, give a greater fixity than if 
the chloride of lead was alone ; such are, amone others, the 
tincture of benzoin, chloride of tin, and aldenyde. But 
what has given me the best result is the tincture of Siamese 
benzoin, applied to the plate while it is yet warm, and, 
after the plate has become dry, heating it until a little of 
the benzoic acid is volatilized. 

It is by means of this lead varnish that I have been 
enabled to preserve colours during three or four days, in an 
apartment strongly illuminated by daylight, in the month 
of July. 

One observation I made is, that if we incline a helio- 
chromic image, at a certain degpree of incidence, the colours 
appear much more vivid, and the blacks assume the greatest 

I have also remarked that, according to the manner in 
which the model (a doll) is illuminated by the solar rays, 
the obtaining the colours in the camera obscura becomes 
singularly moidified, and produces very advantageous effects 
as to intensity of colour and brilliancy ; as, for example, gold 
and silver lace, precious stones, &c. 

But what is very extraordinary, is that, having placed a 
strip of nnglazed black paper upon a large piece of silver 
lace, which the doll wore as a oelt, the black of the paper 
was reproduced with the white of the silver lace. 

Black is reproduced with a violet hue, viewed direct ; but, 
if the plate be inclined at a certain angle, it assumes its 
greatest intensity, and the silver laoe its met^lic splendour. 

Light, in changing the heliochromic colours made, in 
certain cases, changes green into blue, and yellow into green ; 
as, for instance, if we cover them with a varnish having 
chloride of tin for a base, which, moreover, greatly retards 
the activity of the light ; if it had not this objection, it 
would serve as a temporary fixing agent, for the reds arc 
preserved a very long time. 


On the Heliochromic Reproduction of the Binary Colours. 

I HAVE now to speak of a series of experiments, which 
I consider very interesting in a scientific point of view. 

I have proved that all the binary colours are decomposed 
by heliochromy.* 

If the green be natural, like that of the emerald, arsenite 
of copper, oxide of chrome, sulphate of nickel, ffreen car- 
bonate of copper (malachite), they are reproduced green hy 
heliochromy ; out if the green bie a compound, like that, 
for example, formed by a mixture of Prussian blue and 
chrome yellow, or that of stuffs, dyed by means of a blue 
colouring material and a yellow, or of certain glasses 
coloured by blue and yellow pigments, these greens, I repeat, 
give blue only by heliochromy, either by contact, or in the 
camera obscura. 

I will mention another conclusive experiment: a light 
blue glass, superimposed upon a light freen glass, give, by 
transparency, a very fine green ; but, being applied to a 
heliochromic plate, they only produce blue ; whatever be the 
time of exposure to the light, or whether the blue glass be 
uppermost or below, the results are the same. 

Certain kinds of g^reen glass reproduce green very well ; 
others give only blue or yellow effects. 

A yellow-green glass at first gives a light tint of blue, 
then a light green tint, and, finally, a fine yellow hue. 

A ' green and a yellow glass, superimposed, produce a 
yellow upon the sensitive plate. 

There are also other examples : a red glass, superimposed 
upon a yellow glass, giving an orange by transparency, pro- 
duce only red upon the sensitive plate.f 

A red glass, superimposed upon a blue glass, giving 
violet by transparency, first produce a violet (because the 
plate is naturally red; ; then blue follows : the red being 
replaced by an orange green, also quickly reproduces blue. 

A white paper, coloured green, by screen leaves, or by 
sap-green, is reproduced only very slowly by contact ; the 
sensitive plate remains red a very long time, as if the light 
had no action ; and if the exposure be prolonged, a bluish 
grey tint is produced ; the same result takes place if we 
attempt to reproduce natural foliage in the camera, such as, 
for instance, the herbage of a green meadow ; but if the 
foliage be a blue-green, as, for instance, the leaves of the 
dahlia, the blue tint will be more vivid. If the foliage be 
yellow or red, like that of dead leaves, the colour reproduced 
will be a yellow or a red, more or less pure, according to the 
greater or lesser absence of the blue matter, which, with the 
yellow, constitutes the g^reen colour of leaves, as demon- 
strated by M. Fi-emy.^ 

Lastly, it will be very interesting to reproduce Chinese 
green by heliochromy; we shall then discover whether it 
be a pure or a compound green. 

The dye of a peacock's feather is well reproduced in the 
camera, that is, the colour appears under a certain degree 
of incidence, now green, now blue. 

* As M. Edmund Becquerel has reproduced the soUr spectnun complete, 
does this not prove that the colours of the spectrum are not decomposed by 
heliochromT? and is it not reasonable to conclude that these colours are 
simple, and that the solar spectrum is not formed, as Sir David Brewster 
asserts, by the superposiUon of three monochromatic spectra— red, ydlow, 
and blue f 

t I propose to repeat these experiments upon a plate not reheated, in 
order to ascertain if the red be sUU reproduced in preference to the yellow. 

I In all the reproductions by the camera obscura, there is sJwmys a 
greater or lesser quantity of reflected white light, especially in the reproduc- 
tion of foliage. 

Janvaat 80, 1863.] 






Iir the early part of last summer I spent a few weeks in 
Norway, and, although the weather was most nnfavonrable 
for photography, an nnusnal occurrence, perhaps my ]^hoto- 
graphic experiences may be acceptable to any brother m the 
art who is contemplating a similar ramble in this hitherto 
little photographea locality. The process I adopted was wet 
collodion deyeloped with iron ; the collodion, Thomas's, with 
bromo-iodiser, and the exposure with one of Dallmeyer's 
triplets, of which I cannot speak too highly, the exposure 
with the X stop varied from one second to a minute. The 
mode of intensifying was that with tincture of iodine, fol- 
lowed by pyrogallic acid, and tbis, by painting on an edge 
of Tarnish to the negative, I was always able to carry out, 
without risk of the film splitting, after the picture was 
fixed and dried, thereby reaucing the quantity of water, a 
matter sonietimes of importance, and the list of chemicals 
required in the field. 

The ordinary mode of travelling in Norway aifords neat 
facilities for working the wet process, but I regret I had not 
also with me a few dry plates. Boats and carrioles are the 
railroads of the country, men and horses are provided by 
law for fixed stages, at a very cheap rate, so that the cost of 
posting from ordinary stations does not exceed twopence an 
£nglish mile. 

The carriole, as most people are aware, is not an omnibus, 
being constructed only to carry one, and affords little room 
for luegage. It has no springs, consequently photographic 
traps nave to be carefully pacRed, and craftily arranged. 

behind the body is a board about twelve inches wide, and 
two feet six inches long, and my tent, which was one of 
Rouch's, and contained camera, chemicals, &c., for the day, 
was swung by means of stout straps underneath this, thereby 
diminishing the jar upon its contents. On the board my 
portmanteau was strapped, but nothing that could not bear 
jolting could be carried in it. As a proof of this, I might 
mention, that the screws of a fishing reel packed in it were 
jolted loose, and a box of flies were pounded up so com- 
pletely as to leave little else but hooks and tne fluff of 

Between my feet, in the body of the carriole, was my store 
box of chemicals, glasses, &c., and here they were fairly 
protected, the spring of the shafts taking off the jolt, but 
only a small box can be carried in this position, as even a 
little weight here is felt by the horse, and becomes serious as 
be gallops, as a Norwegian horse does .down the almost 
perpendicular hills which abound. Moreover, the width of 
thi« part of the body, which is shaped somewhat like a 
c&Doe, is inconsiderable, and provides no room for one's 
feet, which rest outside against a cross-bar, which extends 
from one shaft to the other. 

The camera stands, fishing rods, &c., were strapped to the 

By promise of additional drikke-penge, or drink-money, 
a mere trifle, to the boy who sits on the top of the port- 
manteau, I was able to stop on any part of the stage ; but I 
Seldom availed myself of this, in consequence of the almost 
iiic«isant rain. 

The straps which secured my tent to the carriole board 
also served as its knapsack support, when, as was sometimes 
the case, I took a man on foot over the hills, who was well 
satbified with two marks a day, amounting to Is. 8d., and 
went up hill with his load as easily as I could without 

Having said so much as to the arrangement of my impe- 
dimenta, which are always serious matters to a photographer, 
1 would only recommend future travellers to take unusual 
precautions to preserve their negatives by very careful pack- 

* Rea<I hj Mr. W. W. King, at the North London Photographic Assooia- 
tloa, Janouy 21st. 


ing. I was not provided with gprooved boxes, having always 
sa^ly carried my varnished plates with blotting paper 
between them ; and some of my oest pictures were mined oy 
the rubbing they were exposed to in the carriole. 

I have only a few hints to give, as far as my expe- 
rience goes, as to the most interesting parts of the country 
in a photographic point of view. 

Bergen is about the centre of an extremely beautiful 
country. North and south of this town, and within a day's 
steam, is the best of that scenery for which Norway is 

First, there are fiords 50 or 60 miles in length running 
up to the very backbone of the country, which in Norway 
is a mountain chain at no great distance from the coast, 
and out of these fiords the mountains rise almost per- 
pendicularly several thousand feet. 

No. 26 is a poor specimen of this feature of the country 
taken during a heavy rain on a very gloomy day. There 
are waterfalls, of which No. 18 is an example, 900 feet in 
height, but dwarfed in the photograph, from the impossi- 
bility of getting such a view as to give an idea of distance. 

There are churches of the quaintest style of architecture, 
if they are of any style at all. Of these I have two or three 
specimens. No. 30 is a view of a noble river, the Rauma. 
No. 21, a view of one of the farms which, up the country, 
supply the place of inns, and provide good accommodation 
for man and beast. 

With ordinary weather, I should have taken a great num- 
ber of (to me) most interesting pictures, but ill-health during 
part of my stay in the countiy, and bad luck in the weather 
obliged me to leave a great deal of work for a future oppor- 
tunity, nor should I, had it not been for the request of my 
friend Mr. King, have ventured to lay before you the ac- 
companying selections from my negatives, or thought of 
troubling you with these few observations. 




Thb employment of albumen as an additional sizing for 
positive paper, in connection with the action it exercises 
upon nitrate of silver, and the modification which may 
result in the proofs, is a subject that very properly engages 
the attention of the photographer. 

We have been much gratified at seeing that the re- 
searches made subsequent to those which we presented to 
the French Photographic Society, in December, 1859, have 
confirmed what we then said upon this subject. The Abb6 
Pujo has recently called the attention of photographers to 
the combination which takes place between albumen and 
nitrate of silver, a combination but little studied hitherto, 
but upon which we have made some experiments. M. Roussin 
has lately shown that this combination alone, and well 
washed, is sensitive to light; and that with it we have 
even been able to obtain positives on paper. He has also 
obtained negatives upon glass developed with gallic acid. 
Mr. Spiller has also confirmed this fact, which wo had 
stated, that albumenized papers also retain silver in the 
parts unexposed to light, even after fixing and the most 
careful washing. We should doubtless have preferred that 
these authors had known and mentioned our previous re- 
searches ; but, as we have referred to them, we need not 
enter upon further details. 

The combination of albumen with nitrate of silver varies 
according to the strength of the silver bath. Thus, in 
treating 5 drachms of albumen with 5 drachms of nitrate of 
silver, we obtained very different precipitates, according as 
these 5 drachms of silver were dissolved so as to form solu- 
tions of 15, 10, 5, 2}, or I per cent. With the solutions of 
10 and 15 per cent., the albumen is strongly coagulated ; it 
gives a heavy, abundant precipitate, which may be collected 
on the filter in the form oi distinctly separate pellicles. 



[January 80, 1863. 

With weak solutions of silver, the quantity of the precipi- 
tate 13 much less considerable. A notable quantity of 
albumen remains in the bath in a state of solution. The 
portion precipitated is soft, gelatinous, and sticky. A rapid 
analysis seems to prove that the compound of albumen and 
nitrate of silver is much poorer in albumen when it has been 
formed in presence of a more dilute solution of silver, which 
readily explains, by this cause alone, that the albumen, less 
strongly coagulated, is carried off by the washings. 

In view of these facts, we can easily understand that a 
weak silver bath allows a portion of the albumen to be dis- 
solved without coagulating ; it thus becomes charged with 
organic matters which alter it ; and the proof, much less 
rich in the argento-organic compound, does not acquire that 
brilliancy and vigour of tone which is due principally to 
this compound. 

This combination of albumen and nitrate of silver is 
analogous to that which it forms with bichloride of mercury. 
It is insoluble in water, and sensitive to light even after 
perfect washing. When the light is intense, the compound 
rapidly assumes a red colour, and soon bronzes ; but a feeble 
diffused light produces no perceptible colour; and this 
explains why papers strongly albumenized, and which are 
not chlorodizea in proportion, yield, under the same nega- 
tive, and by the same light, proofs in which the contrasts 
are harsh, and the details m the shadows less distinct. 
Under the influence of light, therefore, a decomposition 
takes place, nitric acid is separated, while a portion of the 
albumen remains combined with the silver. This latter 
combination is insoluble in hyposulphite of soda, and the 
total of these facts gives us the theory of the formation of 
positive or negative albumenized proofs, even in the absence 
of every other salt of silver ; but it remains to be explained 
why the best reserved whites of the positive proofs, after 
fixing and washing, still retain silver if these proofs have 
been taken upon albumenized paper, while they retain none 
if taken on paper simply salted. 

Some experiments enable us to explain this anomaly. We 
have found that the quantities of silver thus retained upon 
white sheets of paper, and well fixed, vary in considerable 

Whatever care may be taken even by fixing the compound 
of albumen and silver immediately after sensitising, we have 
always found a certain quantity of silver which the fixing 
agent has not removed, and which is probably owing to the 
formation of a little sulphide of silver. Albumen is, in fact, 
a sulphurized body, which most frequently, in contact with 
hyposulphite of soda, disengages a very strong odour. The 
quantity of silver which thus passes to the state of sulphide 
is very inconsiderable. It is this which imparts to the 
whites of our proofs a light tone which perhaps can only be 
appreciated wtien these whites are in direct contact with the 
margins. But there are other circumstances which cause the 
quantities of silver retained in the albumenized papers to 
vary ; these are the preservation of the paper and the action 
of diffused light. 

For while a whole sheet sensitized and immediately fixed 
gave, upon analysis, only a quantity of silver equal to 0*010, 
that which had been prepared the day before, fixed under 
the same conditions, gave 0*020. 

Lastly, another sensitized sheet, dried, and exposed for a 
few moments to diffused light, although it did not become 
discoloured, contained, after fixing, 0.016 of silver. The 
experiment, several times repeated, has always given, with 
some variations in the proportions, analogous resuks. 

We have therefore to conclude : — 

1. That always, when albumen is in presence of nitrate of 
silver, it forms a small quantity of a compound insoluble in 
hyposulphite of soda (probably a sulphide). 

2. The time that elapses between the sensitizing of the 
paper and the fizine with hyposulphite of soda, increases 
the quantity of non-nxable silver. 

3. Diffused light acts in an identical manner, even when 
it is too feeble to colour the proof. 

Now we know that a good negative must not have abaolaie 
blacks ; the light can then idways influence the largest 
whites of the photographic proofs, all the parts of which 
must necessarily contain silver. 

But we do not think that the presence of this minimum 
quantity of silver can have the least influence upon the 
keeping of these proofs ; and we all know that a Rreat many 
proofs have existed a good number of yeans and have not 
undergone any appreciable change. 

In connection with this practical question, the proof of 
the persistence with which the silver remains allied to the 
albumen throws some theoretical light on the subject. 

We now understand that albumenized negatives may, up 
to a certain point, be developed without the addition of 
nitrate of silver, because the albumen has energetically 
retained a certain quantity, while non-albumen izod and well 
washed negatives can be made to appear only after the 
addition of the necessary quantity of nitrate of silver. 

And, as diffused light causes a portion of this compound 
of silver and albumen to pass to the insoluble state in the 
hyposulphite of soda, we can easily explain what appears 
abnormal in the experiments of Mr. Younf, where the proof 
was first fixed in the dark in hyposulphite of soda ; then, 
after proper washing, developed in full light by gallic acid 
cum nitrate of silver. 

This experiment succeeds only with albumen negatives, 
and after a good exposure. The preceding facts give -a very 
simple explanation, as in these circumstances an argentico- 
albumen compound is produced, which the hyposulphite of 
soda does not remove, and upon which the developing agents 
cannot act — BuUdin de la Societe Francois de Bhotogra- 


Thb melainotype, after development and fixing, may appear 
far from satisfactory ; the whole surface appears dim, indis- 
tinct, and covered as it were with a veil ; there seems to be 
a metallic film, a thin and semi-transparent film, pervading 
the surface of the picture ; in fact, we have a specimen of 
what is technically called a " foggy picture." This is not 
an uncommon phenomenon with a new bath — one newly 
prepared, and it is very likely to occur with every new 
bath if the nitrate of silver used in its preparation be genuine 
and neutral. With an old bath the evil in question is 
known to every photographer ; there is, perhaps, not one 
who has not had the misfortune to complain that his pic- 
tures were fogged, that his bath was out of order, and that 
customers had to be sent away until the calamity in the 
bath had been rectified. Whenever this fogginess manifesto 
itself, however, we fortunately know its remedy. The bath 
in such a case is either cUkaUne or neutrcU ; the remedy is : 
to make it slightly acid. This remedy can be effected in 
three ways : either by adding a drop — sometimes even only 
half a drop — of acid to the bath, by adding tincture of 
iodine to the collodion, or to the bath. The result of my 
experience teaches me to make it an imperative duty never 
to doctor the bath, that is, never to introduce any extraneous 
chemicals, but those which enter unavoidably through the 
collodion. To filter the bath frequently is a benefit; to 
boil it in a glass retort or a matrass is a benefit ; for, by 
the first operation, it is freed from innumerable fine parti- 
cles of undissolved salts of iodine, which are found in every 
bath after it has been used awhile; and, by the latter 
process, the alcohol and ether, that have been accumulated 
from the collodionized plates, are distilled off, and the 
solution of nitrate of silver is thereby concentrated — ^but 
add neither acid nor alkali, 1 admit that the addition of 
acid will correct fogginess, that acid is a sure remedy in 
most cases; but my belief is that the bath is thereby 
deteriorated, and will soon approach its end : that is, that a 

* From Hum^rejf*s JoumaL 

January 80, 1863.] 



new bath will soon have to be sabetituted in its stead ; but 
what is to be done ? cry nearly all the photographers in a 
breath. The answer ^m a few scientific operators and 
from myself is : " Doctor your collodion." 

Whenerer fog^ness presents itself on the surface of your 
collodion, add tincture of iodine to the collodion until it 
assumes a wine colour ; now try a picture : ^n improvement 
will assuredly be the result ; if the picture be not yet quite 
clear, add a few drops more of the tincture, until all -foggi- 
ness has disappeared. By observing this plan, each col- 
lodion surface is dodored ; for it carries upon it that which 
produces a liberation of nitric acid by chemical decomposi- 
tion, and this liberation takes place at the right time, on 
the nght place, and in the right quantity. 

Tincture of iodine for photographic purposes is prepared 
by dissolving iodine in the strongest alcohol ; you must be 
Tery careful not to use an inferior aiticle of alcohol, because 
the water wh'ch it contains would injure the collodion by 
oofl^ulating the pyroxylino. 

The evil of foggincss having been corrected and remedied, 
let us now proceed and wash the picture after it has been 
properly developed and fixed. Inasmuch as we have two 
tiling solutions, namely — hyposulpkiie of soda and cyanide 
ofpotassiumj it might be a pertinent question to know 
which is preferable for the melainotype. Photographers 
give a preference altogether to the latter solution ; and 
why ? Because of two properties : in the first place it acts 
quicker on the unsolarized iodides ; secondly, it is a reducing 
agent, and acts as such on the silver film, producing a beau- 
tiful silvery white appearance in the high lights ; in the 
negative this silvery whiteness is not required, and is thought 
by some to be injurious; so that hyposulphite of soda is 
considered the proper fixing solution by many distinguished 
operators for negative pictures. 

After the melainotype is thoroughly washed from all 
traces of cyanide of potassium, it is dried, generally by the 
artificial heat ftrom a spirit lamp (alcohol lamp). In this 
operation you must exercise great care lest you raise blisters 
on the japanned surface of the picture ; for an undue heat 
on any point will, with several specimens of the iron plate, 

f produce almost inevitably the evils alluded to. A small 
ight properly managed, so that the heat is well difFused 
orer the whole surface, by moving the posterior part of the 

Slate gently over the flame, backwaras and forwards, will 
ry the collodion surface without disrupting the japan from 
the iron. 

As soon as the operation of drying is finished, the picture 
18 ready to pass into the hands of an artist, in order to 
receive the touch of his magic pencil. Various little par- 
ticles on the backg^und, in the drapery and elsewhere, 
will soon disappear as he proceeds with nis artistic improve- 
ment ; parts, before gray and indefinite in character, assume 
shades distinct and agreeable; besides this, he works in a 
slight shade of colour on the cheeks, which, communicates a 
life-like brilliancy to the picture, which before it did not 
possess ; in fact, it gives a roundness to the features which 
oefore were flat and deathlike. Even the drapery itself 
may, at this stage, receive its natural tinting if desired ; 
gooid taste, however, eschews much colour ; a vulgar taste 
seeks the gratification of strong contrasts, and hence of 
high colours ; for such a taste you will have to gild buttons, 
ear-rings, breast-pins, and watch-chains ; for such you will 
hare to pttste on colour to obscure every other shade 
beneath; and for such, unfortunately, the artistic photo- 
grapher has freauently to cast his j^earls before swine; his 
bread, howeycr, is the gain ; and it is the part of a btutJiesa 
nan, at least, to sacrifioe all preconoeivea notions to the 
ilfsires of his customers. 

When all colouring, gilding, and tenebriating of the 
hair with lamp-black are finished, the picture is flowed with 
the proper varnish, in the same way as the plate is flowed 
with collodion. The varnished surface may then be gently 
dried by the side of a small light artificially, or allowed to 
^7 naturally by reaiing the plate on the end, from which 

the varnish flowed, in the corner of a pane of glass in the 

The picture, after this operation, is ready for mounting 
in a case, or simply in a mat for transportation in a letter 
by the mail. 



Chaelbs Dakielb a photographer, carrying on business at No. 
1, Penton-place, Pentonville, was charged l^fore Mr. Barker, at 
Clerkenwell, on Wednesday week, with selling a copy or colour- 
able imitation of a photograph of Mr. Sothem as Lord Dun- 
dreary, without the consent of Henry Hering, photographiQ 
artist, of 137, Regent-street, the proprietor of the subsisting 
copyright of such photograph, and knowing the said copy or 
imitation had been unlawfully made. 

Mr. Brandt, barrister, instructed by Mr. Bowen May, of 
Russell-square, attended for the complainants ; and Mr, Pookt 
solicitor, of Basinghall-street, for the defendant. 

The defendant pleaded " Not Guilty." 

Mr. Brandt, in opening the case, said that he was instructed 
by Mr. Bowen May in his capacity of solicitor for the pro- 
tection of the photographic trade, and not in connection with the 
trade or profession of engravers. Mr. Hering had published 
portraits of Mr. Sothern in ten different positions in his 
character of Lord Dundreary, and as soon as those portraits 
came out they met with an enormous sale. Shortly afterwards 
the piracies complained of appeared in windows in different 
parts of the town for sale at a much reduced price ; and an 
inquiry being set on foot, two of the spurious portraits had 
been purchased at the shop of Messrs. Palmer and Sutton, in 
Totteuham-court-road : and that firm, on being applied to, 
gave the name of Mr. Daniels, the present defendant, as the 
person from whom they received the supply. On this informa- 
tion being given by Messrs. Palmer and Sutton, a letter was 
written to the defendant by Mr. Bowen May, in the following 
terms : — 67, Russell-square, Dec. 31, 1862. 

" Sir, — I am instructed by Mr. Hering to take proceedings 
against you to recover compensation in damages for selling 
pirated copies of his photograph of Lord Dundreary. If you 
at once come forward, give up the name of the manufacturer — 
if you are not he— and undertake not to offend again, my 
client will be satisfied with the payment of a very smaU 
penalty. Your immediate attention is necessary." 

Of this communication the defendant did not take the least 
notice. After an inspection had been made of the photographs 
at Palmer and Sutton's, Mr. Bowen May wrote the following 
letter, dated January 2, 1868 : — 

" I have satisfied myself that you did sell to Messrs. Palmer 
and Sutton the pirated photographs ; and, unless you forthwith 
give up the name of the manufacturer, I must assume you are 
unable to do so, from the fact that yon have the negatives and 
print yourself." 

Still no reply was received, and hence the present summons 
was issued under the 6th section of the 26th and 27th Victoria, 
cap. 68, entitled " An Act for amending the laws relating to 
the copyright in works of art, and for the suppressing the com- 
mission of fraud in the production and sale of such works." 
The complainant having some doubts as to whether his pro- 
ductions might be pirated, had published on the face and back 
of them that they were copyright, and therefore the defendant 
could not plead ignorance of the fact. 

Mr. Henry Hering, the complainant, was sworn and deposed 
that he had published many photographic likenesses. Among 
others he had published portraits of Mr. Sothem in the 
character of " Lord Dundreary," in ten attitudes or positions. 
Two of the portraits now produced were his, and on them he 
had printed his name, with the words " Copyright secured," 
and on the back his address, " H. Hering, photographer, 137, 
Regent-street." These photographs he had registered in the 
proper manner at Stationers' Hall, and the certificates of 
registry he now produced. He would swear that the photo- 
graphs now produced (the imitations) were " positives "obtained 
from ** negatives " of his production, and which were included 
in the certificate of registration. He had never g^ven any 
consent or authority to the defendant or any other person to 
copy or publish copies of the portrait or any other. 

In his cross-examination by Mr. Pook, the witness stated 
that he had first obtained the consent of Mr. Sothem to sit for 
his portrait at the latter end of July last, and the registration 



[January 80, 1863. 

was not effected until the 80th of August. He denied that he 
had sold any of the portraits until after the registration had 
been completed. He had not obtained any written, but merely 
a verbal permission from Mr. Sothern to publish the portraits. 
There was not a single copy sold until several days after the 
portrait was registered ; and of that he was certain ; and after 
the permission was obtained he went on printing them and 
keeping them in stock until the registration was perfected. 

By Mr. Brandt. — I would not even let Mrs. Sothern have a 
copy until it was registered. ^Loud laughter.) 

Mr. George Bishop was nexi called, and proved that he was 
a member of the firm of Marion and Co., 28, Soho Square, who 
were wholesale agents for Mr. Hering, tlie complainant, and 
other photographers, and that he purchased the photograph 
produced (the pirated copy) at the shop of Messrs. Palmer and 
Sutton, in Tottenham-court-road, on the 29th December last. 
He paid 6d. each for the copies. 

* Joseph Kershaw, aged 17, deposed that he was an assistant 
in the service of Messrs. Palmer and Sutton, and that he remem- 
bered selling to the last witness the photograph (the piracy) 
now produced. The photograph was purchased by his employers 
from the defendant, Mr. Daniels, among others which were 
brought to his masters' establishment by the defendant's boy. 

The witness was severely cross-examined by Mr. Pook, with 
a view to show that he could not swear to the identical portrait 
he had sold to Mr. Bishop being part and parcel of the lot sup- 
plied to his employers by the defendant, Mr. Daniels. He only 
knew it was purchased by the firm to which he belonged, by 
the fact that he saw the goods paid for by a lady in the shop. 
The first lot consisted of ten dozen, and the second of five 
dozen. The money was paid in his presence. Of the portraits 
thus supplied he could not swear that the identical portrait now 
produced formed part of either parcel. Of this he was sure — 
that all the portraits of Mr. Sothern, as Lord Dundreary, which 
his master had in stock, came from the defendant in the parcels 
he had mentioned. 

Mr. Bowen May was next called, and proved that he was the 
attorney for the complainant in this case, and that the letters 
which had been read had been written by him to the defendant. 
On a subsequent day the defendant had called upon him. On 
being shown the portrait in question, as well as one of Sir E. 
Bulwer Lytton (both of which had been purchased at Messrs. 
Palmer and Sutton's), he said that the former had been pub- 
lished by him. The latter he denied all knowledge of. 

Mr. John James, clerk to Mr. Bowen May, corroborated this 

Mr. Brandt then informed the Court that Mr. Mayall and 
other eminent photographers were present, who could prove 
that the imitative portrait must have been taken from the 
original of the complainant. 

Mr. Pook, for the defendant, said it had not been proved that 
the defendant had any knowledge that a copyright had been 
registered, or that he had any notice that a copyright existed. 
The same question had been raised elsewhere in the case of 
" Gambart v. Powell," in which Mr. Corrie, the magistrate, had 
dismissed the summons. 

Mr. Brandt. — That was a summons issued under the pro- 
visions of another Act of Parliament — viz., the 17th of George 
III., and had nothing whatever to do with the statute now 
under consideration. 

Mr. Pook resumed, and said, though that might be so, there 
had since been a decision in the Court of Common Pleas in 
which Mr. Justice Willes had given judgment against a photo- 
grapher in a similar case, and in that instance a motion for a 
new trial, moved for by Mr. Coleridge, was now pending. He 
took two points on behalf of his client, the defendant, and the 
first was that there had been no proof of any agreement in 
writing by Mr. Sothern for the publication of his portrait; and 
secondly, that if any such agreement had existed, and the 
copyright had been registered, it had not been brought to the 
knowledge of the defendant, as was contemplated by the Act 
of Parliament under which this action had been brought. 

Mr. Barker said he was quite satisfied with the evidence 
before him that the defendant had been guilty of the wrongful 
net imputed to him under the summons and proved in evidence; 
and in order to give him, if he would be so advised, an oppor- 
tunity of appealing against his (Mr. Barker's) decision, he 
should remit the pecdty to the sum of X8 Os. 6d., with power 
of appeal, and award £2 2s. for costs. 

The defendant next pleaded " Not Guilty" to a summons 
iflsued at the instance of Mr. John Edwin Mayall, photographer, 

of Regent Street, for the pirating and publishing of a photo- 
graph of Sir E. Bulwer Lytton, M.P, 

Mr. Mayall deposed that Sir £. Bulwer Lytton had sat to 
him for his portrait at the latter end of July last. He regis- 
tered the portrait on the 21st of August, and of that registra- 
tion he now produced a certificate. The three copies or imita- 
tions now produced were piracies of that copyright. There 
had been an attempt to alter the incidents of the picture by an 
alteration of the curtain in the background, the table at which 
the figure stood, and the carpet, but these were changes which 
any photographer with a pencil and colour could accomplish ; 
still he was convinced that the portrait was a piracy of his 
original photograph. The copies were a disgrace to any man 
pretending to a knowledge of photography. 

In his cross-examination by Mr. Pook, the witness said he 
had the written permission of Sir E. Bulwer Lytton to publish 
the portrait in question, but he did not even allow the honour- 
able baronet himself to have a copy until he had registered it. 

Evidence was then given as in the previous case. 

Mr. Barker said that this case was as clearly proved as the 
former one, and his decision must be the same — namely, 
£3 Os. 6d., with the same power of appeal, and £2 2s. costs. 

At a subsequent sitting, Mr. Barker was informed that Mr. 
Pook, the solicitor for Mr. Daniels, who was convicted at this 
court, on Wednesday last, for selhng copies of photographs of 
Mr. Sothern as Lord Dundreary, and of Sir Edward Bulwer 
Lytton, Bart., M.P., had withdrawn the appeals he had given 
notice of, and that the cases were at an end, as the fines had 
been paid into court. Mr. May had been asked to accept of a 
mitigated penalty ; but he now could not do so, as he had, on 
behalf of his cUents, and before any expense had been incurred, 
explained to Daniels that he had rendered himself liable to heavy 
damages for printing the above portraits, and offered to accept 
a few shillings penalty, merely to impress the fact on Daniels' 
memory. This liberal offer had been refused, and further 
expenses had been incurred by notice of appeal having been 
given. The money which had been paid into court, amounting 
to £10 6s, would hardly pay the expenses that had been incurred ; 
and, under the circumstances, Mr. May could not think of asking 
the magistrate now to mitigate the penalty. From what had 
come to the knowledge of Mr. May, there could be no doubt that 
the money did not whoUy come out of the pocket of Daniels, but 
was found by an association. 

Mr. Barker said that he should only have inflicted a nominal 
fine had not the defendant asked that such an amoant should 
be fixed as to enable him to appeal. As he had not gone on 
with the appeal, and as the money had been paid into court, 
he should at once give an order for the amount to be handed 
over to Mr. May's clerk. 

NoBTH London Photographic Association. 

The usual monthly meeting was held in Myddelton Hall, 
Islington, on the evching of January 21st. Mr. W. Hislop in 
the chair. • 

The minutes of a preceding meeting having been read and 
confirmed, the following gentlemen were elected members of 
the Society: Messrs. P. E. Coffey, E. G. Wood, J. R. Thompson, 
T. R. WiUiams, J. Martin, and Mr. Snoad. 

A number of new stereoscopic slides, instantaneous and 
otherwise, by Mr. Wilson, of Aberdeen, were exhibited by Mr. 
G. Wharton Simpson; and the three reproductions by Mr. 
Annan, distributed this year to the Glasgow Art Union, were 
exhibited by Mr. Dallmeyer. 

Mr. W. W. Kino then proceeded to read a paper entitled " A 
Photographic Trip in Norway," by the Rev. Arthur Cotton (see 
p. 68). A number of very interesting views, taken with Dall- 
meyer's No. 8 triple, were exhibited as illustrating the paper. 
One of the best photographs and most pleasing pictures was 
stated to have been taken between 8 and 9 o'clock at night. 
After some conversation about the^ pictures, a vote of thanks 
to Mr. King was passed. 

Some conversation on Mr. Annan's reproductions, which 
were much admired, followed. 

Mr. Shadbolt produced some prints which were exhibited 
as specimens of toning, regarding which a manufacturer of 
albumenized paper wished to obtain an opinion as to which 

Januast 30, 1863.] 



was best ibr portraiture and which for landscape, as a guide to 
him in preparing the paper. As no information as to the 
method of producing the respective tones was forthcoming, no 
expression of opinion as to their value was elicited. 

Mr. Dawson, referring to the specimens of Mr. Wilson's 
stereographs before the meeting, said they were very beautiful, 
as all his pictures were ; but many of them displayed a great 
amount of curvature in the lines, showing they had been taken 
with a single lens. This was a serious defect in architectural 
workf and it was somewhat strange that such a lens should be 
used for such a purpose, seeing that others were now to be 

Mr. Hiix said that Mr. Wilson did use other lenses, as many 
of the pictures he had in the Exhibition were with the triple 

Mr. Dawson was referring to the pictures now before them. 

Mr. Dallheyer remarked that Mr. Wilson had been using 
a single lens, which he had recently made for him, for 
instantaneous stereoscopic work ; its peculiarity being, that it 
might be worked with a very large aperture. In the ordinary 
stereoscope, with a lens of six inches focus, in which these views 
were intended to be inspected, the slight curvature of lines would 
be corrected, as it had a tendency to produce the opposite kind 
of distortion to that exhibited in these pictures, and thus, in 
the stereoscope, the lines would appear straight. As for views 
not intended for the stereoscope, the time had come when pho- 
tographers would not tolerate views with curved lines ; and, for 
larger pictures, Mr. Wilson used the triple achromatic lens ; and 
he had just been making him a camera with swing back, which, 
permitting the plane of delineation and the object always to bo 
parallel, prevented convergence of the lines wnen it was neces- 
sary to tilt the camera. The triple lens then gave absolute 
freedom from distortion in architecture ; and, for landscape pur- 
poses, he thought he only need to refer to some of the pictures 
of Col. Stuart Wortley to show how pre-eminently fitted it is for 
giving brilliant results in that kind of work. For stereoscopic 
interiors be thought a double combination was best, and he 
might refer, as examples, to the stereoscopic pictures of the 
interior of the International Exhibition, by the Stereoscopic 
Company, which were taken with his No. 1 B. 

^Ir. Dawson, referred to a recent visit he had made to Mr. 
Wilson, when he saw his various lenses, and some very beauti- 
ful pictares. Some of his lenses only cost a few shillings. 

After some further conversation, in which the tones of the 
prints exhibited by Mr. Shadbolt were again canvassed, he 
laid he believed the difference in tone was due simply to the 
different proportion of chloride and albumen used, the same 
salt being used in all. In some there was a slight pink tint in 
the whites. 

Mr. Seslet thought thsEt no rule could be laid down for 
aniformity of tone. The sentiment of the subject should be 
considered, and the kind of negative. A soft negative required 
the most brilliflait white paper, whilst a hard one was sometimes 
imnroved by a little degradation of the whites. 

Mr. Sydney Sscyth exhibited some instantaneous stereo- 
gTAphs, taken at Plymouth, which were much admired. In 
answer to questions, he explained that they were produced with 
coUixlion made by himself, containing two grains of bromide to 
each ounce, and equal portions, of iodide of cadmium and ammo- 
niam. The lens was one of Shepherd's card portrait lenses, 
of^ inches focus, with a stop of about | of an inch. 

Mr. Dawson said the difference between these pictures and 
Mr. Wilson's, consisted in the fact, that, whilst Mr. Smyth 'shad 
manifestly been taken with an enormous flood of light poured 
through a portrait lens, Mr. Wilson's were taken with a single 
lens and small aperture. He took care to have his chemicals 
in Buch sensitive condition, that he got the instantaneous effects 
with these appliances that others got with large aperture and 
portrait lenses, and thus the general definition, and especially 
the distances, in his were superior. 

Mr. Seelby asked if it were not generally understood, that 
a single lens with small aperture was equal to a compound lens 
with large aperture, owing to the numMr of reflecting surfaces 
in the latter, all decreasing light. 

Mr. Dallmeyeb said something was undoubtedly lost by 
the number of reflecting surfaces, but much less than was often 
represented or fancied. The proportion of loss calculated by 
Professor Petzvid for central pencils was only one-thirtieth 
part of the whole. It was not possible to use a single so as to 
work as quick as a double combination. Knowing that the 
single lens gave greater depth of focus than the portrait com- 

bination, he had taken the new single lens he had made for 
Mr. Wilson to Mr. Williams to try. They tested it with the No. 
1 B, using with the latter a stop of 1} inch, and with the other 
a stop of I inch. The result was that the single lens gave a 
bare positive, whilst in the same time the double lens gave an 
over-exposod negative. Perhaps it might be well to remember 
that in the majority of Mr. Wilson's subjects a quasi-instan- 
taneous exposure was admissible, and where perfect instan- 
taneity was imperative the double combination should be used. 
Mr. Breese, who used his new stereo compound lens of 8^ inches 
back focus, or 4,^ inches equivalent focus, told him that he was 
able to take the moon quite instantaneously with it. Now 
Mr. De la Hue has always found it necessary to give at least 
five seconds, and it followed from the difficulty of following 
the moon's course that much less perfect results could be 
obtained by a prolonged than an instantaneous exposure. 
After some further conversation, the proceedings terminated. 



TBI applications of photography aro already such as mark a high destiny for 
the art, and are a source of proud gratification to those who have been asso- 
ciated with its history and progress. 

In portraiture, its most widely-extended and popular application, its value, 
in contributing to individual and social happiness, by placing within reach 
of the lowliest, as well as the highest, the treasured mementos of absent 
friends, scarcely needs affirming. The extent to which the class of portraits 
known as cartes de vitUe have been circulated, is almost beyond belief. 

Its aid and connection with various sciences, as a faithful recorder, has of 
late years received ample recognition and illustration. In the magnetic and 
meteorological department of the Roval Observatorv at Greenwich, photo- 
graphy is in daily use, and proves of inestimable value as a registrar of the 
magnetic and atmospheric variations. To the invention of Mr. C. Brooke, 
F.R.S., and the subsequent adaptation of the late Mr. Welch, the public are 
indebted for many useful applications of photography to the registration of 
natural phenomena. Under the able superintendence of Mr. Glaisher, every 
perturbation of the magnet diiring each of the twenty-four hours is .self- 
registered by the aid of photography. The thermometer and barometer are 
made, by its aid, to record their own variations. Similar registrations in 
different parts of the world afford facilities for accurate comparison, and con- 
tributions of the utmost importance are thus secured towards the systemizing, 
and establishing, upon certain data, meteorological science. 

The contributions of photography to pictorial art have been manv and im- 
portant during the last ten years. Perhaps the most interesting of these have 
been in the department of instantaneous photography, by which the evanes- 
cent and changing aspects of nature are seized and rendered permanent ere 
they have had time to change. Those fleeting and ever-charming atmo- 
spheric effects which, " ere a man can say, behold the Jawi of darkness 
swallow," or which are — 

" Just like a snow-flake on the river, 
A moment bright, then gone for ever,** 

are depicted with the rapidity of light— preserved for future contemplation. 

The advancement in the chemical branches of the art ; the improvement 
in optical appliances, and the increased skill in manipulation, have enabled 
photographers to secure various phases of the ocean in calm and storm, and 
under all conditions of light and sky, and atmospheric effect. Crowded 
thoroughfares fiUed with rapidly-moving figures and vehicles are accurately 
rendered, the uplifted foot caught and depicted in mid-air, never to fall. 

Vesuvius in eruption, with its rolling volumes of smoke, is caught and 
fixed upon the tablet of the photographer. Apart fh>m the pleasure obtained 
firom the examination of such pictures for their own sake, their value to the 
painter, in reducing his labour and increasing the truthfulness of his results. 
Is of very great importance. 

The small images, which are usually obtained by Instantaneous processes, 
are, moreover, capable of amplification by such appliances as the solar camera, 
and other means which have been recently brought to a high state of perfec- 
tion. Photography itself has also aimed at emulating the productions of the 
painter, as well as aiding him by supplying him with studies ; and the com- 
position groups of Rejlander, Robinson, and others, give much hope of suc- 
cessful results in this direction. 

The production of natural colours by means of photography remains to be 
accomplished ; but the labours of MM. Becquerel and Niepce de St. Victor 
afford hope that such an end is not beyond the range of possibility. Within 
the last year, the latter gentleman has succeeded, not only in producing 
colours, as in an original, but in preserving them for a few hours. The feet, 
once accomplished, establishes the possibility, and the means only require to 
be defined and verified. 

A record of the progress of photography, as illiistrated by all its applica- 
tions, would far more than fill the space allotted in-this Report. Suffice it to 
say, that there is scarcely a branch of art, of science, of economics, or, 
indeed, of human interest in its widest amplification, in which the applica- 
tions of this art have not been made useful. 

In addition to those applications of which we have spoken, it may be briefly 
added, that photography has, by the rapidity and uncompromising truth of 
its delineations, aided the psychologist in his studies of the physiognomy of 
mental disease or abnormal emotion, as the portraits which have been pub- 
licly exhibited strikingly illustrate. 

It has aided the study of medical science by its truthful representation in 

* Continued firom p. 46. 



[January 30, 1863. 

morbid aiuitomy of malformation and disease generally, and hj its reoord of 
the progress of cases and Illustrations of smf^cal treatment. 

As an aid to ethnological science, no mode of delineation can compare with 
it Its unerring truthAilness lias been found of unsurpassed value to the 
student of every branch of natural history, as is shown in the productions of 
Count de Montison, and others. 

In giving a permanent form to the enlarged images of the microscope, it 
has added a truth and value to the productions of the micrographer which 

tcould not otherwise possesii. 

The archsologist and antiquary, the virtuoso and historian, have gladly 
acknowledged its value, and sought its aid. With the architect and engineer 
it supersedes, and for surpasses in many cases the drawings made by hand. 
For them it records unerringly the progress of worlcs from which the direct- 
ing mind may be thousands or miles distant. 

It enters the court of Justice, and becomes the unchallengeable reproducer 
of documents ; or, pursuing the cjiminal, it silently, but indisputably, iden- 
tifles him in a land where he is unknown. 

For the manufacturer it depicts his design.<<, patterns, or workmanship 
with focility and truth not to be equalled, illustrations of which are to be 
found in every part of the present display of the world's industry. 

And lastly, more ambitious still, as if the globe were too narrow a sphere 
for its resources, it travels into space, seeking and taking records of the 
phases of other worlds, and of that great body the sun, to whose subtle and 
"archchemick" gift it owes its power and life. 

It is satisfactory also to know that the status of photography is still far- 
ther recognized by an Act of Parliament, parsed last session, securing copy- 
right in photographs, hitherto not given by law. 

(To le eorUifwed.) 



Paris, 2Sth January, 1863. 

Ton will remember that the Academy of Sciences proposed 
last year, as the subject of competition for the Bordin prize, 
the following important photographic question : — 

To determine by experiment the causes capable of influencing 
the differences of position betioeen the optical and the photo- 
genie foci. 

Several elaborate Mimoires have been addressed to the 
Academy, two of which obtained prizes. From M. Fizenau's 
Report I extract the following passages. 

" A short time after the announcement of the discovery of 
Niepce and Daguerre, when so many persons ardently 
devoted themselves to the production of pictures drawn by 
light, observers attentive to giving the greatest possible 
sharpness to the images soon remarked a singular fact, viz. : 
that the pictures obtained were not generally satisfactory, 
when the plate was placed exactly in the optical focus of the 
lens, that is to say, in the plane where the eye perceived the 
image of an object with the greatest distiuctncBs, while the 
proofs presented a much superior sharpness when the plate 
was placed at a certain distance from this optical focus, in a 
distinct place which has been designated the chemical or 
photogenic focus." 

Experience has shown that the difference of position of 
these two foci may be observed with the various sensitive 
films employed at the present day in photography, but that 
it is generally very variable, according to the quality of the 
objective, and also with the size of the images obtained by 
means of the same objective. In certain instances the state 
of the atmosphere also exercises a marked influence which, 
however, is but slightly apparent in ordinary circumstances, 
and may be overlooked. 

The first Memoire we now report upon bears the device, 
" Theory is the Explanation of 1^ acts by Real Causes." 

The author commences by establishing the fundamental 
fact of the difference of position between the optical and 
chemical foci ,by means of experiments, the specimens of 
which accompanying the Memoire add to the clearness of 
the demonstration. The fact being well established, the 
author, in seeking the cause, analyses with much sagacity 
the complex circumstances which result from the achro- 
matism of the lenses ; to this end he imagines twenty-one 
different achromatic systems, in which the principal rays of 
the [solar spectrum are successively united in pairs at the 
same focus, and in each of these c&<;es he determines by a 
close calculation the relative foci peculiar to each of the 
other rays. 

In the second part of the Memoire, still more developed 
than the first, tne author endeavours to give a practical 
character to his work by considering the following problem : 
— Given an objective, for which wo have determined, by 
experiment, the difference in position of the two foci, in the 
instance where the image .is of the same size as the object ; 
to determine beforehand the distance of the two foci (or 
what the author c^dls the chemical correctvm) for any sized 
image, or in other terms, for any distance from the object. 

The author arrives at a very simple formula, which permits 
of our calculating the photogenic distance of the optical 
focus of any objective system whatever, for various sized 
images, provided that we have determined, bv experiment, a 
certain constant quantity peculiar to each objective, or the 
distance of the two foci in the case where the image and the 
object are both of the same size. 

This Memoire concludes with numerical tables, intended to 
give, in all circumstances which may present themselves in 
practice, the value of the chemical correction, and of the 
slight displacement which must be given to each plate, 
beyond or nearer to the optical focus, to obtain the g^eate^t 
possible sharpness in the picture. These tables have been 
verified by M. Bertsch, the eminent photographer. 

The author of this Memoire is M. Felix Teynard, of Saint 
Martin, near Grenoble. The Academy has awarded him a 
gold medal of the value of two thousand francs. 

The second Mimoire is written in the German language. 
Its device is : — Es irrt der Meixsch so lang er sirebt. 

The work is in two parts ; tho first consists principally of 
the principles of optics. 

In the second part, which includes no less than thirty 
folio pages of numerical calculations, the author, with a zeal 
and perseverance worthy of all prsise, devotes himself to a 
detailed analysis of the properties of various achromatic 
objectives composed cither of one or many systems of lenses ; 
and in taking into account in these calculations the thick* 
ness and mutual distances of the lenses, he determines sepa- 
rately the foci, or points of meeting, of nine species of 
different rays, at nearly equal spaces amid the various 
colours which compose the solar spectrum from the ray B to 
the ray H. 

From these researches the author draws practical conclu- 
sions adapted to guide opticians in the construction of 
objectives intended for photography, by indicating certain 
delations between the distance wnich separates the optical 
from the chemical focus for various objectives, and the tint 
of the coloured fringes which border the images when the 
eye perceives them in the optical focus. 

The author of this Memoii^ is Herr Carl Miersch, of 
Dresden, Saxony. The Academy, in recognition of the 
merits of this work, awarded the author a gold medal of the 
value of a thousand francs. 

At the last meeting of our Photographic Society, the 
committee reported that, considering the prosperous condi- 
tion of the Society, they thought it their duty in future to 
encourage and reward the intei*e8ting works and important 
inventions that might be communicated to it. They pro- 
pose to establish an annual distribution of medals to be 
awarded as honorific rather than as pecuniary recompenses, 
for the most important presentations made to the Society, 
beside the competitions opened for certain determinate 

The President remarked that it was unnecessary to dwell 
upon the evident advantages of this proposal, which, while 
renderixig an act of justice, would excite and surely attract 
to the French Photographic Society the studies and re- 
searches of all those, foreigners as well as natives, who could 
in any department of the art effect an improvement and aid 
the progress of photography. But, in order to secure all 
the advantages of the proposal, it would be necessary that 
the programme should De carefully studied, and its applica- 
tion well regulated. 

The Secretary also announced that the committee, in order 
to impart additional interest to the meetings of the Society, 

Jahttast 30, 1863.] 



proposed to exhibit various experimental demonstratioDs 
upon the scientific questions connected with photographic 
pQenomen& M. Edmand Becquerel, at the request of the 
i-ozumittee, will commence a series of demonstrations at the 
February meeting of the Society. 

It was also stated that the project of connecting a photo- 
graphic laboratory with the UxmU occupied by the Society 
had for a long time engaged the serious attention of the 
committee, but that certain practical difficulties existed 
which preyented the committee from carrying out this 
desirable object. When their present lease expired would 
he the time to select such a locality as would aomit of this 
project being carried into operation. 

The Secretary observed to the meeting that the Society 
had now been in existence eight years, and had prospered 
far beyond all expectation ; and that this prosperity was 
doubtless owing to the prudence with which its affairs had 
been conducted. It may not be superfluous to remind 
English artists that our rhotographic Exhibition opens on 
the 1st of May, and that we hope to see it adorned with 
Mme of those charming works the fame of which has 
reached ub, and which form the frequent topic of photo- 
graphic conversation. 


Obskbvibo the letter of " Fair Play " in your last week's 
jonmal, on *' New Mode of Piracy," I think it well to in- 
form you that I have the opinion of an eminent member of 
the bar, well versed in copyright law, that ikU system of 
copying is illegal ; also, that there is no doubt but a 
Terdict would be given against photographers and dealers 
for selling copies of cartes de visiie which have been pub- 
lished prior, although registered since the passing of the 
Act 25 and 26 Victoria, sec. 6. 

I believe it is not generally known the enormous extent 
to which piracy in photography is carried on. Having re- 
ceired inlormation from various correspondents that copies 
of my portrait of a person of considerable celebrity were 
being sold to a great extent throughout the kingdom, I took 
the trouble to discover the delinquent. At one wholesale 
dealer 8 I obtained his list of no less than 500 various por- 
traits, at a second 559, at a third nearly 700 ) the stock in 
the warehouse of the latter must consist of at least 100,000 
copies, therefore we may conclude that as many have been 
palmed on the public as genuine, which of course very 
seriously injures the reputation and interest of the original 

On taking legal steps against one of these unprincipled 
dealers, proceedings were stayed in consideration of certain 
damages and costs, and a discharge to that date given from 
any further penalty for having sold pirated copies; also, to 
nearly thirty of his customers, amongst whom were to be 
found the names of many of the largest and wealthiest silk- 
merceis and drapers in the city and provinces ; but it is 
believed these latter gentlemen were ignorant that they were 
being supplied with spurious goods. The photographer in 
one case (who, by the by, claims relationship with royal 
blood !) also had to pay heavy damages and costs, and was 
bound over to respect the law for the future. In the two 
csisea which appeared in the Times, at the Glerkenwell Police 
Court, on the z2nd inst., before Mr. Barker, the defendant 
vas convicted, and a penalty imposed of <£3 Os. 6d. and 
'.'OsU. £2 2s., in each case. Although nothing could have 
Ijwn clearer than the proofs in each case, defendant's solicitor 
rrxx>mmended his client to appeal against the decisions of 
the magistrate. Wisely, however, the penalties have since 
I >en paid. 

Were photographers to devote a little time and trouble to 
their own interests in this matter, they would soon put a 
-top to piracy. The course to be taken is simple : the pro- 
piit'tor should send some one in his employ to purchase a 
cujiy exi)oscd for sale ; let him write on tne back the name 
«nd address of the vendor, time and date, and post it to the 

solicitor, with instructions to do the needful, and within a 
week or ten days the police magistrate will convict the 
offender. I hear that there are no less than 18 cases now in 
the hands of the solicitor, several of which will be brought 
before the provincial magistrates. It is to be hoped that 
every possible information respecting illegal copying, will 
be given by respectable dealers to the solicitor or the Asso- 
ciation. — Your obedient servant, A pHOToaBA^PHsa. 

[We strongly commend photographers to adopt the advice 
of our correspondent. Prompt and vigorous measures now, 
will, we hope, speedily put a stop to the piracies which have 
BO long degraded the art, and denrauded able and respectable 
photographers. We intend to give the fullest publicity to 
every case of which we obtain information. See page 55. 

Obtainino Clouds in Landscapes. 

Sib, — ^The use of the flap-shutter, for varying the exposure 
of foreground and sky, as mentioned by Mr. W. H. Warner, in 
No. 227 of the News, although not new, is perhaps the most 
simple mode of attaining that obiect— at least, in cases where 
the straight ed^e of the shutter does not preclude its adoption. 
May I be permitted to suggest a mode of working it which I 
have found advantageous, in use with the binocular box stereo- 
scopic camera, which I designed about three years since, and 
which I think will be found free from the objections which 
would app]y to the plan of marking with a pencil line, as de- 
scribed by your correspondent. A small index is attached to 
the axis on which tho shutter turns, and is fixed by a move- 
ment of the finger of the same hand by which the flap is held, 
while tho necessary anele is ascertained by looking at the 
ground glass. The details will immediately suggest themselves 
to any mechanic. I think, at the same time, that the use of 
the flap-shutter, in the ordinary form, must always be extremely 
limitea. and thus a means of adapting the line of division to 
that of the actual view will be much more valuable, and this is 
not difficult of attainment. — Yours truly, G. W. Smabtt. 

Book Packets and Newspapebb. — The following regula* 
tions will affect the postage of photographs :— On the 2nd of 
February the following alterations wiU take effect in the rules 
affecting book packets and newspapers : — 1. Book packets sent 
through the post between places in the United ICingdom, or 
between the United Kingdom and any of the colonies^ which 
may have been posted either wholly unpaid or paid less than a 
single rate of b(K)k postage, will be forwarded to their destina- 
tion charged, not as at present with the letter postage, but only 
with a postage which, together with any stamps which they 
may bear, will be equal to double the book postage which 
should have been prepaid. 2. No prints or printed matter will 
be allowed to be sent in book packets between places in the 
United Kingdom, or between the United Kingdom and any of 
the colonies, except such as may be printed on paper, parch- 
ment, or vellum. 8. Any newspaper bearing the impressed or 
newspaper stamp, posted for transmission between places in the 
United Kingdom, which may be found to have any writing or 
marks (though it be only a previous address to another person, 
and that cancelled) either upon the newspaper itself or upon its 
cover, other than the name and address of the person to whom 
it is sent, or anything printed upon its cover, except the name 
or title of the newspaper and tho name and address of tho 
publisher, newsveudor, or agent, by whom it is sent, will be 
charged, not as now with the double letter postage according 
to its weight, but only with a postage of 2d., being the double 
postage for a letter not exceeding half an ounce in weight. 
This charge is to be made for each newspaper written upou or 
marked, whether sent singly or in a packet of newspapers. 4. 
A newspaper for any placo abroad, which may bo found to 
infringe the rules in the manner described in paragraph 8, will 
not bo forwarded, but will be sent to the returned letter branch. 
5. A newspaper received as such from abroad, in regard tu 
which there has been a similar violation of the rules, will be 
charged, in addition to any postage which may be chargeable 
upon it OS a newspaper, with the postage payable on a single 
letter from the same country. 



[January 30, 1863. 

9/aIk in tht S^tvdna. 

The Bscekt Bobbebt of Lenses at the Cbtbtal 
Palace. — Our readers who have already read the particulars 
of this case, as heard before the sitting magistrate at Lambeth, 
would notice two advertisements in our last ; from Messrs. 
Kegretti and Zambra, offering ten pounds reward for any 
information regarding the stolen lenses, and another offering 
two hundred pounds reward from Mr. Restall for similar infor- 
mation. As we are desirous of aiding the cause of justice, and 
the credit of photography, we wish to call the attention of our 
readers to these announcements, and to suggest that if the 
slightest information bearing on the subject be in the possession 
of our readers, it should be forwarded without delay both to Mr. 
Kestall, the accused, and Messrs. Negretti and Zambra, justice 
demanding that both parties, in such a case, should be put in 
possession of every particular relating to it. It will be observed 
that any one who has, in ignorance, purchased any of the lenses, 
will not be deprived of them, Messrs. Negretti and Zambra 
being more anxious to find the real culprit, than to recover their 

Optical Illusions at the Polytechnic. — Our readers 
who have opportunity will do well to hear Mr. Pepper's 
'* Strange Lecture" at the Polytechnic Institution, which is 
chiefly devoted to the explanation and illustration of optical 
illusions, and incidentally contains many interesting illustra- 
tions of the nature and properties of light. The great feature 
of the lecture is the introduction of certain "ghosts," which, 
in vividness and reality, exceed anything before produced by 
optical illusions. The exact nature of the appliances is not 
explained, but there appears to be little doubt that the images 
are projected by the aid of a concave mirror. How the in- 
tensity of illumination necessary is managed is the puzzle, as 
the spectre appears at times more solid, real, and vivid than 
the real figure of a man which passes through the spectral 
images. We can conceive that photographing a ghost would 
become tolerably easy in this case. 

%o €axxt%]Sanbaixts. 

Mb. Skaifs's Pistolgbapa.— The words "Illastnited Guide, 2nd edition," 
were left out in tbeadyertisement of Mr. Skaife's Ten Guinea Pistolgraph. 
This book can be obtained on receipt of 13 stamps, by applying at 32, 
Sussex Street, Regent's Park. 

Kok-Aotimio Glass. — Our report has been requested on several samples of 
glass. John Martin sends a specimen of brown pot metal, which we have 
so constantly had occasion to warn our readers against, as permitting con- 
siderable quantities of actinic light to pass through. J. W. sends three 
samples : No. 1 is similar to the above, but much lighter, and therefore 
even less safe. Nos. 2 and 3 are silver flashed glass. The former is very 
light, and in the spectroscope allows many actine rays, especially al)out 
tlie blue and violet, to pass. No. 8 is perfectly opaque to all photographic 
rays. Exoblbiob sends two specimens.lNo. 1, a piece of the above-named 
brown pot metal, and No.2, a piece of good orange silver flashed gloss, identical 
in colour and properties with J. W.'s No. 3. The sample sent by J. B. is 
of similar silver flashed glass, which is perfectly trustworthy for the window 
of a dark room. 

Perplbxitt. — For glass positives it will be desirable to odd a little nitric 
acid to the bath after treating with carbonate of soda. Or the same result, 
that is, clean shadows, may sometimes be obtained by adding tincture of 
iodine to the collodion, until it is the colour of a brown sherry. Regarding 
the works you name, No. 1 is out of print, and No. 2 is out of date. 

L. L. U. — You will find much information on the application of photographic 
lenses to the purposes of the magic lantern in our back volumes. We may 
especlallv name page 53. Vol. v., or No. 126. See Mr. Highley's paper on 
the Magic Lantern and Photography. 

H. Kbnt. — ^The method referred to is recommended by Mr. Maxwell Lyte ; 
we have not tried it ourselves. When you add carbonate of soda to an 
acid solution at any time, be careful how you cork it up, as, unless the car- 
bonic acid gas liberated can escape, an explosion such as you describe may 
easily follow. K you adopt the same method again, mix the carbonate of 
soda and phosphate of soda in a little water, and then pour it into the dis- 
coloured silver bath in an open vessel, stirring it meanwhile with a glass 
rod. We generally use kaolin to deicolourise a bath. 

Garibaldi. — We cannot with propriety undertake to say which is the best 
house for obtaining any kind of photographic material ; but in the articles 
you mention, silver and gold, the prices are generally uniform. It is im- 
possible to say where they are kept purest. 

Kbuobb — Your lens is scarcely quite equal to the production of standing 
card portraits, and yon use too much front Ught, which gives flatness to 
the features. 

0. B.— To obtain a biting surface in glass positives, upon which drv colour 
will readily adhere, a suitable varnish should be used. The alabastrine 
varnish sold by Squire and Co., or the positive colouring varnish, sold by 
Newman, will answer the purpose. Colour first on the film, Uien vaniish, 
and then again apply the dry colours. Should you not be able to obtain 
the varnish referred to, you may use a coating of turpentine after colour- 
ing on the film. This must be thoroughly dry before applying the colour. 

and you will find it then adhere without difficulty. Nevertheless we do 
not like the use of the turx»enUne. 

H. R.— Mr. England informed us that he had kept tannin and honey plates 
some months without lorious deterioration. Thev should, however, be 
developed as soon after exposure as posAble— that Is, within a day or two. 
There is some uncertainty and discrepancy of experience on U&is subject. 
2. The best mode of keeping dry plates is that which will moat efTeetaally 
protect them, not only from the light, but fh>m moisture and atmospheric 
influences. If packed up in the &shion of Dr. Hill NorriS's plates, they 
should, like his, be made air-tight. 3. Mr. Robinson has given the " May 
Queen" negative to a committee for the relief of Lancashire. We cannot 
tell you at present where prints may be had, nor the price. The negative 
went into the charge of Mr. Dehunotte. 4. We prefer camera printing, with 
wet collodion, for transparencies. If you prefer printing by super-position, 
MAt tannin plates. 

P. L., .G. K., Ak Opbbatob, Ak Assistast Opbbatob, A Photoobaphic 
Printer, and some others. — We believe it is now in contemplation to open 
the Exhibition in the evenings the last fortnight of the season. See our 
remarks in this week's critique. 

An Amatbub. — We do not remember, at this moment, a description of a 
changing box sufficiently ftill to enable you to make one ; but they are to 
be hfiMl of most camera makers, and dealers in apparatus. We remember 
to have seen them in the establishments of Bland and Co., Mr.* Hughes, 
and Mr. Meagher, and are, doubtless, kept by others. We are uncertain of 
the price. 2. Our own method of coating plates with the tannin solution is 
to pour on the plate sufficient to cover it ; let it rest a minute or two on 
a levelling stand, whilst we attend to another plate ; then pour the first 
solution off and coat again, and allow the plate to drain. We have no doubt 
that Mr. Sutton's plan will answer very well. 

John Martin. — ^Report on your glass in a paragraph above. 2. The electric 
light is the most actinic artificial light which has been applied to photo- 
graphic purposes; but none has yet been succesafnlly, or generally, 
applied commercially. 8. The plan described is bcarcely suitable for the 
manuCacture of oxygen on a small scale. 4. Three parts of chlorate of 
potash, and one of oxide of manganese, are good proportions for the manu- 
facture of oxygen. 6. About four cubic feet of oxygen, and the same 
quantity of carburetted hydrogen will be consumed in an hour. 

A. B. C. — Moule's night light is chiefly used for producing glass positives, 
and we have seen some pretty good ones so produced. Of course there is 
some little difficulty in obtaining sufficient light on the sitter without 
dazzling the eyes. We cannot tell you whether it is much used or not. 
2. Polysulphide of potassium, or liver of sulphur, should be used for pre- 
cipitating the silver from the residues of the sink. If you do a Urge busi- 
ness it will be quite worth while to save such residues. 

John Hawbb. — We are obliged by the charming cards, and also by the satis- 
fikctory information as to lens and collodion. We shall " make a note of 

D. M. A. sends us, amongst various hints which we shall note and remember, 
a suggestion for the use of a solution of iron in place of tannin, for dried 
plates. He states some experiments lead him to think that it would be 
successful. We fear it would be somewhat unmanageable, and that the 
plates would not keep welL It will be important to remove all free 

E. L. LooKB. — Methods of dissolving silk to use instead of collodion have 
before been suggested, but have not come into practical use. By using 
proper care in the manufacture of collodion it is quite possible to obtain 
a very adherent and strong film. 

R. S. S. — There is unquestionably a want of force about the standing figures, 
but whether it is due to having too much light stopped out overhead we 
cannot with certainty say. There appears to be too much difTused light 
and too little direct light. The light wants concentrating so as to reach 
the sitter more directly from one source, and thus produce more definitely 
marked lights and shadows. Five or six feet opaque over-head, with a 
little more semi-opaque may probably answer very well. The standing 
figures appear over-exposed, and that will destroy contrast, however well 
lighted the figure may be. 

A. B.— We will write shortly. 

Colombo.— We do not know of any efficient means of restoring faded prints. 
Immersing them in a solution of chloride of gold has been suggested, but 
we have not tried it Those which went down in the Colombo have been 
submitted to so many agencies which would act on silver prints that it is 
difficult to trace the cause of the discolouration and fading. When 
warmed they smell strongly of sulphur. 

G. R.— For copying oil-paintings use a freely bromized coUo^on. Then ex- 
pose for the darkest or most non-actinic parts, leaving the lights to take 
care of themselves. You will not lose detail in this way. Mr. Thurston 
Thompson, who has produced some of the finest copies of paintings ever 
issued, uses half as much bromide as iodide. 

S. JoNBS. — We are not certain that we decypher this correspondent's signs- 
ture, who enquires how long the acetate of soda and gold l»th may be 
used. There is no especial limit but the bath becoming inert or ex- 
hausted ; but it is well to use a little at a time and not use it very fre- 
quently, as it becomes of an uncertain strength and renders its time of 
working irregular. Slow toning may depend upon an inert or exhausted 
condition of the bath, upon cold weather, the quality of the paper, Ac ; 
Rive paper, highly albumenised, toning more slowly than others. You 
may safely tone twenty card prints in one ounce of hypo, dissolved in five 
or six of water. A toning bath of hypo and gold which has been in use 
for six months is altogether unsafe, and the prints are not likely to stand. 
We do not require any fee for our advice in this column, it is always freely 
at the service of our readers. 

W. Fox.— Thank you for your hints, of which we shall make a note. 

ArUcles on " Art-Photography and its Critics," en " Harrison's New Globe 
Lenses," "Scientific Gossip," and a variety of others are compelledto stand 
over for lack of space. 

Amatbdb, Dby Platb, Also. Abnstbin, and several other correspondents in 
our next 

V!iotografil(0 ttegtstm^ Suring t|e Vast mut^ 

John Bbattib, 26, Triangle, Bristol, 

Three-quarter portrait of Rev. David Thomas. 


Vol. VII. No. 2S1,— February 6, 1863. 



Aii-Photognphy and its Clitics 61 

Artistic Copyright 62 

Fhotogrsphic Kxhibition— Award of Prises 63 

surer ia th« Whites of Albumenised Prints. By John Splller... 63 

Printing Oiffleolties. By a Photographer'B Assistant 64 

The Adrantage of a Strong Nitrate of Silver Bath for Sensitising 

Albomenized Paper, Aa 65 

On Borne of the Uses and Abases of Photography. By Thomas 

Batton, Esq., B.A. „ 65 


The Application of Photography to the Magic Lantern Bdnoa- 

tionally Considered. By Samuel Highley, F.G.8., F.C.& ... 68 

Proceedings of Societies 60 

Correspondence. — Nature and Constitution of tiie Finished 

Negative 71 

Photographic Notes and Queries 71 

Talk in the Studio 72 

To Correspondents.. 72 

Photographs Registered during the Week 72 


Thk majority of the art-critics have shown an amusing 
agreement in condemning art-photography, as displayed in 
the Photographic Exhibition this year. Critics do not often 
endorse each other, but " when they do agree, their unanimity 
is wonderfuL" It is true they vary as to the precise grounds 
of their condemnation, but they agree in attacking the art 
wherever it seems most likely to innovate upon what they 
conceive to be the legitimate province of the artist, wherever 
it seems likely to produce pictures, or something more than 
studies, which " may be taken as memoranda for the use of 
artists/' It is the old story, which we had thought dead 
and decently buried, revived again. Photography is to be 
a servant of servants ; it may hew wood and draw water, or 
do other mechanical labour ; but it must not presume to act 
as having attained its freedom in the guild of art. 

Acoordingly, it is against the attempts to make pictures 
Tve find the greatest rancour is directed, and Mr. Robinson's 
noble composition, " Bringing Home the May," has been 
the especial victim. In the Illustrated News we are informed 
that '* photographers only can estimate the di£Eiculty of select- 
ing and posing the different models, arranging and uniting 
the different studies, and toning into harmony such a work 
a(> this; and, perhaps, only artists can fully understand 
how completely this labour is thrown away. What have 
we here? — a funeral rather than a gleeful procession." It 
would not require an artist to discover the difference between 
a funeral ana a gleeful procession ; but it certainly would 
require an art-critic to discover any suggestion of a funeral 
in the noble picture referred to. Another remarkable fact 
is discovered by this critic, which photographers will be 
surprised to learn, is, that " photographers seem disposed to 
force the power of their lenses more than heretofore ; hence 
the curvature in the lines of architecture, which is becoming 
fo frequently perceptible.'* Our own conviction, which we 
held in common ¥rith the majority of photographers, was, 
that this curvature, at one time almost universal, was, since 
the invention of a lens absolutely free from such distortion, 
becoming very rare. The remark is made, it is true, whilst 
sneaking of Mr. Bedford's pictures, and charging them with 
tuts £ault. It happens that Mr. Bedford, in working in the 
East, used simply the single lens, which, in architectural 
t^nbjects, gives this curvature ; but to base on this fact a state- 
ment that such curvature is becoming more common, simply 
dumla}'^ ignorance of the real facts. Amongst some just 
ana discriminating remarks, we have many further misuse 
of termsi displays of ignorance of the art, which are suffi- 
cient to show the worthlessness of the general opinion. We 
have, for instance, talk about "the inevitable focal distortion," 
whatever that may be ; about the enlargement of the " spec- 
trum," by which is meant not a spectrum at all, but the 
point of Hght in the eye. We have familiar talk about the 
phoUMdncography of Col. James, and the chromo-carbon 
printing of Capt. Scott as distinct processes ; and more to 
the same purpote. It is somewhat amusing to find that the 

objections of this critic are little more or less than wholesale 
plagiarism from Lady Eastlake's article in the Quarterly 
Remew on Photography, some half dozen years ago, and 
which, we need scarcely inform our readers, was a very 
different thing to the photography of to-day. The critic in 
the Illustrated reached the end of his article and the climax 
of absurdity together by informing his readers that Mr. 
Breese exhibits instantaneous stereographs in which is a 
" painted moon." We commend to him the task of painting 
— in lights into any photographic transparency on glass, 
without the added difficulty of making his "painting" 
stand the test of the stereoscope. 

The Daily News has always been distinguished by its just 
and appreciative view of photography ; but the advance of 
certain phases of photography seems to have startled it into 
injustice. We are tola that photography "continues 
trenching closer and closer upon the territory of the artist 
proper; that we rub our eyes as we ask ourselves whether all 
this is art or art manufacture, and whether the taste for the 
photograph indicates a healthy feeling for art in its nobler 
forms, or merely a rage for having the eye tickled, as it 
were, with close imitations." And we are further told that 
other " instances of a vulgar and degrading tendency of 
photography in some hands" is found in pictures of "the 
sea struck by the instantaneous process into a soi-t of petri- 
fied ploughed field." We are here willing to put against 
the dictum of the critic the opinion of the President of the 
Royal Academy, Sir Charles Eastlake, who when he first exa- 
mined an instantaneous stereograph of the sea, exclaimed 
that, compared with this, he had never before seen the sea 
delineatea by any method. On the production of subject 

Sictures, the Daily News is more intolerant still, as "a 
evelopment of the art more offensive than any other." 
" Bringing Home the May" is styled a "particularly con- 
ceited attempt of this kind ;" the budding May is called 
" ridiculous looking stuff, more like sponge than hawthorn 
blossom." How a good photograph oi May blossom should 
look like something else, we leave the critic to explain ; but 
we may remark that he has evidently fanciea that the 
photograph was not from nature, since he speaks of such 
pictures as being produced from " properties and living la^ 
hgures." The last time the Daily News noticed an exhi- 
bition of photographs, Mr. Robinson's composition pictures 
were selected for especial praise ; they are styled " simple," 
" natural," " pleasing," " beautiful ;" and it was hoped they 
" would bring him the fame he deserves." 

The lUustraUd Times attacks the same phase of photo- 
graphy, and informs photographers that they mistake their 
vocation in " making subjects out of dressed-up figures, and 
sundry shrivelled greenery and rock-work." In this remark 
we agree with the critic ; but we are bound to add that we 
have not seen any pictures produced from such materials in 
thepresent Exhibition. 

Various other reviews of the exhibition hare appeared 
with criticisms of similar tendency, the only thoroughly 
genial and appredative notice appearing in the Morning Poi, 



[Fbbbuabt 6, 1863. 

We may mention here also a drearily funny artide in 
a recent number of Chambers' Journal, with the title 
of " The Modem Priests and Temples of the Sun." The 
chief idea that strikes us in reading this article is wonder 
at the amazing misinformation it contains. The ignorance 
of the writer appears to be of that character which has been 
styled as "not only comprehensive and vast, but very 
elaborate and minute." We are told, for instance, that a 
phptograph always inverts the figure, making the right 
hand the left, &c., and that "this diabolical perversion 
was doubtless invented by photographers," &c. ; for what 
purpose do our readers thiiuc? The writer says, "in order 
to compel us to have cartes de visite taken ! " This class of 
picture being, it is added, the only kind free from this 
perversion. We are told that a photographic studio " poisons 
the air" in the neighbourhood where it exists with the fumes 
of collodion! The writer affirms his conviction that there is 
little difference between a photograph done by the best artist 
and a sixpenny glass positive. This latter remark, by-the- 
byc, explains the first. The writer has doubtless qualified 
hioiself for writing on the subject by obtaining a portrait, 
" frame and glass included, for sixpence." There are a 
great many similar complaints equally silly and equally 
untrue. In a case of this kind some allowance must of 
course be made for the writer's desire to be funny : there 
might easily have been more real humour, however, as well 
as truth. 

Photographers generally look with great interest for 
criticisms wnich are supposed to represent public opinion. 
When these criticisms are honest and free from warp or 
bias, they are often valuable as presenting suggestions and 
hints from a fresh and untechnical point of view. Many of 
the remarks in the notices of the aaily papers to which we 
have alluded are interesting and discriminating, especially 
when accrediting the art with its acknowledged unparalleled 
powers of literal reproduction. But where it threatens to 
trench upon the province of what they are pleased to term 
" art proper," the animus at once becomes apparent. 

We have another criticism on art photography coming 
from another quarter, which will be found on another page, 
and which we cannot reproduce without a word of comment. 
Our esteemed friend, Mr. Sutton, recently communicated to 
the Photographic Society of Scotland a paper " On some of 
the Uses and Abuses of Photography," which will be read 
with much interest. But there are certain portions of the 
paper against which we must protest, as being, in our view, 
repressing and discouraging to the earnest and ambitious 
photographer. Mr. Sutton objects to picture-making by 
photography. He says : 

" What vou want in a work of art is not an exact and truth- 
ful resemblance of a group of natural objects, however cleverly 
arranged and lighteo, but a reproduction of such objects, or of 
a new combination of such objects, aeeardinff to impressiona which 
they have produced upon the human mind. The first chalk draw- 
ings of a schoolboy upon a wall are, in my opinion, more 
admirable, from the human interest which' they possess, than 
the finest view of inanimate natural objects upon the ground 
glass of a camera obscura." 

We cannot here enter into the whole question, upon which 
we have often before expressed our opinion ; but whilst we 
demur to the canon of art laid down, we also affirm that if 
it were true, photography can largely fulfil its conditions. 
First, we demur to the canon that an exact and truthful 
resemblance of natural objects is not wanted in a work of 
art, but that somebody*s impressions of such objects con- 
stitute art. Art has many phases : high art or heroic art 
must present nature idealized and ennobled, or at least in 
the highest and loftiest aspects of which it is capable. We 
do not assert the power of photography here, nnt art also 
possesses phases m which exact and truthful resemblance 
are the highest qualities, and here photography claims the 
power to produce genuine works of art, capable of giving 
pleasure which neiSier polls nor [diminishes. Where pho- 
tography most fails in producing works of art is just wnexe 

it fails being truthful. If it could produce colour as 
well as form, the most skilful pre-Raphaelite might strive 
in vain to produce works of art equal to the camera. 
The one lesson which great artists have ever pressed on the 
attention of students has been to present nature truth- 
fully, and not in the conventional garb of their own 
impressions. * 

But, in the second place, photography can and does to 
some extent present nature according to the impressions of 
the photographer. Else, how is it that each photographer 
has his style or manner as distinctively as various painters ? 
The photographer with a coarse appreciation of natural 
beauty will give us coarse photographs, wanting entirely 
the delicate detail, the soft gradation, the tender aerial tints 
which render the moie skilful artist's productions so charm- 
ing. As to almost all the qualities which constitute style, 
at least in monochrome, the matter is quite under the 
control of the photographer. It is true, except with very 
bad treatment, the lens will not genersdly give the bad 
drawing in which some painters indulge ; but, as regards 
grouping and arrangement ; point of view and choice of 
light ; the production of flatness or relief; delicacy and detail 
or vigour and suggestive masses, &c., the effect is as much 
under the control of the photographer as it is in the hands 
of the painter. One photographer will make a beautiful 
picture, and another an ugly portrait of the same sitter ; 
one will tell a story, and the other will produce an un- 
meaning group with the same models ; one will make a 
landscape look a place to be shunned, and another will 
make of the same place fairy land. In short, each will 
present his subject largely as it has produced an impression 
on his own mind. 

We do not make any arrogant claims for photography. 
We know there is much sad inartistic stuff produced ; we 
know that its best phases cannot rival the highest phases 
of art. We know it lacks the glorious charm of colour ; we 
know that the finest monochrome must be to the many- 
hued scenes of nature but — 

" Aa moonlight unto sunlight, 

And aa water unto wine." 

But we know also that photographs may be pictures, 
genuine works of art, refresning the eye, and largely satis- 
tying us with the i-ecollections of beauty they recall. We 
esteem Mr. Sutton highly, and respect his opinions ; but 
we cannot but regret that an authority so highly re- 

garded should thus slight an important phase of the art. 
'utside criticism of this kind we can smile at ; but when 
the wound comes from within the charmed circle, we cannot 
but recall Byron's lines : — 

" Keen were her pongs, bat keener fur to feel 
Bhc nursed the pinion that impelled the steeL^' 


A HEBTiNa of painters, engravers, &c., was recently held at 
the French Gallery, Pall Mall, for the purpose of consider- 
ing the best means of obtaining a more eifectiyo copyright 
in engravings. As the subject is interesting to photo- 
graphers, and we wish to mase one or two remarks on the 
subject, we condense from the daily papers a brief account 
of the proceedings : — 

" To illustrate the facility and success with which the finest 
and most costly works on which a great amount of combined 
genius, skill, capital, and labour may have been expended, both 
by the painter and the engraver, pirated copies of the following 
subiects, made by photography, zinco-photography, lithognipliy, 
and the anastatic process, were exhibited in the room side by 
side with the origmal engravings from which they had been 
taken : — Portrait of the Empress of the French, engraved 1»t 
Danguin; the " Parce Somnum rumpere," engraved by Ranhaol 
Morghen ; Landseer*s * Monarch of the Glen ;' Hunt's * Light 
of the World ;* Rosa Bonheur's * Horse Fair,* &c. It is alnitjcst 
unnecessary to say that the genuine production and the spurious 
imitationin every case bo dbosely sesombled each otl^or an 1^ be 

FjBSBUAfiT 6, 1863.] 



scftrcely difltingiiiflhable, although the fair price of the one might 
be half a gainea or a gainea, and the other could easily be sold 

"In introdacing the business, the Chairman explained that 
the Act relating to Works of Art passed last Session recognized 
the painter's claim to the copyright of his pictures for a given 
priod, and the photog»apher also enjoyed legislative protection, 
but the property of the engraver was still left wholly insecure. 

" &Ir. Fbitb (who was unable to be present), in a letter, said : 
—' The recent Act is efficient as regards the copying of pictures, 
but while the remedy of the pubhsher, who has paid liberally 
for a copyright, is not secured to him by law against photo- 
graphic piracy, he will be neither willing nor able to pay for 
copyright as heretofore ; and, if that should happen, the class 
of art I practise will almost cease to be followed. It is to me 
incredible that the law should give a quick and cheap mode of 
redress to the photographer whose works are pirated, and refuse 
it to the publisher whose stake is so large, and the object of 
whose speculation is often so creditable.* 

" Mr. Qambebt, art publisher, addressed the meeting, forcibly 
pointing out the peculiar hardship under which his class 
laboured by having their best engravings, produeed at a heavy 
oatlay, pirated by any man who had a little skill in photo- 
graphy, and could muster 6d. to invest in a few chemicals. 
The injustice of this was all the more flagrant inasmuch as the 
photo^pher who thus unscrupulously robbed the engraver 
was himself amply protected against piracy on the part of his 
rirals. No publisher would venture to give commissions, in- 
volving thousands of pounds, to artists like Mr. Frith or Mr. 
Holman flunt, while the law left their property an easy prey 
to such unprincipled depredators. Thus, art must be dis- 
coura°[ed, and the public would suffer. 

" Mr. Herbert, K.A., Mr. E. Nioholls, R.SA., Mr. Thomas 
Landseer, Mr. Redgrave, Mr. Tom Taylor, and other gentle* 
men, having also addressed the meeting, a series of resolutions 
was unanimously adopted insisting on summary redress against 
this particular class (u piracies by proceedings before any two 
justices of the peace, together with the improvement and con- 
solidation of our own laws relating to artistic copyrights, and 
the expediency of an assimilation of the codes of the great 
European countries on this matter. The business closed with 
several formal votes of thanks." 

We most cordially agree with the proprietors of engravings 
in the importance of obtaining a more swift, simple, and 
sure remedy against piracy, than at present exists in the en- 
graving copyright Acts. But we cannot help pointing out 
a fallacy which we are surprised to find generally held and 
expressed without contradiction at the meeting. Mr. Frith, 
for instance, says, that the recent law protects pictures but 
not engravings. But, does not he perceive that if the picture 
be protected, the engraving of it must be also secured by that 
very protection? The owner of the copyright in a picture is 
protected from copies being made by any process whatsoever. 
He alone has the right to photograph, engrave, or duplicate 
that picture by any means, and a copyright exists in each 
copy by any method. If, therefore, he issued an engraving, 
and that engraving be copied by photography, such copying 
becomes an infringement of the copyright m the original 
picture. This of course only applies to pictures enjoying 
the protection of the recent Act^ and does not appI}(to many 
valuable engravings already in existence, the prop«;rty in 
which is injured by piracy, and in regard to which a more 
simple remedy is imperatively required. We wish those 
concerned all success in securing sucn a remedy. For, whilst 
we are deeply interested in the dissemination of cheap art, 
we have no sympathy with those who would secure it by the 
sacrifice of private interests. 


AwAKD OF Prizes. 

The adjudicaton appointed by the council of the Photo- 
grapbic Society to award the prize medals for the best 
contributions representing six phases of the art, have just 
t-ndered their report. We stated in our last that, regarding 
the minority of tno medals, little hesitation would exist as | 

to whom they should be awarded to ; but that in regard 
to landscapes the task would be one of some difficulty. We 
find from the report that our own views have been shared by 
the adjudicators. They state that in reference to four of the 
medals they had no hesitation in coming to a conclusion ; 
that in portraiture the merit was more divided ; and that in 
landscape it was almost equally shared by many contributors. 
Although it is probable that in regard to some of the 
decisions opinions will vary, we cannot but think that on 
the whole tne awards will give satisfaction. They stand as 
follows : — 

M. Claudet, for the best portrait or portraits. 

Mr. F. Bedford, for the best landscape or landscapes. 

Col. Stuart Wortley, for the best instantaneous picture or 

Viscountess Hawarden, for the best amateur contribution. 

Mr. H. P. Robinson, for the best oomposition picture from 

Mr. Thurston Thompson, for the best reproduction. 

We must delay further criticism of the exhibition until 

our next. 





With reference to a former communication which you did 
me the honour to insert in the PHOTOORAPmo News (vol. 
vi. p. 470), I beg leave to request that you will permit me 
an opportunity of resuming the subject, and of describing 
some of the results met with in a course of experiments 
directed to the removal of traces of silver from the whites of 
albumenized prints. The difficulties to be overcome appear 
greater, as one chemical agent after another is tried, without 
accomplishing the desired result ; and the object of my ad- 
dressing to you the present memorandum, is rather to report 
progress, than to record complete success. 

I have already stated, tnat a second immeTsion of the 
print in a fresh solution of hyposulphite of soda, is capable 
of removing a small proportion of tne insoluble silver com- 
pound, and that this is the case also when a treatment 
with iodide of potassium is resorted to. Since the date of 
this announcement, I have tried the action of a great number 
of soluble salts, particularly those of ammonia, many of 
which are distinguished for their power of dissolving the 
ordinary silver precipitates. Amongst other salts, were the 
carbonate, acetate, citrate, and phosphate of ammonia ; the 
alkali itself and phosphoric acid separately; tartaric acid 
and Rochelle salt. None of these were capable of removing 
the last traces of silver, and there was so little advantage 
gained by their employment as auxiliaries to the fixing 
bath, that I have been led to try the cautious use of cyanide 
of potassium. By immersing the prints in very dilute solu- 
tions of the cyanide, I have succeeaed certainly in removing 
every trace of silver from the whites, but always at the ex- 
pense of the shaded portions of the picture, for so readily 
soluble are the metals, silver and gold, when in this ex- 
tremely fine state of division, that it will, I believe, be prac- 
tically impossible to limit the solvent action in the manner 
intended. By operating upon over-printed proofs, on albu- 
menized paper, I obtained pictures which were presentable, 
but I do not consider that the details were so delicately 
rendered as in the case of other prints obtained from the 
same negative by ordinary treatment. The albumen itselfi 
at this stage of the process, does not appear to suffer by im- 
mersion in aqueous cyanide of potassium, of the degree of 
concentration (one grain, or less, in the pint of water), that 
would be requisite for this particular application. 

Terro-cyanide of potassium has the property of dissolving 
many insoluble compounds of silver, but, according^ to my 
experience, is of no value for the purpose at nresent in view. 

In your report of the proceedings of the Marseilles Photo- 
graphic Society, November 8, 1862,* allusion is made to the 

• Yids PaovoaaAiwo Nsii% v^ ft, p. MO. 



[Pbbbuary 6, 1863. 

propoeal of M. Messnier, to employ the sulpho-cyanide of 
ammonium as a fixing agent in pnotography; and your corre- 
spondent further states, that the subject has been refertedto 
a committee, to inquire into, and report upon the chemical 
value of this suggestion. Pending the decision of the French 
investigators, it may not be out of place to describe some of 
the characters of this salt, which have presented themselves 
in the course of preparing and employing this substance as 
a fixing agent. 

There are three processes available for the preparation of 
sulpho-cyanide of ammonium : — Synthetically, bv acting 
upon hvdrocyanic acid with excess of yellow sulphide of 
ammonium, and evaporating to drynem over a water bath. 
Or, by virtue of double decomposition, on dissolving in a 
small bulk of water eauivalent quantities of sulpho-cyanide 
of potassium and sulpnate of ammonia, and adding alcohol 
or methylated spirit, when the sulphate of potash is precipi- 
tated, the Bulpho-cyanide of ammonium remaining in solu- 
tion. The third plan is but a modification of the second, 
and consists in fusing together the yellow ferro-cyanide of 
potassium with half its weight of sulphur, dissolving in 
water, and treating the crude mixture of the sulpho-cyanides 
of potassium and iron first with sulphide of ammonium to 
precipitate the iron, and then with sulphate of ammonia and 
alcohol as before. It is necessary to talie care to exclude the 
presence of free sulphur and hydro-sulphuretted compounds 
from the products obtained by the first and last of these 
methods ; for, unless perfectly purified, the salt is apt to 
discolour the whites of the photograph. The crystals 
obtained on evaporation are transparent and colourless, but 
the aqueous solution seems liable to undergo a gradual 
decomposition accompanied with the production of a yellow 
or reddish colour. The solution, when mixed with nitrate of 
silver, gives at the first moment of contact a bulky white 
precipitate of sulpho-cyanide of silver, which, left to itself, soon 
assumes a granular character, or becomes distinctly crystalline ; 
this precipitate is, however, readily dissolved by an excess of the 
ammonium salt, and the addition of a soluble chloride to 
the solution yields no precipitate. Both the chloride and 
iodide of silver are to some extent soluble in the sulpho- 
cyanide of ammonium, but not nearly so freely as in cyanide 
of potassium or hyposulphite of soda. On testing the power 
of this salt in removing the traces of silver from the whites 
of albumen prints, I find that it succeeds perfectly ; but, at 
the same time, it must be confessed that the sulpho-cyanide 
of ammonium is not likely to become a cheap commercial 
article, and on this account its general use as a fixing agent 
must for the present be seriously impeded. 

We learn ^om the interesting extract from the BuUdin 
de la Societe Francaise de Photographie, which you printed 
last week, that the eminent French chemists, MM. Davanne 
and Girard, have resumed their investigation of the com- 
pounds formed by the action of nitrate of silver upon 
albumen. Referring to the announcement I made in your 
columns on the 3rd October last, thev claim the prior 
publication, in the year 1859, of the tact of silver beinc 
contained in the unexposed parts of albumen prints ; and, 
on looking more fully into the matter, I concede to them 
the merit of having first made this observation ; but it must, 
on the other hand, be allowed that their statement refers to a 
mode of conducting the fixing and toning processes which 
is now obsolete, which seldom gave pure whites; and, 
according to their own description, the sUver compound was 
JhinUy visible on the paper, and sometimes even was slighUy 
affected by light.* This is certainly not the case with the 
pnotographic surfaces I have examined ; and, further, I do 
not coincide in their opinion that the compound under 
discussion is " probably a sulphide," since the very existence 
of the silver was discovered by the sulphide of ammonium 
test, and the production of the brown sulphide on moistening 
the pure whites with this re-agent must surely be the result 
of a chemical change. If the exposure of a sensitized sheet 

• Kick PHOTOQaAmo Niws, vol UL p. SSS, 

be delayed until it has commenced to assume a visible dis- 
colouration, or the print be fixed in hyposulphite of soda 
without previously removing the whole of the free nitrate 
of silver, we obtain a condition of surface, to which 
MM. Davanne and Girard's description is more nearly 
applicable. These gentlemen are of opinion, moreover, 
that the presence of the argento-albumen compound is not 
likely to affect the permanence of the photograph, and so 
have not been led to study the means of removing or 
decomposing the same. 
Boyal Arsenal, Woolvieh. 



SANOunns as mv views are respecting the glorious future of 
photography, I feel firmly persuaded that the art must ever 
remain unfettered by fixed rules or formulas, for it will not 
condescend to .be governed by any unalterable number of 
grains, pennyweights, or ounces, imperative in its demands. 
It requires the careful hand and intelligent observant mind to 
guide its ever-varying operations to a successful issue. The 
above remark is offered as a caution to photographers, who 
may feel inclined to think that the science of sun printing 
is at length reduced to a mechanical operation, and, as such, 
may be entrusted to any blunderer to perform. Although 
the results I have described were arrived at ere I jumped 
at conclusions, I deemed it prudent to sit me down, and 
materially assisted by a soothing ''weed," mentally went 
through the experiments again ,the result of these cogitations 
was a complete modification of my former impressions con- 
cerning toning action, so that I am about to start a new 
theory, powerniUy supported by practical, and I may ahnost 
venture to add, conclusive proofs; but, ere I proceed to 
explanations, it is necessary to show the conditions necessary 
to secure perfect prints, without the necessity of much over- 
printing. The print on the surface of highly albumenized 
papers (for reasons before given) is composed chiefly of 
albuminate^ of silver. This salt, though more stable than 
the chloride of the same metal, unfortunately happens to 
be less sensitive to the influence of actinism ; it therefore 
necessarily follows that prints executed in a dull light must 
be attended with results not very desirable ; there is found 
wanting that regular gradation of tone, that must be present 
ere a picture can be pronounced perfect, the light penetrates 
the shadows, but, its reducing power is not sufficient to act 
through the semi-opaque portions of the negative that 
represent the half tones. Hence we have harsh aud un- 
sightly contrasts, but the evil rests not here, a bright light 
possessing the strongest powers of permeation is enabled to 
produce a deeper deposit by its reducing influence, than can 
possibly be effected by the weaker actinic rays ; hence, in 
the latter case, provision must be made to meet the difficulty, 
and this might oe effected in two ways ; first, by judicious 
printing ; secondly, by a modification of the bleaching or 
reducing power of the toning solution. If the first-named 
method oe adopted, we must carry the printing in dull light 
much further than will be necessary in a brighter one, because 
the reduction, deep as it may appear to the eye, is too slight 
to bear much bleaching ; the reduced film is weak and super- 
ficial, whilst the print produced by a bright light, though appa- 
rently the same depth, is, in reality, considerably deeper ; the 
light penetrating the minute interstices causes a greater depth 
ofreduction, without the fact being made apparent to the eye ; i n 
this case we need go but little further in printing than is required 
in the finished picture ; and if the toning bath is made to suit 
the latter, it would be found that both classes of prints, if 
toned together, would exhibit but little difference in their 
appearance. If we have bright weather, a little over-printing 
is of slight importance ; it is during the dull seasons of the 
year that the difficulty is most felt. We wish to get through 
the largest possible number of prints daily, to meet the 
urgent demands of customers; and, consequently, any method 
that will effect that object is valuable. As I am still 

Frbxuabt 6, 1863.] 



Bpeakinf^ of highly albumenized papers,''^ I would strongly 
advise those who prepare those papers to increase largely 
the chloride salts employed, for from this source alone we 
may expect to obtain the necessary conditions of sensitive- 
ness, combined with softness, both matters of extreme 
importance when printing with a dull light ; and to prevent 
reduction in toning, let the solution be decidedly alkaline. 
The bath will work very much slower — a matter of little 
consequence, as this operation may be conducted at any 
hour of the day or nignt, so that time is actually gained, 
as it removes the necessity for printing deeper than when 
the reduction is produced by a bright light. Direct sun- 
light, in my opinion, should at all times be avoided for 
portraiture, save when printing from a strongly contrasted 
negative. But let the light be strong or weak, more par- 
ticularly with the latter, the strength of sensitizing solution 
should never be below 80 grains. Nor should it exceed 
85 grains per ounce ; and the time of floating should be 
at least ten minutes ; the more prone the paper is to mealiness, 
the longer should be the floating, by wnich, in so strong a 
solution, the albumen cannot be injured. The sensitizing 
operations should be conducted in a warmed room, and 
the paper allowed to dry spontaneously ; but if circum- 
stances should render it necessary to dry before a fire, we 
must be observed to avoid doing so before the paper has 
become surfaoe-dry ; for, during the process of drying, the 
solution upon the paper's surface divides, and towards 
numberless centres the surrounding atoms are drawn by 
molecular attraction, forming smaU globules, which, on 
removal by rapid evaporation, leave indentations which 
render the paper quite unfit for printing purposes. If these 
instructions are strictly and intelligently followed, I believe 
those who practice them will admit the correctness of a state- 
ment made in a former letter — viz., that a clear print may 
be produced on every paper in the market if its requirements 
are carefiiUy studied ; tor, in my experience, I have found 
that every paper requires a separate or modified treatment ; 
and, as the various samples of gold are subject to changes 
in the quantities of acid they hold in combination, no fixed 
formula can be given to produce the necessary qualification 
for satisfactory toning; but the following explanation, on 
toning action, will enable anyone to manage his toning 
solution under all circumstances, that is to say, when car- 
bonate of soda is employed. 

Other mixtures will engage my attention, after the com- 
pletion of this paper, if circumstances permit. 

{To bt continued,) 


DzAK Sib, — ^For a comprehensive view of the subject I have 
chosen for my present letter, I must shortly recapitulate 
what I have already stated in former communications. 

The discoloration of the nitrate bath which takes place 
when sensitizing albumenized paper, is due to the solvent 
power the water exercises upon the dried albumen ; therefore, 
m proportion to the power, and the time given for its action, 
eo must the brilliancv of surface be impaired ; any means 
that will mitigate or aestroy this power, either previous to, 
or during sensitizing, must consequently be beneficial. Albu- 
men in its Twrmal state being capable of coagulation by 
rarioos means, it was erroneously assumed that the same 
means would produce the same effect on it when in a diied 
state. Heat and alcohol were therefore employed, and as by 
their means the discoloration of the nitrate bath was mate- 
rially diminished, it was supposed that they had destroyed 
the solvent power of the water by rendering the dried albu- 

* Tbe lighter ssmples vUl be treated on in their tarn. 

men vMolubU^ as insolubility was a known accompaniment 
of coagulation. 

The rapidity with which any substance soluble in water 
is dissolved in it, is in proportion to its more or less hydrated 
state at the time it is submitted to its action ; and the sole 
benefit derived b^ ironing the albumenized surface of the 

Sajper with a hot iron, arises simply from its desiccating the 
ned albumen, and thus rendering it more difficult of solu- 
tion. The addition of alcohol to the bath, from its not 
being a solvent of dried albumen, merely serves the purpose 
of mitigating the solvent power of the water. Heat and 
alcohol have themselves no direct action whatever upon dried 
albumen ; they cannot coagulate it, as it is incapable of 
being coagulated, and they do not even render U inaoluble; 
consequently, they only enable the nitrate of silver to act 
more energetically, from its not having so much antagonistic 
force to contend against. The benefit also attributed to float- 
ing the albumenized paper upon alcohol previous to sensi- 
tizing, es;fst therefore only in imagination, having no founda- 
tion in fact. Seeking agents for the coagulation of a sub- 
stance which is not capable of it, and attributing the benefits 
derived from their employment, to a cause which has not 
any existence, must necessarily retard the advancement of 
our knowledge, as the real philosophy of their action is thus 
not only misunderstood, but attention is also diverted from 
that of the action of the nitrate bath. 

In the sensitizing bath, we have two antagonistic forces 
acting upon the albumenized surface of the paper ; the water 
having power to dissolve the dried albumen, and the nitrate 
of silver to render it insoluble, the power of either of them 
is therefore capable of being diminished to any extent by 
increasing that of the other, and vice verad ; thus, it is possible 
to wholly overcome the solvent power of the water hy suffi- 
ciently increasing the quantity of nitrate of silver. 

Any solvent power must, according to its strength and 
time of action, impair the brilliancy of the albumenized sur- 
face of the paper, therefore the quicker the dried albumen 
can be rendered insoluble, the more brilliant will be the 
prints. There is no doubt in my own mind, that the con- 
version of the dried albumen and salting chloride into albu- 
minate and chloride of silver can be rendered instantaneous 
by the use of a strong sensitizing bath ; and I infer, upon 
philosophical grounds, that by usinj? one very much stronger 
than any at present employed, say 250 or more grains to. the 
ounce, a mere drawing of the previously desiccated paper 
across the surface of the bath will accomplish it. 

Sensitizing the albumenized surface, by merely drawing 
the paper across the nitrate bath, affords the solution no time 
to penetrate its substance]; and tiie image being thus purely 
on the surface, must necessarily be more brilliant than it 
would otherwise be. I think we are perfectly warranted in 
assuming that the more superficial the sensitized surface can 
be rendered, the easier can the toning and fixing be 
accomplished. I believe, therefore, that prmts obtained upon 
albumenized paper thus sensitized, will not only have the 
utmost brilliancy and vigour which albumen is capable of 
ofiering, but will also hd rendered more permanent ; and 
that not only less washing will be requisite, but, less 
silver will be wasted, from there not being so much unused 
free nitrate to get rid of. — Yours truly, Georqe Psics. 

Momington Mood, New Crou Roadf Deptford. 




Gentlemen, — ^Your Secretary having done me the honour to 
ask me to prepare a paper on some subject connected with 
photography, to be read at a meeting of your Society, I have 
with much pleasure acceded to his request, and put together 
the following remarks on some of the uses and abuses of pho- 
tography, iu hopes that they may attract your attention to a 

• Bead before the Photographio Society of ScotUndj Jaaoary 18, 1869, 



[FebruAkt 6, 1863. 

new 11B6 of our fayourite art, which I will endeavour to describe, 
and also excite a profitable discussion on some other applica- 
tions of photography with which yon are already familiar. 

I have now Deen ten or twelve years closely connected with 
photography, and have watched its progress with the interest 
one feels in a favourite hobby. During that time, as successive 
new steps have been taken in the art, I have endeavoured to 
weigh their importance, and predict their future effect. Some- 
times I have been wrong, and sometimes right, in these esti- 
mateis which I have formed of the probablp practical value of 
new suggestions and processes ; and it is interesting and useful 
from time to time to consider the course which improvement 
has taken, and the amount of success and popularity which 
certain branches of the art have achieved, and the comparative 
failure of others. 

I will endeavour to call your attention, in the first place, to 
the present commercial aspect of photography as compared 
with that when I commenced editing my Photographic Notes, 
about seven years ago. 

Photographic portraiture upon collodionized glass plates, and 
positive printing upon albumenized paper, were theii, as now, 
the most importont commercial branches of the art ; while the 
sale of large views of even the most celebrated and interesting 
places was comparatively unremunerative. The stereoscopic 
slides were also at that time becoming important; and the 
London Stereoscopic Company, whose operations are now so 
extensive, was founded. But the portraitists were not then so 
busy as they are now ; and, with the exception of a few leading 
firms, who did their work in the best style, only very moderate 
incomes were made. I have offcen at that time spent fine 
mornings in the ^ass rooms of really clever photographers, 
living in good situations, without seeing a sitter, and have 
wondered how they contrived to make ends meet at the end of 
the year. But things have greatly altered since then ; photo- 
graphic portraiture has now become a much more profitable* 
occupation, and to be long without a sitter is a sure sign of in- 
capeusity, or some obliquity or vulgarity on the part of the 
operator. There is now a great and increasing demand for 
small portraits ; and if a man cannot get a linng by taking 
them, it is hU own fault, and the sooner he finds out the reason 
the better. 

The following seem to be the chief reasons why photographic 
portraiture has received such an impetus, and why it has be- 
come at present the most important use to which photography 
18 applied : — 

At the time to which I allude, positive printing was in a 
very unsatisfactory state ; and I am sure that if the card por- 
traits of the present day were printed as badly as the paper 
portraits were seven years ago, there would be but a small 
demand for them. I think I am right in tracing to the im- 
provement in the printing process the chief cause of the im- 
petus which has been given to photographic portraiture. Thus, 
as soon as photographers could print properly, and show people 
beautiful things, persons of distinction were not ashamed to 
have their portraits taken and exhibited, until at last Mr.Mayall 
obtained permission to take card portraits of the members of 
the Royal Family, and sell them to the public, which permis- 
sion is one of the choicest instances of good nature on the part 
of a sovereign recorded in history ; for photographs are rarely 
flattering, and were certainly not so in the present instance. 
As soon as card portraits of the Koyal Family of England could 
be obtained for a couple of shillings, it is not surprising that 
other sovereigns followed the example, until at length sdbums 
and card portraits came into general esteem. 

The most important and remunerative practical use to which 
photography has been put, is that of taking miniature portraits 
of distinguished people, and selling them at a price which puts 
them within the reach of all. How highly interesting it is to 
look over an album filled with unerring portraits of the ruling 
sovereigns, and celebrated men and women of the day ! What 
an advantage the present generation has in this respect over 
those that have preceded! and what an advantage future 
generations would nave in studying history, if jMrman«n^ photo- 
graphs of the leading men, whose exploits are recorded, could 
be bound with the volume ! It only remains to give the last 
finishing touch to the carbon-printing processes of Pouncy or 
Joubert to render this possible. 

But there is another element of the success of the card portraits 
which must not be overlooked ; and that is their small size. 
Let photographers carefully note the fact that those branches 
of their art wnioh have succeeded commercially, consist in the 

production of small pictures — stereo-slides, for instance, and 
card portraits ; while the large views and large portraits have 
been a comparative failure. I believe this wUl always be the 
case ; and although there may, perhaps, always be a certain 
small demand for large things, yet the professional photographer 
will, probably, as a rule, find it most to his interest to bend to 
the convenience and taste of the public for small and inexpensive 
portraits and views. It is not improbable that a fashion for 
card views may shortly spring up, and become a remunerative 
business ; if that should ever happen, I advise photographers to 
multiply small negatives from a large positive print. A vignetted 
print from a panoramic negative 10x6 might be copied on a 
reduced scale, and large numbers of small flat negatives taken 
from it, from which prints of the card size could be product in 
abundance to meet any demand. 

Next in importance to card portraiture and card views, comes 
the use of photography to artists, first in assisting them in the 
production of works of art, and secondly in multiplying correct 
copies of paintings, drawings, and sculpture. But I cannot agree 
with those who think that pictures can be successfully built up 
or composed entirely by photography after the manner of 
Rejlandor and Robinson. According to my taste, everything 
that I have seen done by these gentlemen in this style has been 
a failure, and has afibrded increasing evidence of what every 
true artist knew before to be impossible, and opposed to correct 
principles. What you want in a work of art is not an exact 
and truthful resemblance of a group of natural objects, however 
cleverly arranged and lighted, but a reproduction of such 
objects, or of a new oombination of such objects, aeeording to 
impreenoru which they have produced upon the hxanan nUnd. The 
first chalk drawings of a schoolboy,upon a wall are, in my opinion, 
more admirable, irom the human interest which they possess, 
than the finest view of inanimate natural objects upon the 
ground glass . of a camera obscura. God created those ob- 
jects ; and He also created man ; and man's works are there- 
fore indirectly His works. But man is also the noblest creation 
of the Deity ; and if you follow up this train of thought, you 
will see that pictures which are the result of human imagination, 
observation, and potoere of imitation, are more noble than, and 
belong to a different class of thing altogether from, the images 
in a camera obscura, notwithstanmng oil their beauty of colour 
and perspective. How much, then, is a work of art more 
noble than a photograph, with all its imperfections ; and what 
a vast difference there is in principle between a work of art 
and a camera image ! Although I admit the possibility of 
exhibiting the same artistic skill in arranging objects for tho 
camera as in arranging them for the artist to copy in his own 
way, yet I maintain that in the photograph of the group there 
are wanting those qualities which are peculiar to a work of 
art, and which owe their peculiarity to the fact of the artistes 
copv not being mechanical, but purely the work of human in- 
telhgence. The true artist who has mastered the mechanical 
difficulties of his profession, and takes a high view of its intel- 
lectual dignity, will never attempt to build up pictures by 
photography ; in fact, to an accomplished artist, the method 
would be much too slow, troublesome, and costly, even if the 
result were not ridiculous. That it is ridiculous is all but self- 
evident. Can you fancy Tennyson turned photographer, and 
illustrating his " Lady of Shallot " by a photograph ? or Cer- 
vantes giving, in the frontispiece of his story of the exploits of 
Don Quixote, a photograph of a half-drunken model, surrounded 
with rattletraps and stage property ? Are such things possible, 
I ask ? When the Council of tliis Society, some years ago, 
banished from the walls of its Exhibition a photograph entitled 
" The Two Ways of Life," in which degraded females were ex- 
hibited in a state of nudity, with all the uncompromising truth- 
fulness of photography, they did quite right, for there was 
neither art nor decency in such a photograph ; and if I ex- 
pressed a different opinion at the time, I was wrong. There is 
no impropriety in exhibiting such works of art as Etty's " Bathers 
Surprised by a Swan," or the " Judgment of Paris ;" but there 
is impropriety in allowing the public to see photographs of nude 
prostitutes, in fiesh-and-blood truthfulneas and minuteness of 

But if artists and poets are not to turn photographers antl 
make such pictures as "The Lady of Shallot" and "Don 
Quixote in his Study," the artists at least may use photo- 
graphy with advantage in other legitimate ways. An 
artist who studies largely and conscientiously from nature, 
acquires in time an originality of style which those who 
spend most of their life in the stadio instead of the field 

FrasvABT 6, 1868i] 



are ftdn to copy ; and thoa arisoB that plague of art, " conyen- 
tionality.'* The latter class of artists have derived great ad- 
vantage from photography, because, next to copying from 
nature, it is good to copy the minute and accurate detail of a 
photograph in a broad and truthful manner. Artists are fully 
aware of this, and they have been large purchasers of stereo- 
slides, and it is a common thing for them to cut these slides in 
half, and exchange duplicates with each other. Thusjt hap- 
pens that alidea which have no interest for the public are some- 
times largely purchased by artists. 

Others, again, like Mr. Frith, use photx)graphy largely in 
obtaining studies for parts of their pictures. Thus, on "A 
Derby Day," Mr. Frith employed his kind friend Mr. Hewlett 
to photograph for him from the roof of a cab as many queer 
groups of figures as he could ; and in this way the painter of 
that celebrated picture, the "Derby Day," got many useful 
studies, not to introduce literally into his picture as Kobinson 
or Beil&nder would have done, but to work up in his own mind 
and then reproduce with the true stamp of genius upon them. 

Artists may, and do, in this way use photography largely and 
profitably ; but the tyro in art should never forget that one great 
secret of sucoess in his profession depends upon his acquiring 
the power of closely observing the form, colour, and expression 
of objects, and recording them in his memory. It would not do 
for lieech or Tenniel to be dependent upon a camera for re- 
cording all the fimny incidents they may see in London streets. 
An artist may use a camera occasionally as a help, but he must 
not trust too much to it. 

I will now point out a new use which may be made of photo- 
graphy by persons (like Dr. Uvingstone, say) who may wish to 
iUustrate a book of travels with truthful pictures, based upon 
photographs, but pulled in the printing-press. All that is re- 
anired to do these things artistically is to practise pen-and-ink 
drawing until facility is acquired in that art. I have myself 
made one or two attempts, and with sufficient success to confirm 
me in my belief that the art is not difficult. The plan is as 
foUowB : — 

You first take a negative and print a positive from it, in the 
usual way, or, if you like, without gold toning. The photograph 
need not be faultless; and a few stains, spots, and comets do not 
signify, provided the general outline of the objects is preserved. 
Ton then lay upon the positive print a sheet of lithographic 
tracing-paper upon which transfers are made. This costs about 
eighteen-pence per sheet, demy. Then, either with a quill pen 
or a fine steel Ferryan pen dipped in lithographic transfer ink, 
you make a pen-and-ink drawing upon the tracing-paper, guided 
by the photograph beneath. In doing this be careful not to 
rub the tracing-paper with damp fingers, or let any grease or 
dirt get upon it. The transfer ink is sold in solid cakes, having 
a rather agreeable smell, and is rubbed up with water in the 
same way as Indian ink. In making the sketch, observe that 
gradation of tint is got, not by using thinner ink, but by drawing 
your lines nearer together or further apart. In parts of the 
picture where broad masses of intense black occur, these may bo 
laid on with a brush, but very carefully. Before commencing 
tills art of pen-and-ink drawing, study carefully some good 
etchings or wood engravings. The amount of >^nish required 
will depend, of course, upon the nature of the subject. It is 
better to aim at producing a broad and suggestive effect, with 
the minimum of work, than to get into a small, laborious and 
niggling style. All the masses or systems of lines by which the 
various shades are produced must be drawn in a suitable 
direction, and with a masterly touch evincing forethought in 
the artist. When thesketch has thus been made, you imme<&ately 
send it to a lithographic printer, and he in a few minutes transfers 
it to zinc or stone ; and from this impression any number of prints 
can quickly be pulled for the purpose of book-illustration. You 
most not think it heretical in me to say so ; but I generally 
like these sketches better than the photographs from which 
they were taken, however perfect the latter may be. There is 
a firmness and crispness about an etching or pen-and-ink sketch 
wtiich photographs do not possess, to say nothing of their pre- 
tentions to a fine-art character when properly done. There is 
a great advantage also in being able to utilize bad photographs, 
or rather in being a little independent of the messes into which 
photographers sometimes get. 

Now that rapid dry plates are coming into fashion, artists 
will find it a great help to them to use these plates with a reflect- 
ing camera, for taking groups of figures, animals, &c. I have 
sent Mr. Boss apian oi an artist's reflecting camera, constructed 
expressly for this purpose ; and I am sore that an instrument 

of this sort) with rapid dry plates, would be of great value to 
artists. In fact, photo^phy ought now to be made a part of 
the course of instruction of every artist. 

The magnificent series of photographs lately published by 
Messrs. Cundall and Downes, of the pictures in ^mer*6 " Liber 
Studiorum," prove convincingly the great use of photography 
for reproductions of this kind. Mr. Bingham's admirable pho- 
tographic copies of paintings seem also to leave nothing to 
desire. Should it be said that photography fails somewhat in 
the truthful rendering of colour by shade, yet, on the other 
hand, you are certain of preserving expression, which is a 
matter of greater consequence. Who would not rather hate a 
fine photograph by Bingham, of Guide's celebrated picture df 
" Beatrice Cenci," the expression of which has been found 6b 
difficult to render faithfully by engraving, than a print of th^ 

Photo-lithography is another very useM application of pho- 
tography ; and wonderful reproductions of maps and line draw- 
ings have been made by its means, in the hands of Sir Henfy 
James, Mr. Osborne, and Mr. Ramage. The attempts which 
have been made to print by this process from ordinary nega- 
tives, by Macpherson, Poitevin, Lemercier, and others, have 
been less successful ; but I really must say that Mr. Pouncy, of 
Dorchester, has got a step in advance, and done some good 
things. Take, tor instance, his view of Killamey, published in 
my " Notes ;" that is surely excellent. My impression of this 
process is, that it is suitable only for a certain class of subjects, 
of which Killamey is a good illustration, and that the fault has 
hitherto been in attempting to apply it to the wrong kind of 
subjects. The subjects for which photo-lithography is suitable, 
are precisely those for which lithography is commonly employed, 
and of which Mr. J. D. Harding's lithographs are the type. If 
photo-lithography can produce works of this class, without the 
conventional mannerism which many artists aquire, they will 
be very useful to artists and drawing-masters, ^ut it must be 
remembered that the grain of a lithograph is one of its charac- 
teristic fratures ; and photo-lithographs must always, from the 
very nature of the case, have a grain. In this respect they 
must always differ from common photographs. A lithographic 
printer will always tell you of the importance of ** keeping the 
work open ;" for as soon as the grain becomes blocked up there 
is an end of half-tone, and the proofs exhibit dense patches of 
black. Bold bits of detail are the kind of thing for photo- 
lithography ; and these bits will only be found by a man who 
thorou^y understands what is required, and has a great deal 
of taste and artistic feeling. They may be taken upon paper, 
and with this advantage, that the negative can be reversed in 
the printing-frame, if necessary. The fine detail of a glass 
negative is not required. Jersey abounds in studies for the 
photo-lithographer, although it is rather a badjplaoe for general 

There are two processes of photo-lithography—- one in which 
the stone is coated with a solution of asphaltum in ether, ben- 
zole, or turpentine ; and the other, in which it is coated with a 
mixture of bichromate of potass and gelatine. The former pro- 
cess is that of Mr. Macpherson, and I believe also of Mr. Pouncy ; 
the latter of M. Poitevin and Sir Henry James. It is impos- 
sible for me to say which is the better ; but the former not only 
allows you to grain the stone, but also the sensitive coating of 
asphaltum, before exposing it under the negative. While on 
the subject of asphaltum, I may mention the possibility o 
taking permanent prints upon paper with this suostance, with 
all the fine qualities of a silver print, except its beauty of colour. 
The asphaltum prints have a very disagreeable yellowish-brown 
tint; and their only recommendation is their permanency, 
about which very little doubt can exist. For some subjects, 
however, the colour is not unsuitable. 

The phototype process of M. Joubert is very nearly all that 
one could desire for good carbon printing upon paper. It is a 
great pity that photographers do not club together and buy it. 
The sum required by M. Joubert has never been pubucly 
named ; but he has confided to me the amount for which he 
would dispose of it, when I was in treaty with him, a year ago, 
to buy it for my own use, and I thought the amount reason- 
able, although more than I felt justified in giving on my own 
responsibility. If the required sum could be subscribed quietly, 
and in a way not unpleasant to M. Joubert, it would be money 
well laid out. If I could be of any use in privately furthering 
a scheme of this kind, I should be most happy. 

Very little appears yet to have been done in the application 
of photography to soientifio purposes, chiefly, I think, because 



[Februa&y 6, 1868. 

the collodion processeB ore employed instead of the daguerro- 
type. A great deal has been said about Mr. De La Bue's ex- 
periments in celestial photography ; but I really cannot see 
that they haye proyed anything. Take, for instance, his stereo 
slides of the moon : these merely illustrate the fact of the ro- 
tundity of the yisible part of the moon, which was known 
before, and they do not proye that the mountains stand out in 
actual relief, as some people suppose they do. If a smooth 
elobe were painted with dark patches, and stereo yiews of it were 
Sien taken from different stations, these duplicate yiews would 
make the painted patches appear in relief, and that relief might 
easily be mistaken for the kind of relief due to uneyenness of 
the surface of the sphere. Sir John Herschel has had some- 
thing to say on this subject lately in the Ccmhill Moffonne, but 
he does not attach undue importance to Mr. De La Bue's slides, 
or ma^e it appear that they haye proved anything new. The 
photography, in Kew Obseryatory, of the solar spots has not yet 
amounted to much ; and it will be found, I am sure, before long, 
that a better instrument and better process are necessary to 
produce yaluable results. 

I haye now, gentlemen, endeayoured briefly to call your at- 
tention to some of the uses and abuses of photography, in hopes 
that my remarks may lead to a profitable and animated dis- 
cussion. I haye mentioned in my paper the names of Bobinson 
Bejlander, and De La Bue ; but it must be distinctly under- 
stood that I meant no disrespect to these gentlemen ; on the 
contrary, I consider them yery talented in the particular way 
in which they excel. Mr. De La Bue is a gentleman who un- 
doubtedly stands high in science ; and Messrs. Bobinson and 
Bejlander are not less distinguished in legitimate photography. 

I haye enclosed a few sheets of my patent albumenized paper 
for distribution among the members, and also a print upon it 
taken from a panoramic negatiye. Tou will obserye in this 
print the perfect purity of the whites, and the extraordinary 
yigour of the blacks, without any bronzing. There are also a 
sheet of blotting-paper and a sheet of plate-paper, one half of 
each of which has been dipped in the india-rubber solution, 
and the other half not. You will see that you can write upon 
the half which has been treated with india-rubber as well as 
upon common paper, but not, of course, upon the other half. 
This proyes the effect of the rubber solution as a sizing mate- 
rial ; and if the ink does not sink into blotting-paper when 
treated with it, it will easily be understood that the albumen 
will not sink into photographic paper when so treated. I haye 
also enclosed a sheet of Bive paper prepared with the rubber 
solution, so that you can see it before it is albumenized. Tou 
will obserye that there are no yisible traces of the india-rubber 
either upon the Biye paper or the blotting-paper, and that it 
does not stain the paper, or yisibly affect it in any way ; neither 
is there much smell. 

I haye great hopes that prints upon the patent paper will be 
found more permanent than those upon common paper, on 
account of their absorbing moisture lees readily. I haye 
immersed finished prints in the rubber-solution, and this, I 
think, will afford great protection to them. The treatment does 
not in any way affect the purity of the whites, and it seems to 
make the surface shine still more. I think it yery desirable 
that yaluable card portraits should be treated in this way. 

If any of the members of your Society would like to send me 
some of their negatiyes, I will, with pleasure, send a print 
from each, upon the patent paper, for your Society's Album or 
fur exhibition at a meeting. I am yery anxious to get some 
good negatiyes to print specimens from, in order in the spring 
to haye an exhibition of positiyo prints at Mr. Lamprey's ware- 
house, in Paternoster Bow, and to be able to send round to the 
different Photographio Societies a portfolio of fine and yaried 



CIE8 OF GuLSB. — Following the system of the Microscopic 
Society, we ought to adopt a standard ^age for our glasses, 
say three-and-a-half inches square for views for the general 
run of lanterns. The process — old structureless collodion, 

• Oontinaed fron p. 44. 

exposure in 'diffused light — ^the nearer it can be brought to a 
standard character the better. Iron development, imer in- 
tensification with pyrogallic acid by Major Bussell's process ; 
fix with cyanide of potassium, varnish the picture to giye 
transparency to the mm, mount between two glasses ; or the 
albumen process may be followed with^ advantage, especially 
for ** superposition printing." 

Wh^re, however, lantern views are to be prepared for trade 
purposes, it is better to produce them by *' camera printing," 
from negatiyes of large size, for by this method the producer is 
enabled to supply views, larger or smaller than the standard 
size suggested, according to the special requirements of his 
customers, and greater definition or sharpness is likewise 
attainable. I have stated that the nearer we can bring the 
light employed for printing transparent positives to a standard 
character the better, for the operator would then attain to 
uniform results, and loss through failures would be greatly 
diminished. It is also desirable that the operator ahould be 
made independent of the sun's light, for after two season's expe- 
rience I find that when the stock of views one has prepared 
during the summer months is carried off, at the time of demand, 
the winter months, through failing light, it is difficult, at times 
impossible, to meet the requirements of would-be customers. To 
avoid this annoyance I have lately given my attention to the 
production of an artificial light, rich in actinic or photogenic 
rays, cheap in production, and that could be turned on or off as 
required, with what promise of success I will presently demon- 

It is true that we could use carbon points, or a fine stream of 
mercury, brought to a state of intense ignition by means of the 

monly believed, and frequently stated in some of the photo- 
g;raphic journals, that the oxy-hydrogen light maybeeznployed 
for photographic purposes, but the fact is, and I wish it to be 
distinctly understood, that though very brilliant and intense, 
it is peculiarly wanting in actimc rays. Some time since, my 
friend, Mr. Charles Heisch, was preparing a lecture on photo- 
graphy, and wishing to give an illustration of the method of 
producing a picture, he thought he shotdd be able to demonstrate 
the point by aid of the oxy-hydrogen light, but he found, expe- 
rimentally, that while he could produce a sharp picture of a 
white bust, instantaneously, by the electric light, he could only 
produce a dingy image of the same object after twenty minutes' 
exposure to the oxy-hydrogen light. It is well known that if 
an artificial light emits fluorescent rays (known by their pecu- 
liar effect on bodies possessed of the character called by physi- 
cists *'fluore8cenee"), that light is also rich in actinic or photo- 
genic rays. I shall now show how far the light I have been 
experimenting on is likely to be of utility to photographers. 
[Mr. Highley here turned on from a gas-jet a bright violet sheet 
of flame that made an uranium glass, brought into its presence, 
glow like a gem.] 

The cost of production is always a legitimate subject of dis- 
cussion, and i may, therefore, state that, taking into con- 
sideration th^cost of production of negatives (our engraved 
plates, so to speak), the cost of making the existence of 
the subject known, in other words, the advertising charges, 
and the cost of producing the transparencies, photographic 
magic lantern views can be sold to the public for five shillings 
each, plain, and eight shillings and sixpence coloured, while 
the ordinary magic lantern pictures, which, as I have pre- 
viously stated, cannot for one moment pretend to embody the 
same amount of detail or truthfulness to nature, sell at just 
double that price, that is to say, sixteen shillings coloured, if of 
the same size and pretensions to artistic excellence. On the 
other hand, it should be stated that photographs involve a slight 
extra expense in the apparatus required, for an oxy-calcium or 
oxy-hydrogen light, and achromatic lenses are essential for theii 
perfect exhibition. 

As ordinary magic-lantern pictures are in the main made up of 
patches of colour, they can be shown by lenses that do not require 
great optical periection ; as, however, photographs are made 
up of detail, if they are shown with lenses that are not achro- 
matic, a fringe of colour will be apparent on every line, and 
this defect in the optical parts of the apparatus used in tlieir 
exhibition, will tend to produce a blurred effect, in fact a picture 
wanting in definition. 

But photographic magic-lantern views, even when not in use, 
may be made available for educational puipoiea ; for I would 

Pmkcart 6, 186S.] 


■nggett, that, if they tepreeent Natural Eietorv buI 
of stowing tbem tiv/aj in boxes, thej eliould be p 

■V BubiectB, instead 
s, thej Bbould be placed in tbe 
open caaea of musoums, &c., bceide allied objects, c&re being 
taken that they bto fixed at guch an angle that ligbt should be 
reflected tbrough tbem, b; aid of a piece of white paper placed 
behind the transparency — or by mounting tho Tiews in long 
frames backed with fine ground glau, they might serve as 
Appropriate borders to the windo\ra of a scientific institution. 

To make our system perfect, it behovea tbe producer of 
photographio lantern views to consult tbe reqaiiementa of tbe 
carator or travelhng lecturer, and make the demonstrating 
appamtns aa compact and generally nseftil as possible. I bare 
therefore given thought to these important points, and now 
beg to call yoni attention to some of the contrivaiices I have 

The Bonrces of light may be the electric lamp, which, from 
its intensity, is well soited for inititutioni or large lecture 
Uie*tieB ; yat for ordinary use it is too expensive, as it cannot 
be worked to advantage with less than forty of Orovea's cells, 
and these, with a lamp, cost not less than thirty pounds (without 
a lantern). Some lamps, such as Serrin's, cost, per u, twenty 
pounds, tint at the InttiraationBl Exhibition I eitiibited a novel 
form of automatic electric lamp, founded on a galvanometer 
arrangement, the invention of Dr. Squire, which, when per- 
fected, will be qoite as efficient as (hose of our French neigh- 
bours, Dnbosq and Serrin, and cheaper Ibroagh there being 
a simplification of parts. A model of this lamp is on the table. 

For general porposes, the oxy-hydrogen light is most efficient, 
and as the pure hydrogen formerly employed is now nsually re- 
placed by ordinary honse gas, tbe trouble is greatly diminished. 
Undoubtedly pure hydrogen gives a better ligbt than tbe car- 
buretted form, and when hoose gaa is not attoioabte it may be 
beat produced from a leaden generator, constructed on the prin- 
ciple of Doebereiner's lamp. Tbe vessel being divided into two 
compartments, the lower part is filled with sulphuric acid and 
water till if runs out at tbe lap ; the tapis then closed, and tbe 
acid mixture acting upon a cylinder of zinc supported on the 
outside of a tube connecting the upper with the lower chamber, 
causes hydrogen to be generated, which, having no vent, forces 
the liqaid up the tube into the upper chamber ; as soon as the 
acid is removed from contact with the zinc, the production of 
gas ceases. On the lap being turned, tho liquid descends and 
foTQea out the hydrogen with considerable j)res8nie. The acid, 
on rising within the lower chamber, again comes in contact 
frith the zinc, and again causes the gas to be generated, aai 

supplied under prefsore and u fait ai 

(Fig. 8). 

The hydrogen najr also bo generated in a glass Woulfe'] 
bottle, and be stored m a gasometer, or gas bag, till wanted, o: 
common house gai may m passed into either of these re 

ceptaclea, and expelled under any givoD presmre by maenB of 

Oxygen gas is readily and safely prepared by placing a mix- 
ture of two parts of small cryslals of chlorate of potash to one 
part coarsely ground oxide of manganese, into a conical copper 
retort, which u then closed with a cap or safety valve of vnl- 
conised india-rubber tubing, and connected with the long tube 
of a wash bottle, for the purpose of freeing the gas from dusty 
particles or other impurities. The beat of a lamp ia then 
ipplied, and as soon as the oxygen begins to issue from tho 
>bort tube of the wash bottle, it ia connected by a flexible ti' 

vith a wedge-shaped J — ' — — "" — j- t^- ' -- ' "--■ 

and stowed for dm. 

(To be contimtd.) 

HrffrnMngs of Sooetua. 

LoHDOK PaoToastPBic Socibt?. 
Thb annual meeting was held at King's College on the evening 
of Taeaday Feb. S, ue Lobd Ceief Bason in the cboii. 

Tbe minutes of tbe previoni meeting having been read and 
confirmed, tbe Viscounlesa Hawardcn and the following gen- 
llrmeo were elected membera of the society : — Messrs. J. L. 
Wensall, A. Sylvester and W. Austen. 

Some pleasing specimens of photography on opal glass were 
exhibited by Hr. Portbury, 

The Chairman announced, that aa no new nominations had 
taken place at the last meeting, the gentlemen proposed hy the 
council, at the meeting in December, would, in accordance with 
the rules of tho society, become officers for the ensuing year. 

Tbe names of tbe officers for election or re-election would 
stnnd as follows: — Tbe Lord Chief Baron as President, Mr. 
Gloisber as Vice-President. Mr. P. Le Neve Foster retiring fVom 
tliat position into the council ; as members of council, Mcasrs. 
Henry Pollock, J. Cole, Heiinab, Lienl.-Col. Btuart Wortley, 
nnd Lord Henry Lenaox. 

Tbe Secbbtasy then read the auditors' report, which con- 
gratulated the society upon a more favorable state of the funds 
than had existed for some years, the excess of income over 
expenditure being, £S2 ISa. Od. The number of new members 
during the year bod been thirty nine, against nineteen during 
the previous year. 

The Sec&ktaby then read a letter from Mr. Fenfon, 
snnonncing the award of prizes in the exhibition of the society, 
with the reasons for the deciaion at whidi tbe adjudicators had 
arrived. We shall publish this report In oar next. 

Lient.-Col. Btoabt Wobtlev then read an interesting 
paper on the production of inatantaaeous pictures of laroe size, 
which will appear in our next. After the thanks of 
ing had been given to CoL Stnart Wortley, 



[FBBnuART 6, 1863. 

The Sbcbbtasy read a letter from Mr. England, describing 
a method of testing coloured glass for nse in the dark room, 
accompanied with illostrations of the suggestion, consisting of 
a series of pieces of jellow glass, abont two inches square, of 
different tints. These were arranged side by side between two 
white glasses, and each piece numbered. A piece of sensitive 
paper was then exposed for some hours under these glasses, and 
their respective powers of resisting actinic rays thus ascertained. 

Mr. P. Le Neve Fobtbb asked Col. Stuart Wortley what 
especial benefit he fbtmd from the nse of the iodide and bromide 
of lithium. 

Col. Stuart Wortlet said it dissolved very freely in 
alcohol, yielded a clean and good picture immediately after the 
collodion was mixed, and gave 'fluidity to the collodion, which 
rendered it valuable for use with large plates. The collodion 
was moreover very sensitive and stable, not changing withinf 
ten months, which was the longest time he had kept it. 

Mr. Vebnon Heath, expressed a conviction that the great 
future of photography largely depended upon the production of 
instantaneous pictured, and the subject was therefore peculiarly 
interesting. He wished, therefore, to ask Col. Stuart Wortley 
whether he had takeli any instantaneous pictures in this country, 
or only in the light of Italy. He should also like to know what 
mgans were used to secure instantaneous exposure. Every one 
who had seen the beautiful pictures in the exhibition, must be 
very anxious to obtain any information which might enable 
them to take such pictures in this country. He would also add, 
that he had listened with great interest and pleasure to the 
remarks in the paper on printing. He was convinced that no 
one could so fully understand the qualities of a negative and 
the results it ought to yield, as the photo^pher who had 
produced it ; the mere printer, imfamitiar with the scene, and 
the effect which would best render its character, could not 
nroduce the prints best for the purpose ; and he thought it would 
oe doing a great deal of good to urge the importance of every 
photographer printing his own negatives. 

Colonel St u AST Woetley had not practised instantaneous 
photog^phy in this country ; but, from some recent experi- 
ments in portraiture, he was led to believe that there was not 
that difference in the light of Italy and this country which 
was imagined. In some respects the advantage, so far as land- 
scape photography was concerned, was found in this country. 
It was very difiicult to render distance in Italy, on 
account of the hot vapour which generally hung over the 
horizon. The only time when it was possible to succeed satis- 
factorily was the day following a thunder storm or rain. 

The Honourable W. Vernon had found that early in the 
morning was the best time for landscape photography* in Italy. 
Ho wished also to add his conviction in confirmation of the 
remarks of Colonel Stuart Wortley and Mr. Heath as to print- 

Colonel Stuart Wortley said, regarding his method of 
exposure, he simply used his hand. It would be noticed that 
his pictures were fully exposed ; indeed, the process was more 
rapid thaujthe exposure, sometimes a little blurring of moving 
objects being observed. Ho wished he had a more rapid 

Mr. J. W. Osborne wished to ask three questions. Colonel 
Stuart Wortley had referred to a liberal use of acetic acid 
in conjunction with formic. How much constituted a liberal 
amount ? Second, he asked his reason for using bichloride and 
iodide prior to the use of pyrogallic acid and silver. He had 
himself adopted that plan when he found it difficult to get suf- 
ficient intensity, but he wished to know what was the object of 
using it generally, when the opposite method, that of using 
pyro and silver first and bichloride afterwards, was so much 
more usual. Third, he wished to know why Dallmeyer's triple 
lens was used, seeing that an impression prevailed in some 
quarters that it was slower than the single lens, owing to the 
number of refiecting surfaces. Was it because of its known 
freedom from distortion, or because it permitted the use of the 
full aperture, and thus practically quicker than others, or for 
some other reason ? 

Col. Stuart Wortley used as a rule as much acetic acid 
as formic acid, but varied according to the temperature and the 
light, trying a plate in the morning to ascertain. If there were 
not sufficient acetic acid, the picture flashed out too quickly for 
control, and about two inches of the plate, where the devetoper 
first came in contact, was fogged. By adding more acetic acid 
the image was a few seconds before it appeared, and then 
developed satisfactorily. Tho formic acid aided in giving I 

amazing detail. Mr. Simpson would remember a specimen he 
sent over firom Naples to him, which especially showed this 

Mr. G. Whabton Sibi pson said the picture in question was 
one of the most exquisitely detailed pictures he had seen, and of 
a difficult subject. 

Col. Stuart Wortley said as he intensified his negatives 
after they were dry, some of them having been taken in Italy 
and intensified in this country, he found a method of pro- 
ducing an iodide on the surface of the picture prior to the appli- 
cation of pyrogallic acid and silver was desirable, otherwise the 
negative would not intensify easily. 

A conversational discussion on this subject followed, in which 
Dr. Diamond remarked that he had seen Col. Wortley 's 
manipulations, and whilst the pyro and silver applied to a 
dried plate would not take at aU, nor give intensity, after the 
application of bichloride and iodide no difficulty was felt. 

Col. Stuart Wortley said, in regard to the question about 
the lens, he used the triple lens because it covered a larger 
sized plate more perfectly than other lenses of the same focus 
which he had tried. He was sorry he had not some of the 
pictures at the meeting to show, but they were all at the 

Mr. Osborne : Do you think it the best lens ? 

Col. Stuart Wortley : I have not found any so good ; 
but I have not tried everybody's lenses. Without wishing to 
depreciate others, I think it right to state which I have found 
answered best. 

Mr. Heisch said he had recently intensified six dozen nega- 
tives taken in the Holy Land, and had used nothing but pyro 
and silver. He had found no difficulty in producing intensity. 

CoL Stuart Wortley asked if they were developed with 

Mr. Hbisch was uncertain. 

Mr. Debenham was in the habit of intensifying with pyro 
and silver without difficulty. Tho negatives were developed 
with iron, using bromo-iodized collodion. 

Col. Stuart Wortley said much would depend upon the 
amount of deposit to begin with. 

Mr. Sebastian Davis referred to some experiments he had 
made with single and compound lenses. Using a stereoscopic 
single lens and one of Dallmeyer's double lenses of similar 
focus he fouad that with an aperture of fths of an inch in the 
single lens, and |ths of an inch in the doable lens similar re- 
sults as reg^ards aefinition and intensity were obtained. In the 
exposure the single lens required 10 seconds, whilst the double 
lens required only 4 seconds. The double lens was the most 
rapid in the ratio of 4 to 10. Regarding the triple lens, it 
doubtless gave fine results, but he did not think satisfactory 
definition all over the plate was obtained with the full aperture ; 
a somewhat small stop being requirod to secure good marginal 
definition. In nitfiy of Oah oflrikffi Woftley's pictures the 
margin was removed H^ vignetting, so that any defective defi- 
nition was not seen. On the whole, he was disposed to think 
that a single lens wai more rapid. 

Col. Stuart Wortley assured Mr. Davis that the vignetting 
was not due to any defect of the lens, but solely for the purpose 
of producing an artistic picture. Besides, some of the pictures 
were not vignetted, and he thOnght that it would be seen in 
them that the whole plate Was well covered. He ought to 
mention also that the lenses used were only intended for plates 
6 by 6, and 8J by 6J, whilst^his pictures were very much larger. 

A communication from Dr. Van Monckhoven on the Theory 
of Pholographic Processes, w«» then read by Mr. Shadbolt, but 
elicited no discussion. 

The Chairman proceeded to make some interesting remarks 
on the practical progress of photography, but confessed that ho 
had been somewhat disappointed that more light had not been 
thrown on its scientific and theoretical aspects. He thanked 
the society for the honour they had done htm in his re-election. 
His years forbade the hope that he could much longer fill such 
an office, and hoped the society would not neglect an oppor- 
tunity of securing more efficient services ; adding, however, 
whilst they might find a more able chairman, one more willing 
and zealous for the interest of the society they could not possi- 
bly have. 

The Secretary announced that at the meeting in March Mr. 
Johnstone, of Birmingham, would read a paper on the Electric 
Theory of Photography. After some votes of thanks tho pro- 
ceedings t<5rminated. 

FXBRUART 6, 1863.] 





Deak Sia, — Pennit me to make a few obserFations in the 
Nevs apon the discussion of an important topic, respecting 
which mnch has been said and written of late, namely, " The 
Nature and Composition of the Photographic Image." I 
think the statement of the problem to oe solved embodied 
in this phrase is somewhat vague, and has conduced, in some 
measure, to give vagueness to what we have read upon the 
subject in your own and other journals. 

Some persons evidently think it necessary to explain the 
modus operandi of the subtle chemical and molecular 
changes produced by the actinic rays. These they illus- 
trate by divers similes, designed to convey the idea of 
unstable equilibrium, and pass on naturally to the mode in 
which the developer acts, thereby involving themselves in 
the mazes of two most difficult questions, respecting which 
very little is known, or will be, until inductive reasoning, 
based upon cleverly devised experiments, and the closest 
observation, is brought to bear upon them. Now, if photo- 
graphers coniined themselves to the investigation of the 
dark deposit in the collodion film, or rather made that a 
separate subject for the present, perhaps some progress 
might be made ; for I quite agree with Mr. Malonc, that 
enough time has been spent on conjectural statements, 
and what we want now is facts. It appears to me that the 
detenai nation of the natui-e of the substance which produces 
the opacity in a negative is quite within our reach ; but it 
will never be amved at by speculation alone, which is 
legitimate only so far as it guides our experiments. I am 
not about to enter upon this subject in the present com- 
munication ; but I wisn to bring under the notice of such 
of your readers as occupy themselves with its investigation, 
a fact which should not be overlooked. 

If, after fixing and drying any ordinary negative, but 
especially one of a black and white subject, such as an 
engraving, the surCEUse of the collodion film be carefully 
examined, the transparent parts of the picture will be found 
to he relatively depressed in a very striking manner. I 
ha%-c been aware of this fact for a long time, and have 
speculated much upon its probable cause, and the uses 
which might be maoe of it, and have also written respecting 
it long ago to Mr. Hardwich, requesting him to bring it before 
the Society ; but when he received my letter, he had already 
left King's College. I have never seen a statement of this 
phenomenon in print, nor any allusion to it ; but the idea 
chat it had not been observed before was instantly dispelled 
hy youreelf and Dr. Diamond, on my arrival in England in 
July last. Being therefore known, I certainly am surprised 
that it has not been put prominently forward as an im- 

{)ortant item in the consideration of the deposit in the col- 
odion film ; for I do. not think that any one of the talented 
men, who have thought and written on this subject, will 
venture to maintain that it is the actual bulk of the metallic 
matter in the collodion, which gives rise to the differences 
in elevation of the transparent and opaque places, a dif- 
ference by no means so slight as might be supposed. 

A copy by mechanical means may be taken of the depres- 
sions in any negative, in the copperplate printer's press, or 
even in one used for lithography, if a sheet of tin foil in 
contact with its surface be submitted to the necessary 
pru«ure. For this purpose, the soft, spurious description of 
tin foil, largely alloved with lead, is the best fitted, and 
^'>mc experience and care is desirable if the negative is a 
valuable one. But J have succeeded in producing from 
negatives of a varietv of kinds many excellent copies on 
metallic surfaces, in tne way I have described, and by other 
ni' ans less satisfactory. Copies of this kind serve to esta- 
blish inoontestably the reality of the depression, which 
^me persons detect with difficulty upon the glass ; and to 

show that its amount entitles it to serious consideration, I 
purpose exhibiting a few specimens produced by my method 
at an early meeting of the Society. 

We have frequently been told that one of (he advantages 
collodion offers for photographic work jK'ises from its abso- 
lute indifference, chemically speakinff, to the silver salts. 
This may be so. I do not now intend to controvert it ; but 
the fact above cited seems to me to make it appear probablo 
that a change of some kind has taken place in the collodion 
itself, where the light has fallen, and that its condition in 
such places is not the same as it is in the shadows. 

Until lately most of us were under the impression that 
the white pails of a positive print contained no silver. We 
took for granted the power of the hypo to break up any 
uncoloured combinations between silver or its salts, ana 
albumen. Our opinions are now modified, and I draw the 
obvious moral from the change, and applying it to state- 
ments made respecting collodion, object to take its total 
indifference for granted, while I am far from regarding its 
chemical activity as proved. I am, dear Sir, yours truly, 


61, Beaumont Street, Portland Placv, W, 
January 26, 1863. 

Eesihized Fapeb. 

Dear Sib,— Further experience with this paper has led me 
to the conclusion that a floating of three minutes on the sensi- 
tizing bath, if of 80 grains strength, is amply sufficient to give, 
not only a good, but a brilliant picture. Apologizing for 
troubling you, I am, dear sir, yours truly, 

W. H. Wabheb. 

Ro99, January Uthy 1868. 


Sib,— It ^as occurred to me that the infringement of copy- 
right in photographs might be prevented by making the sale 
of photographs, not bearing the name and addreta of the photo- 
grapher, an Ulegal act on the part of the vendor, punishable by 
fine for each separate sale. If the vendor were thus responsible, 
he would not venture to sell pirated copies. The actual copier 
should be liable to a much heavier fine. To " counterfeit " the 
name of the photographer would of itself be forgery. 

I am not aware how far the law, as it exists, maybe effectual 
for this purpose ; but, as the evil is so notorious and extensive, 
I should think there is good ground for getting, if necessary, 
some such power over the vendor, when the general subject of 
copyright is reconsidered, as it probably will be, this session. — 
I am, sir, your obedient servant, Alexandeb Bassano. 

February 8r<f, 1863. 

[We fear it would be difficult to obtain the power our corre- 
spondent suggests. We hope that the law as it stands, if 
vigorously applied, will be found efficient in suppressing the 
disgraceful piracy which has hitherto been as a cankerworm 
injuring the art. — £d.] 


Light. — Light also has an undoubted influence on the 
growth of some of the lower animals. Animalculffi grow, in 
water, much more readily in the light than in the dark. If 
equal numbers of silkworms be exposed in a light room and a 
dark, many more larv8B will be hatched from the former than 
the latter. And, what is stranger still. Dr. Edwards found the 
development of tadpoles into frogs may be entirely prevented 
by the absence of light. Thev grow into big tadpoles. Several 
facts tend to the belief that the human body is greatly amen- 
able to the influence of light. Dr. Edwards found that persons 
living in caves or cellars, or in dark streets, are apt to produce 
deformed children ; and the workers in mines are liable to 
disease and deformity beyond what could be accounted for by 
the condition of the atmosphere. And it has even been affirmed 
by Sir A. WyUe that in a large barrack at St. Petersburg the 
cases of disease in those men who live on the dark side for 
many years are tiiree to one to those on the light side. 



[Februaet 6, 1863. 

^nJk in Hit S^ixdna. 

Art PHOToaBiiPET.>-At the next meeting of the South 
London Society, to be held in the City of London Colle^, 
Leadenhall Street, next Thursday evening, Mr. Beilander will 
read a paper, entitled Rejlander's Apology for Art Photo^phy. 
Mr. Price, also, will read a paper on the Theoretical Pnnciples 
of Positive Printing. 

Photoobaphic Coptrioht. — Mr. Sothem having become 
a world-wide celebrity, the world naturally desired to have his 
portrait ; and so he consented to sit to Mr. Hering. the eminent 
photographer of Kegent-street, for no less than nine cartes de 
vuite representing him in so many highly diverting and 
Bundrearyish attitudes. These productions, most elaborately 
and artistically executed, have had, it appears, a prodigious sale. 
It seems to have occurred to a person named Daniells, a photo- 
grapher carrying on business in Pentonville, that a very good 
speculation might be made out of the Dundreary mania, by 
counterfeiting, or forging, or re-photographing Mr. Hering's 
pictures, the copyright of which had been duly secured, and 
notices to that effect affixed to the front and back of each like- 
ness. This disgraceful simulation was ere long discovered. 
Daniells appears to have sold numbers of the spurious cartes de 
visits at a verv low rate ; but his tricky trade was brought to a 
sudden stand-still by a couple of summonses to appear at the 
Clerkenwell Police Court, there to answer for a wilful and 
wanton violation of the 26th and 27th Victoria, which punishes 
the infringement of artistic or photographic copyright in copy- 
ing or seUing any such work of art, without the consent of the 
proprietor, by a forfeit to him of a sum not exceeding ten pounds 
and which also provides that all existing copies, repetitions, and 
imitations, and the negatives from which the photographs have 
been printed, shall be confiscated. Nothing could be clearer 
than the evidence which brought home to Daniells the offence 
of having made use of the original Dundreary for his own 
counterfeits. The only question was a technical one respecting 
the Artistic Copyright Act, which re<juire8 to be affirmed by 
some high judicial decision. With a view of fixing the mean- 
ing of the law, the sitting magistrate, Mr. Barker, inflicted a 
penalty of three pounds aud sixpence, together with two guineas 
costs, in order that the defendant might appeal if he so chose. 
Such a course he has elected to pursue ; but if he be wise in his 

feneration he will desist from disputing the decision arrived at. 
iecent experiences and common sense convincingly prove that 
there should bo as clearly defined and as rigidly enforced a 
copyright in an original photograph as in an original picture ; 
and if the law we already pos8Q^s is loosely or vaguely worded, 
it must be speedily and precisely amended. — Telegraph, 

$0 (^ntttvjutsviiitsis. 

*0* We must again crave the indulgence of a large number of 
our advertising friends whose announcements are compelled 
to stand over until next week. 

H. W. — ^Yery little is written oa the Calotrpe proceat at the present daj, 
simply because it la little practised. Dr. Diamond is one of the best Galo- 
type manipulator} we know, and you cannot do better than follow the 
Instructions in his article. Those, or the instructions by "Theta" in our 
own pages, will aid you to produce satisfactory results. 

D. A.-~ We are glad you find the gold and lime bath so snccessftil. We have 
not used the lens to which you refer, but have heard it well spoken of, and 
have seen some good work done by it. 

Bp£CI7Ldi.— The film splitting and curling off the plate may be due to several 
causes, but the condition of the collodion is most frequently the primary 
cause, dome kinds of pyrozvline have an especial tendency to this defect, 
and weak solvents, containing too much water, materially tend in the 
same direction. Dirty plates or damp plates will also cause it When the 
tendency is found to exist, be very careAil that the plate is clean and quite 
dry ; see that the film is well set before immersion ; be venr careflil to 
avoid under-exposure, as under-exposure and prolonged development will 
bring it about If the slightest tendency exist fh)m other causes. When 
this result Is feared with a good negative, pour a solution of gum or albu- 
men on the film before it dries, and varnish afterwards as usual 

O. T. P.— flee answer to "Speculum." For your printing bath, agitate it 
with kaolin, and filter. 

HAooBa Beoww — You may of coarse obtain good photographs by purchas- 
ing nublished pictures, but as this would be a somewhat expensive mode of 
getting prints merely to practise colouring upon, you will doubtless be able 
to procure some on moderate terms by applying to any professional 
photographer, who generally possesses spare prints. 

EXCKL8I0B.— The system of priie-giving generally stimulates exertion ; but 
we fear that in connection with the Exchange Club it would involve some 

difficulties, and would certainly increase the responslbili^ uid already 
invidious duties of the referees. Your letter shall, however, be handed to 
them for oon^deration. The date and hour of exposure should always be 
upended, as well as the time, lens, stop, and otherpartleularB. 

A MQimna. — ^The most common cause of a sandy suraioe is 8iq»eraatantl<m 
of the bath with iodo-nitrate of silver. See an article on page 687 of oar 
sixth volume, the number for December 12, 1862, and on pa^e 500 In the 
same number. A bath which has been boiled down will be veiy likely to 
give it To remove the cause, dilute the bath with an equal bulk of dis- 
tilled water, let the solution get as cold as you conveniently can, and then 
filter. The burning of gas is not desirable in a dark room, bot it is not 
likely to cause the sandiness referred to. 

M. M. D. — A square inch of coloured glass is sufficient for oar cxaminatioo. 
We do not require any fee for the examination, but have pleasure in 
ondertaking it for our readers. 2. Doubtless you can parchwe a good 
iron negative of almost any professional photographer. If yon do not 
know any, we can furnish vou with the names of some. 

Amakastu. — The lens you have procured is probably the best yon ooald 
possess for your purpose. 2. It is not so quick as a portrait lens ; bat as 

Suick, or quicker tlian other landscape lenses. 8. We prefer an iron 
eveloper for all purposes. We shall always have pleasure in helping you 
by our advice. 
G. H. BlABTiir.-— The card sent is very round and brilliant The printing la 

TiciaUy fine, and the tone good. 
P.-— The letter was posted with the proper address added. 

Qcsxovs. — Printing by development has not generally been sacoeasAil with 
albumenlxed paper, but it can be done. The albumen muat, in each case, 
contain a bromide, or bromide and iodide, as well as a chloride. The pro- 
cess will then be similar to that on pUin paper. 2. The copies to which 
you refer are very diminutive, a bust about the siae of a shilling mounted 
on the ordinary sized card. A number of prints are probably copied at 
once, forming one large negative. The results are very poor ; but, taJdng 
everything into consideration, we should not like to produce them at the 

W. WAaBiMGTON.— The size of the condenser commonly used in the solar 
camera is nine inches, and the focus eighteen inches. 

A Thesi Mo2«th8 8UB8CBIBSB TO THB Nbws. — For a first attempt yoar prints 
are promising. They all require printing deeper, and all Uie n^atives 
have a little too much top light, which causes heavy shadows under pro- 
jecting features. Cover more of the skylight immediately over haul, and 
get a little shadow on one side of the face. No. 1, the ikce is flat from 
over-development or over-intensifying. No. 2 is better in this respect, as 
also is No. 3. No. 4 is flat in the fhce from too much light all round it, 
and a little over-intensifying. With care and perseverance yoa will suc- 
ceed. Let us hear of your progress. 

A Pbihtbb's Assistakt. — You have used too large a proportion of alcohol 
and too much silver. Nitrate of silver is very sparinglv soluble In alcohol, 
and when you add one-third of its entire bulk of alcohol to an 80 or 100- 
grain solution, the probability is that the alcohol wUl float on the denser 
fluid, and even if well stirred up, they would not mix without predpitakting 
some of the silver, and hence the mottled eCTect of your prints. As a 
remedy, add an equal quantity of a new 60>grain solution. 2. Filtering 
water only removes matter in suspension ; it does not get rid of chlorides* 
caci>onates, Ac, and therefore does not form a substitute for distilled water 
where Uie latter is imperatively required. 3. Soap uid water should not 
be used for washing prints, the soap is useless and iAjurions. 4. We have 
not used magnesia in a toning bath. It might be used, but we don't 
know of any special advantage in its use. 5. About a quarter of an hour 
is the thne required for fixing. If the paper be thick, the bath weak, or 
the weather cold, a little longer may be an advantage. 0. We use methy- 
lated spirit for almost every photographic purx>oee. instead <tf pare spirit 
without disadvantage. 7. Intense negatives and deep printing are reqiUBite 
in order to ensure purple or black tones. The acetate of soda baUi will 
give fine purple tones, but the lime bath gives black tones most readily. 

Qbobob Gcyox. — We regret to state that the Almanac is out of print. We 
printed of this year's issue a very large number in excess of what bad 
been done before, being warned by the experience of last year, at least 600 
applications having been made after the work was out of print Oar cal- 
culations have, however, been at fault, the demand ha'vmg again exceeded 

Alpha.— Two quarter-plate portrait lenses may be used with advantage tor 
the production of stereoscopic pictures. 2. A fallacy used to prevail 
to the effect that so much as a passing gleam of light would ruin a nitrate 
bath. We have never experienced any evil result from such a cause. It 
is as well, however, to keep the bath generallv In the dark ; any evil whldi 
could result would arise from the presence of organic matter in the bath* 
which light would tend to reduce. 3. It entirely depends upon the mode of 
intensifying whether it may or may not be done in dayUght With bi- 
chloride of mercury, sulphide of potassium, Ac, you may work in daylight ; 
with pyro and silver, it is better to work in yellow lights as white light, act- 
ing upon the silver, will soon make the pvro and silver torn tarbid, and 
will sometimes cause reduction on the shadows, and fog. 

Xbmopbon. — The stains on your negatives arise from the use of an enerf^c 
developer, which you do not contrive to make cover the plate at once in one 
even wave. Until you get more skill in covering the plate with Uie iron aola- 
tion at one sweep, use it a little weaker, add a little more acetic acid, and 
also a little more alcohol to prevent the solution running firom the ed^es of 
the plate in greasy lines. 2. A little more exposure would have improved the 
negatives ; and, with a weaker developer and more acid, you woold have 
less risk of reduction on the shadows. 3. We not know much of the lenses 
you name, but believe them to be pretty good for low-priced lenses. 

*«* A large number of articles in type, and answers to correspondents in 
our next 

Viotogtavilf Utqi$tn^ Sating tfte V«t WMl 

Ub. William Mitlaxd, Cambridge, 

Portrait of late Jonas Webb, Bsq. 
Mr. JoBK Inskip, 10, Oranby Place, Queen Street. Scarborough, 

Two Cartes de Visite of the &ev. S. Wilkinson, Sheffield : 
Mb. Josx Wbbbxb, Taunton, Somerset, 

Three Portraits of A. W. Kinglake, Bsq. 


Vol. Vn. No. 2S2.— February 18, 1868. 



Spirit Photogmphfl 73 

Thp New Globe Lenses 74 

di]arK«d N^FBktiTea 7ft 

Pzintioir I>UBcaltiefl. Bj a Photographer's Assistant 75 

On the Prodnctioa of Instantaneous Photographs on Iiarge 

Plates. Bt Lient-Gol Stuart Wortlej 76 

On the Manipulation, Dereloplng, and Intensifying of Negatiyes. 

Bj James Siring 76 

TheoTf of the Photographic Processes. By Dr. D. Van Monck- 

hoTen...M 70 


Prizes at the Photographic Bxhibltion.— A(UadiefttonP Beport... 81 

Remedy for Cracked Yamish. By H. B. Nichols 91 

The Application of Photography to the Magic Lantern Educa- 
tionally Considered. By Samuel Highley, F.O.S., F.C S. ... 81 
Correspondence. — The French Photographic Exhibition ... 82 

Photographic Notes and Queries 83 

Talk in the Studio 84 

To Correspondents 84 

PhotogFapns Registered daring the Week 84 


Ws feel that some apology is due to our readeis for gravely 
occapylng their attention with what we now do not hesi- 
tate to style a pitiable delusion originating in shameful 
Innd or mischievous trickery. Our business is not, however, 
with the general claims of what is termed " Spiritualism," 
bat with a phase of it in which our own art is prostituted 
to purposes of imposture, and which we feel called upon to 
l»y fully before our readers, if not to denounce. The chief 
details have already appeared in our pages, and, as no 
new facts have transpired, we shall not exhaust the patience 
of your readers by a repetition of evidences similar to 
those already published. The faith of photographers in 
thi^ country has, however, been challenged on new ground. 
Copies of the photographs containing the alleged spirit- 
portraits have been announced in our advertising columns 
tor sale in this country, three for three and sixpence, in 
fealed packets, like some other matters of more than ques- 
tionable character. In addition to the evidence thus to be 
derived from sight, the Spiritual Magazine claims especial 
attention and credence for a letter from Dr. H. T. Child, 
of Philadelphia, who is stated to be well known to '* many 
in this country as a man of science, and a clear philoso- 
phical thinker.*' We demur, however, entirely to his science 
and philosophy, as developed in the letter in question, for 
the reasons we shall lay before our readers. 

Dr. Child, at the opening of this letter, states that he had 
boen informed that " the learned philosophers who consti- 
tute the American Photographic Society had solemnly 
nsoWed that the spiritual likenesses are a fraud and gross 
deception ;" he then adds that this led him " rather to infer 
that these pictures were real because of this decision !" The 
fact that a body of scientific gentlemen, with no possible 
object before them but the truth, having examinea a sub- 
ject on which they were pre-eminently well qualified to form 
au opinion, and pronounced it a fraud, rather inclines this 
'* philosopher" to believe in its truth, and in this spirit he 
proceeds to investigate the subject. He informs us that he 
u aware of the modes in which the spirit photographs 
might be simulated, one of which is to place anotner 
negative in contact with the sensitive plate, already con- 
taining a latent image of an actual sitter, and allow the 
light of a lamp to pass through the negative. So far so 
good. But the doctor then proceeds to illustrate his charac- 
ter as a " man of sdence," by informing ns that he has seen 
ft photograph 00 produced, and that it was distinguishable 
from the genuine spirit photograph by having "a very 
marked ydlow tint, the resuU cf the artificial light of the 

n ith these two specimens of the doctor's knowledge of 
facts and mode of reasoning upon them, his " science " and 
** philosophy," we presume our readers will be content. One 
word more, however, since it bears on the theory of photo- 
grsphy, and Introduces ideas doubtless new to our readers, 
^me of the doctor's spiritual yiaitants have communicated 

to him the theory or modus operandi ofthese spirit portraits. 
Here it is :-^ 

" There are three forms of matter. First, tangible matter ; 
second, the imponderables, well known to science as heat, Ught, 
electricity, magnetism, the Od force and the life principle. 
These become more refined in the order in which I have named 
them, and thus approximate toward the third realm of matter, 
which constitutes spirits, and the home they dwell in, in the 
spiritual world. Photography, or the art of printing by light, 
is the most spiritual of all the arts, and by it any substance that 
is sufficiently dense to set in motion the rays of light, may have 
its form and character printed on the plate, being received 
there by the delicate and perceptive chemicals which are used. 
But spirit forms are so much more refined than light, that they 
cannot set in motion or reflect its rays. To do this, they require 
the aid of the life principle — the Od force — magnetism and 
electricity. These may be obtained from certain mediums, and 
the atmosphere around them ; and when thus obtained and 
properly placed, either around a spirit form, or combined and 
formed into such a model as to represent the form itself, either 
of which will be enabled to set in motion the next form of 
matter, which is light, and print an image upon the glass. It 
does not require as much light to print this as it does to make 
an image on the retina of the human eye, and hence these forms 
are not visible. This model process is the one which will be 
first introduced, and hence the forms of spirits and objects will 
not be very perfect." 

One or two words on the " spirit " portraits sent to this 
country and advertised for sale. When we saw the announce- 
ment, we called upon the publbher and asked to be permitted 
to see the pictures in question. We were informed that strict 
instructions had been given that no one was to be permitted 
to see them without purchasing. They were in sealea packets, 
and could only be seen on disbursing three shillings and six- 
pence. As these instructions emanated from the proprietors 
of the Spiritual Magazine, who have undertaken the specula- 
tion of getting up these pictures for the English market, we 
were scarcely so much impressed with their desire to promul- 
gate what they believed to be spiritual truth, as with their 
anxiety to obtain material cash. However, we purchased the 
packet, and although we were prepared for imposture, we were 
altogether confounded by the barefaced humoug revealed to 

The first picture contains a portrait of Mumler, the 
" medium and photographer," standing with his hand on a 
chair. In the printed description at the back it is stated 
" in the chair sits a half-defined female form," and that 
** this was at once recognized as a deceased relative." The 
half-defined female form is simply and palpably, to the eye 
of any experienced photograpner, the smudgy trace of a 
former image on an imperfectly cleaned plate, not sitting 
on a chair, but near it. She is attired in the ordinary costume 
of the material world as worn in the nineteenth century, and 
sitting in the conventional position, with one arm on the 
table holding a book and the other laid across a lap, as 
doubtless Mr. Mumler is in the habit of posing young ladies. 
It is such an image as almost every photographer of any 
practice has occasionally been troubled with, the persistency 



[February 13, 1863. 

of the image on some samples of glass being very singular. 
An eminent photographer informed us the other day that 
he had a plate which every time it was used gave traces of 
the portrait of the late Prince Consort, which had once been 
taken on it ; and there are various similar cases on record. 

The second picture is a portrait of Mr. Alvin Adams, 
stated to be known as the great express agent of America. 
By his side and partly mixed up with nis figure, is the 
smudgy and indistinct image of a boy reading, which is 
stated to be recognised as the portrait of a nephew who has 
been dead a few years. The same general remarks apply to 
this as to the preceding picture. 

The third is a portrait of Mr Luther Parks, of Boston. 
The " spirit " figure here bears the evidence of intentional 
imposture. The other images are as we have stated evidently 
the result of ill-cleaned old plates, and may have been pro- 
duced by accident, and afterwards presented as spirit photo- 
graphs in ioke until, in the eyes oi credulous persons, they 
assumed tne aspect <rf supernatural visitations. The trick 
" taking " must be repeated and improved upon ; and in the 

gicture of Mr. Parks wc have an illustration of the attempt, 
[ere a figure is introduced bearing some resemblance to tne 
conventional and time-honoured ghost ; it is robed in flow- 
ing white drapery, with something like a nimbus, or it may 
be a fancy night-cap above its head ; one arm is extended 
and holds something like a wreath which is offered to Mr. 
Parks, who appears quite unconscious of the favour. The 
general position and aspect of the figure reminds us of alle- 
gorical paintings of Victory crowning heroes. This figure, 
we are informed, is recognized by the family as a " strong " 
likeness of a deceased nephew. Now, as the face in the pic- 
ture has not a trace of a feature, but is simply a round wnite 
Satch, without any indication whatever of the human face 
ivine, rather resembling the white paper dolls cut out occa- 
sionally for children in the nursery, we can only come to the 
conclusion that it was the most extraordinary '* nephew " we 
have ever seen, or that " the family " are considerably more 
imaginative than the Yankee horse which, having green 
spectacles put on, fancied he was at grass when ne was 
eating deal shavings. 

Seriously speaking, we feel very indignant that our art 
should be brought into disrepute by being made subser- 
vient to such an impudent trick. We are told in the 
Spiritual Miigcaine that the whole is a matter of evidence, 
meaning testimony, and not of probability or theory. We 
reply that there are some things which are not believed on 
testimony, and that there is some testimony not worthy of 
credit. We should not believe a man who informed us 
that the moon was made of green cheese, although he told 
us that he had been there, and subsisted for a month on 
its caseous products. These photographs present internal 
evidence of their mundane source, stronger than all the 
testimony as to their spiritual origin. And we protest 
against the blasphemy offered to man*8 spiritual nature, in 
attributing these abortions to such a lofty origin. 

We are somewhat amused to find at the conclusion of 
the article in the Spiritual Magazine the following remarks : 
** of course the Photographic Journal of London is true to 
its instincts, and denounces the whole as a shameful im- 
posture," &c. Now, as the Photographic Journal did not 
offer a single comment on the subject, we presume that the 
Spiritual Magazine is confounding us with our esteemed 
contemporary, and as a challenge follows, we feel bound in 
fairness to take up the gage. ''We invite these gentlemen," 
says the Spiritual Magazine, "to produce likenesses of the 
deceased relatives of their sitters, whom they have not 
previously known, and without the collusion of their sittera, 
m the presence of honest and experienced investigators, who 
shall not be able to detect the imposture." When the 
editor of the Spiritual Magazine will furnish us with sitters, 
and investigators who will be willing to accept patches of 
white paper without a trace of feature, such as the imago of 
Mr. Luther Park's nephew, as " strong likenesses," we shall 
unhe8itr.tiagly produce any quantity of such likenesses. 



We have recently had opportunity for a hasty examination 
of some of Harrison's new globe lenses, regarding which ex- 
traordinary statements have been made as to the amount of 
angle they included. We knew that some of HarmoD's 
lenses were very good, having used one we purchased in 
New York for years. But we must confess we were disap- 
pointed in these ; not so much at any special faults in tne 
lenses as in the discrepancy between their actual qnalitiea 
and those claimed for them. It was stated that the new 
lenses would include an angle of 90^ on a flat plate ; and 
that they were very rapid. It has been more than once stated, 
the stereo lens of this form having a focus of two inches and 
a half, would produce a picture of five inches square. We 
had no opportunity for any very accurate examination or 
trial, but we will record the result of a hasty inspection. 

^The combination consists of two meniscus lenses placed 
with their convex surfaces outwards, and so arranged as to 
form segments of a peifect sphere. They naturally present 
a somewhat unusual appearance, and are mounted in what 
appeared to us an unnecessarily heavy and clumsy bronzed 
mount. The stops, five in number, are fixed in the centre, 
all being in one plate, each one in succession being brought 
into position by the rotation of the plate. 

The stereo-lenses have a back focus of 2j^ inches, the equi- 
valent focus being about 3^ inches. The circle of light 
produced is about five inches in diameter, but it is very 
unequal in intensity, being bright in the centre, and falling 
off considerably towards the edges. The extent of good 
definition, however, even with a small stop does not exceed 
the size of a stereoscopic plate, or about 3^ inches square. 
The first isud which struck us was, when using the largest 
stop, the want of a crisp, fine definition, or precise focuA 
anywhere, arising from the existence of a considerable 
amount of spherical aberration. To secure good definition 
a very small stop was necessary ; and as with the largest 
stop the amount of illumination was very small, the use of 
the lens is necessarily limited to subjects permitting long 

For the purpose of obtaining a comparative view wc 
mounted one of the globe lenses and one of Dallmeyer's 
new stereo lenses on the same camera, so arranging them 
that the image of both, when in focus, fell on the same 
plane. With the globe lens we used the largest stop, 
which is about a quarter of an inch in diameter ; with the 
Dallmeyer a stop of about three-eighths of an inch. With 
these stops the amount of illumination was nearly equal, 
but a little in favour of the English lens. The definition 
in the globe lens was very much inferior everywhere, it 
was a dull, foggy day, requiring a wet collodion plate 
requiring an exposure of about a minute and a half. The 
image given by the Dallmeyer lens was sharp and crisp 
and well made out, that by the globe lens was altogether 
fuasy. In the latter there was, however, the considerable 
depth of definition which arises from spherical aberration. 
The margin of the plate also showed considerable astigma- 

We also made a hasty examination of one of the larger 
lenses, the back focus being 8 or 8} inches. We did not 
try this lens, but examining its image on the ground-glas-s 
we observed the same want of crisp definition as in the 
smaller lenses. The equivalent focus was about 11 inches; 
the circle of light included about 15 inches, or a little 
under. A Dallmeyer's No. 1 triple, with equivalent focus 
of a fraction under 8 inches, gives a circle of light of 12 
inches, showing the extent of angle included decidedly in 
its favour. 

For instantaneous, or even ordinary rapid work, these 
lenses ap]^ear to be altogether unsuited ; and for ordinary 
stereoscopic work they have the defect, incident upon a 
very short focus, of giving a very violent perspective, or 
rapid convergence of the lines. But as they give perfectly 
straight lines, they will be occasionally useful for architec- 

FXBRUABT 13, 1863.] 



tural work in confined poiiitionB where a very short focus 
becomes yalnable. Thus for interiors they may occasionally 
be usefal, their depth of definition becoming a valuable 
quality, especially ii the amount of illumination will permit 
die use of a small stop, and thus secure sharpness. For 
general use, however, they are decidedly not equal to some 
of the recently invented lenses made by English opticians. 


Thk prints from enlarged negatives exhibited by Mr. Alfred 
Uannan, have excited much interest amongst photoCTaphers 
as being much finer than it was believed possible to obtain by 
such a method. The principle and the method of working 
hare been oflen described in our pages ; nevertheless, a few 
words from Mr. Harman will, doubtless, interest many, and 
we have asked him for details of his manipulation. Here 
tbey are : — 

" Dear Sir, — ^In compliance with your request, I send yon a few 
particnlan of the method used by me to enlarge negatives. 

" The negatives most suitaUe for enlarging are those which 
have received a very full exposure, but have not been sufficiently 
intensified for ordinary printing purposes. But by judicious 
management it is possible to get very fine results from negatives 
which have been taken expressly for printing from. The 
enlargements exhibited in Suffolk Street by me were enlarged 
for negatives which had been used for printing a large number 
of copies. I mention this to show what can be done by this 

*' I will now proceed to describe the apparatus I employ ; but 
to save any description, I have only to refer your readers to 
Eome numbers of the Photoobaphic Nbws, which appeared a 
moath or two back, where Mr. Samuel Fry described a method 
of enlargement he introduced for his own practice. My 
apparatus is identical in principle with his, and I here take 
the opportunity of thanking Mr. Fry for his very ingenious 
contrivance, and the liberal courtesy with which he has made 
it known. 

" Now for a few words upon the process. I need not mention 
that the small negative must he perfectly tharp, if not, the loss of 
sharpness apparent in the enlarged negative will be very great. 

" The transparency must be of the same photographio value 
ai the small negative ; that is, there must not be any very great 
contrasts, or the large negative will differ. 

*' 1 generally take the transparency a trifle larger than the 
small negative, but that is a matter of not much importance. 

" It is better not to varnish either the original or the trans- 
parency, as there is very often a quantity of minute particles 
in the varnish which do not show in the small negative ; but, 
when enlarged, the effect is, of course, the same as putting them 
nnder a microscope. I do not mean to say a good enlargement 
caanot be made from a negative that has been varnished, but it 
ii better when they are taken with the view of having them 
fcnlarged, not to varnish them. 

'* For large plates, it is necessary to have a support in the 
centre, whue the collodion is being poured. I have a ball and 
socket arrangement, which I find answers extremely well ; the 
time stand can also be used for developing. 

** The bath I employ for large plates is a large deep tray, with 
aboat four inches at one end covered, so that when tilted to that 
ead, the well formed will hold the solution. Four pegs stand 
cat from the bottom to support the plate, and prevent its touch- 
ing the solution, until the bath is lowered to the vertical position, 
whf D the solution flows evenly over the glass. 

"The development, fixing, &o., are the same as used for 
ordinary wet collodion. 

** In concfaiaion, I must remark, that it iapontively necessary 
t^ have a room fitted expressly for the purpose, and used for that 
Purpose akmew— Yours very truly, Alfseb Hasuak." 



Whx3I the system of alkaline toning was first introduced, it 
^u generally considered that excessive alkalinity was essen- 
tial to secure satisfactoiy results, and quantities of soda, 
Tarying from 5 to 10 grams to the grain of gold, was recom- 

mended, without one thought beine directed to the diversi- 
fied character of various samples of the terchloride of that 
metal prepared by different makers. The existence of this 
salt as a terchloride was perfectly understood, but the ever- 
changing quantities that may be traced even in samples 
prepared by the same maker was considered a matter of too 
little importance for investigation, and here lay the root of 
the many failures that characterised toning operations at 
the period before alluded to. Happily, patient, untiring 
observation and research have been, and still are, directed to 
this subject, and we now understand the necessity of avoid- 
ing excessive alkalinity in our toning solutions ; for under 
such conditions toning operations may bo pronounced a 
tediously uncertain process. It should therefore be remem- 
bered that what I have termed a decidedly alkaline bath 
must not be taken in its chemical meaning, but rather that 
condition when the free acid, introduced with the gold, is 
neutralised by the soda leaving a trace of the liberated 
carbonic acid, whose presence can only be detected when 
the litmus paper is in a perfect condition as a testing medium, 
and I once more emphatically repeat where heat is employed 
in the manner I have recommended, except a trace of free 
acid be present, toning action will prove too slow for com- 
mercial purposes. There would appear at first sight a 
striking analogy between the toning and linen bleaching 
operations, more especially when chloride of lime is em- 
ployed in the latter process, the operation of each being 
nastened by the presence of a free acid ; the lime in this 
case liberates chlorine in favour of the acid, but this explana- 
tion would not hold good in toning operations, for the fact 
of gold remaining in solution in tne presence of large 
Quantities of free acid, through whose agency it resists 
decomposition, proves that tne acid can exercise no 
influence in promoting or producing decomposition. But 
from the facte we have enumerated it is obvious that 
it has a strong tendency to increase the bleaching powers 
of the chlorine by directing ite action to the surface of 
the paper and preventing ite combination with the soda, 
as it is wont to do when this substance last named is 
added in quantity sufficient to overcome the influence of 
the acid. It is a judicious observance of this bleaching 
process that enables the printer to secure satisfactory resulte, 
as ite duty is to prepare the way for the gold. The opera- 
tion of toning action may, in some respecte, be compared to 
the electro-gilding process, but moved by a power entirely 
different in ite composition, whose nature in the present 
state of chemical science is but imperfectly understood. For 
convenience sake we call it affinity ; at ill evente, it is not 
electricity, for it is a well proved fact that a current of tho 
electric fluid passed through or brought into contact with 
water containing chlorine, will, by ite decomposing action 
on the water, produce hydrochloric acid, the chlorine uniting 
with the liberated hydrogen, thus forming the acid named ; 
so that a bath would become more and more acid as toning 
proceeded. That such is not the case may be easily proved by 
any person who may feel an interest in the subject. 

In the absence of a diagram, we may endeavour to explain 
our modified views of toning action as follows ; — Chlorine 
entertains a great affection for soda, and would willingly fiy 
to ite embrace, but ere she can approach near enough t>o do 
so, aci^ steps between, and combining their forces together, 
they attack the surface of the paper, thus preparing it for 
the reception of the gold, and atom after atom is attracted 
and deposit themselves on the spote thus prepared. If the 
surface of the paper is not perfectly free from the unreduced, 
or, at all events, unstable nitrate, it assumes a false colour 
that dissolves out in the hypo bath ; and the same resulte 
follow when chlorine is liberated in large quantities, a false 
colour is produced without a proportionate deposit of gold. 
We have, therefore, two extremes to avoid, an excessive 
alkaline, or acid conditions. As a rule, the larger the amount 
of chlorine the greater the quantity of soda required, and 
the greater the amount of chlorine liberated by heat, the 
stronger the necessity for free acid, the quantity being 




[FXBBUABT 13, 1863. 

regulated by the amount of reduction required. Having 
now said as much as is necessary on the treatment of highly 
albumenized papers, I shall proceed to treat on the lighter 
samples, whicn, with a few words on the numerous faUures 
produced by the agency of water, I shall bring this paper 
to a conclusion. 

(To be continued.) 



I SHALL begin by mentioning that, in the short paper I am 
about to read to you, I shall avoid as much as possible en- 
tering into details of manipulation, &c., all practical men 
having their own way of working. 

I may, however, start by impressing upon every one the 
absolute necessity of clean plates, both for the sake of avoid- 
ing marks in the original negative and to guard as much as 
possible against loosening of the film during the intensifica- 
tion. The collodion I have been in the habit of using is 
very alcoholic, the following being the proportions : — 

Ether ... ... ... ... ... 1 oz. 

Alcohol, 802 2^ oz. 

Iodide of lithium 15 grs. 

Bromide of lithium 6} gre. 

or rather more than double alcohol to ether, between 4 and 
5 grs. of iodide and 2 grs. bromide to the ounce of col- 
lodion. The pyroxyline is first steeped in the iodo-bro- 
mized alcohol, and the ether then added. The quantity of 
collodion varies very much in different samples. I thus 
obtain a very fluid collodion, which I find a great advan- 
tage in coating large plates where a very even film is 
required, and in all instantaneous pictures where there is 
much sky. 

The utmost precautions must be used to avoid 8ti*eaks, 
spots, or stains of any kind. This is one of the great diffi- 
culties of working out of doors. I have lost many good 
negatives by accidental spots from dust, and such unvoid- 
able causes. 

The silver bath is made from Hopkins and Williams's 
pure recrystallized nitrate of silver, 35 gr. to the ounce. I 
iodize by leaving a couple of coated plates in the bath for 
several hours. 

I then find it necessary to add from 2 to 3 drops of pure 
nitric acid to the ounce of bath. The more bromide in the 
collodion, the more nitric acid, I find, is required in the 
bath. I leave the plate rather longer in the bath than I 
should were I nsin^ simply iodized collodion, as I find the 
maximum of sensitiveness takes longer to produce with a 
collodion containing much bromide than with a simply 
iodized or lightly bromized collodion. 

I drain very carefully, and place blotting paper all along 
the bottom of the plate when in the slide. 

My pictures in the Exhibition are taken with Dallmeyer*s 
triplet lenses, and usually with full aperture, — necessarily so 
when facing the sun, as any diaphragm in the lens produces 
rings on the plate, when tne sun shines into the lens. 

My developer I make as follows : — 

Sulphate of iron 20 ounces 

Distilled water 120 


Acetate of lead 

0^ ounce 
5 ounces 


Mix the above solutions, and when the precipitate has all 
settled, decant off very carefully. Add — 

Pormic acid 5 ounces 

Acetic ether • 1} „ 

Nitric ether l| 


* B«ad at Ui« London Photographic Society, Feb. 8rd. 

This I keep as a stock solution, and filter off as much as 
I require for use at a time, adding acetic acid in proportion, 
according to the temperature of the weather and the class of 
picture required. The developer should move freely over the 
plate, and should remain on the plate some seconds before 
any sign of the picture appears. As the acid loses its 
restraining power, the iron acts, and the result is a simul- 
taneous action over the whole plate, and the picture flashes 
out all at once. You will have noted that the developer is a 
very powerful one, and I use a very liberal amount of acetic 
acid as a restraint to the energetic action of the iron and 
formic acid. 

I keep the developer on the film till 1 have obtained the 
necessary detail, and then, washing the plate very thoroughly, 
bring it home in a grooved box, to be fixed in the evening 
with a weak solution of cyanide of potassium. (Many of my 
negatives were taken in Italy, and brought home, after 
fixing, for the intensification to be done in England.) The 
edges of the plate must be carefully varnished, and the film 
moistened with distilled water. A saturated solution of 
bichloride of mercury is then poured on, and poured off as 
soon as the film has taken the proper colour, on which, 
after a good washing, a five grain solution of iodide of 
ammonium in water is poured on and off till the desired 
depth is attained. I then use two solutions composed as 
follows : — 

1. Pyrogallic acid 

2. Citric acid ... 
Nitrate of silver 

1 oz. 

50 grs. 

10 grs, 
1 oz. 

Pour a few drops of No. 2 into No. 1, and pour on and 
off. The negative can now be made to assume anj depth 
you may require. 

If you have a negative from which you desire to print 
vignettes, keep the negative tolerably transparent. If you 
intend to print your negative to the edges, see that it has 
force conjoined with softness. Many a negative, which U 
too transparent to give an effective print if printed to the 
edges, will give a beautiful vignette. 

Every one should print from their own negatives. Taste 
and knowledge are shown as much in the printing as in the 
production oi the negative. Many amateurs who produce 
moderate negatives send them to professional photographers 
to print, and thus obtain the taste and talent of another man 
in the production of the pictures, which they then speak of 
as their own. This is not, in my opinion, at all nght, as 
the printer certainly deserves to share the credit of the 
finished picture. 

I use, for printing, a silver bath of 100 grains to the ounce 
of water, acidified with citric acid ; and use as toning-bath a 
solution of chloride of gold and phosphate of soda, of which 
I keep a large quantity in stock, and prefer to use some 
weeks old. 1 fix in fresh hyposulphite of soda, and mount 
the finished picture with fresh starch. 



In looking over the papers read before the members of the 
late and present societies, it is a Strang fact that we have 
never discussed the above important divisions of our diemically 
pictorial vocation, although, in point of routine, they should 
have had precedence of our papers on printing, toning, &c. 
But should the disquisition on the heads proposed for your con- 
sideration prove as successful in eliminating general good to 
the profession as discussions on some of the papers previously 
read, we shall not be sorry in passing the evemng conversing 

The enthusiasm arising from the beauty, and wonder excited 
in the versatile French mind, and, indeed', that of the world, by 
the introduction of the Daguerreotype to the Academy of 

* Bead before the QUsgow Photognpblo Anociatton, Feb. 6 th, 18 63. 

FlBBUAST 13, 1868.] 



Sciences, in Paris, by M. Arago, had not yet reached its acme 
before the celebrated Mr. Fox Talbot had forwarded for the 
inspection of the members of that aug^t assembly his sun- 
made Calotypes : dingy they might be when compared with 
the brilliant Daguerrlotype, but rich in that promise which 
M. Bifit almost prophetically conjectured, that from those murky 
shades, with certain modifications, should yet spring the beauti- 
ful pictures of to-day. 

Whilst admitting the beauty of the Daguerr6oiype, its 
sftlient points could not be hid: these were principally the 
danger attendant on the accumulation of plates, &c., used in 
the mounting of the pictures, the inconvenience of binding 
them into suitable forms for publication, or other art purposes, 
aa also the objectionable reversion of the image. The Galotype, 
then, first presented to the photographer a medium by which 
he could pxt>duce, in a kind of way, copies from his first im- 
pression ; but whilst it pointed to the possibility of overcoming 
the difficulty, it did not entirely succeed ; and, until the intro- 
ductiou of albumen and collodion on glass, nothing of a present- 
able photograph on paper could be obtained. On the adaptation 
of Mr. Talbot, however, depended our after success in the pro- 
duction of the negative, his task being to impregnate paper 
yith the salts of the elementary substances used by Dagaerro 
in the production of his image, viz., iodine and silver. The 
formation of a negative on such paper is the high honour due 
to Mr. Talbot, but not for the discovery of the latent image, or 
the agent for development thereof: to give that gentleman 
such honours would be g^tuitously bestowing on him that esteem 
which legitimately belongs to others, though to Mr. Talbot 
we are really indebted for our first approach to the nega- 
tive. But it is still a nice question, which must be decided 
sooner or later, whether Niepce' or Daguerre first produced by a 
len^hened exposure an apparent image on a sensitive surface, 
which, by a shorter exposure, was capable of holding the 
imago invisible till developed by some other agent, or, in 
other words, how was the latest image discovered. After the 
introduction of glass and collodion, it must be remembered the 
many difficulties that had to bo encountered, prodacing the 
negative, the great feat being how to intensify the positive. In 
a paper read by Mr. Brown to the old society, and one by 
myself on the positive process, we glanced at the obstacles the 
amateur and professional had to contend with in their pursuit 
of the art, as also the introduction of the different formulas, by 
which we arrived at the production of good pictures on glass ; 
but whilst we were practising successfully ana openly the glass 
process, we were at the same time quietly studying how to in- 
tensify. I remember our old daguerreotype mercury boxes being 
converted into pans, for the fuming of the positive.with sulphur, 
just as the milliner's girl introduces her idol straw bonnet to be 
whitened, only ours was the reverse process, it was with the in- 
tent to blacken our idol. Having glanced at the discovery and 
discoverer of the negative and positive from the negative on 
paper, I take this opportunit^^to remark, that in an art like ours, 
where so many differing points are, as it were, brought to a 
focus, individual effort, much as it may overcome, is brought to a 
stand-still, and he who would prove a practical and successful 
photographer, must not work alone, but by a methodical arrange- 
ment, to harmonise all these points involved in the art, that 
step by step each particular part of the process shall be executed 
with that precision and care which photography demands, the 
neglect of which in the slightest instance casts a shade over 
the fair face of the delicate creations. When we consider the 
multiplicity of operations through which a photograph passes 
in these days, and the nicety and delicacy with which those 
operations must be performed, can we wonder that individual 
effort, however energetic, could successfully compete with an 
institution regulated by a comprehensive division of labour, 
where every hand skilled in its own set part executes faithfully 
the task allotted it without constraining or forcing? Certainly 
not ; and hence, those establishments where this particular is 
most stringently observed, in America, France, or Britain, have 
been the most successful, both as regards beauty of result and 
honourable remuneration. It is important, then, with an eye to 
the perfection of result, that the manipulation of the negative 
shall be conducted in as careful and deliberate a manner as 
iMjsdble. This general head involves a great many nice points, 
more than any casual observer would suppose: the kind of glass 
Unt suited for the basis of the negative ; the temperature (an im- 
portant feature]!; at which the suite of photographic rooms should 
be kept ; the hght in the ^lass-house, and more particularly 
the colour and quantity of light admitted into the sensitizing 

room ; the quantity of the silver bath ; the strength of the same ; 
whether the pure nitrate in solution or saturated with bromide 
or iodide ; whether alkaline, acid, or neutral ; how to strengthen 
when weakened ; method of pouring on the collodion, setting, 
placing in the silver bath, time of immersion of in the same ; 
draining, placing in the dark slide, and time of exposure. 

The kind of glass to be used ; on this head a varietv of experi- 
ments exist, as to whether colourless plate, patent plate, flatted 
crown, or common glass, is best suited for the purpose. The 
weight of opinion in the matter preponderating in favour of the 
patent plate, the colourless glass being objected to on account of 
its softness, difficulty of getting its free from scratch, and its 
tendency to absorb damp under the varnished film, producing 
cracking in the negative. Flatted crown is often used as 
success&ly as plate, but is more subject to break, on account of 
its thinness, and more difficult to clean ; all the objections to the 
other qualities are libelled against common sheet, and yet I 
must say I have seen good negatives taken on all these kinds 
of glass ; but there is no doubt to be entertained against the 
fact of plate glass being the gUut for negative purposes. In 
cleaning the plate the old and unsurpassed system of steeping 
it in a dilute solution of nitric acid and water, still holds good, 
rinsed well in pure water, and stood up to drain, dryed with 
cloth No. 1. After which apply the iodine pad, moist with 
iodide solution, composed of metallic iodine dissolved in a 
solution of iodide of potassium and water, but add no muriatio 
acid, as the slightest trace left will generate acid, and form an 
appreciably small quantity of chloride in the sensitizing bath, 
wliich often becomes a source of great annoyance, destroying 
the extreme sensitiveness of the bath, and causing minute 
holes in the collodion film. After having obtained a flat polish 
with the other cloths, pour on the collodion. Operators of 
standing differ on the best method of doing this, some pouring 
the collodion on from the right edge corner of the plate, others 
from the left, whilst others are of the notion that pouring on 
the centre, especially in large plates, gives a more eouiable 
coating, which ever way is best, the end in view obtained is fdl 
that need be cared for, viz : — ^A flat even coated surface of 
collodion. After slightly setting, according to the nature of the 
material used, whether alcoholic or etherial, place the plate on 
the dipper, to this all ag^ee, although some discussion 
ensues as to the proper mode of placing the plate in the 
bath, some supposing that the plate,if longer than broad, should 
be immersed long ways ; the why being answered, as the collo- 
dion is poured, so should the plate ro inserted in the bath. 
Now, I think, theoretically and practically, this mode is in- 
correct, as by immersing the plate broadways, that is, when 
using a vertical bath, it has all the better chance of being 
covered with the nitrau. solution, as it is the nature of ether 
and alcohol (being of less specific gravity than water) to rise 
to the top of the bath, thinning the solution, and giving an 
uneven coating of iodide of silver. But to those whose baths 
will not permit of their being inserted broadways, it may be 
observed, that, as generally^ in pourine on the collodion, one 
side of the film is a little thicker than the other, it will be best 
to insert the thinly-coated portion downwards, so that the 
upper portion being possessed of more iodide and consequently 
more absorbent of the silver, shall get but its due proportion. 
We are not of opinion of M. D. Van Monckhoven, m a recent 
paper translated into the BritUh Jcumtd of Photogrt^hy^ that 
after a little practice, the operator will be enabled to work in 
absolute darkness; although we believe in a very subdued 
yellow light being used in the sensitizing* room, and all care 
taken that no dust be raised during any of the operations 
therein ; and whilst we insist on care and attention to every 
little point in the manipulation of the plates, we would not 
have you believe that " every operation in the collodion pro- 
cess should be performed as if you were working in the den of 
a sleeping tiger," as insisted on by the author of an article on 
photography in OTr's Circle of (he Seiencea, The time of im- 
mersing the plate in the bath is another question involving 
some controversy, the general method practised, and as given 
in photographic manuals, being till all the greasiness has dis- 
appeared. Now, Mr. Brown, in his paper on the Positive 
Process, touched on this head about two years ago, and showed 
that different results were obtainable by leaving the plate for a 
shorter or longer period in the bath; and not long ago Mr. 
Macnab adverted to the same subject with regard to negatives, 
and I think there is no doubt in the matter, as it is quite 
obvious that a collodion containing iodide alone will take less 
time to excite than a bromo-iodized plate, whilst oither may 



[February 13, 1863. 

be influenced by a longer or ehortor period in the bath. Then 
the point- is to secure the plate at that moment when it is 
in the most sensitive condition, a matter requiring i)atieut 
wntchfulness in practice, but having obtained that impor- 
tant point with an unvarying temperature and light, ne- 
gatiyes of nearly the same quality and density may be ob- 
tained for days together. Some assert that the plate should 
lie in the bath undisturbed for about one minute, then 
slightly moved about and again allowed to rest, till all the 
alcoholic streaks have disappeared. Now, I think and be- 
lieve, if the (plate could be kept moving in the solution all 
the time the sensitizing is going on, that a more equal sur- 
face would be the result, as it appears to me that when a plate 
is inserted in the bath the tendency of the alcohol and ether is 
to rise in streaks over the film, whereas, by moving it, say, with 
a circular motion, the evaporation is dispersed in the solution 
with less hurt to the plate.. You will observe streaking more 
particularly as the bath weakens and becomes more saturated 
with alcohol and ether. Some use their baths in the old pro- 
portion of 80 grains to the ounce of water, without the addition 
of any iodide or bromide'; others from 86 to 40 grains with 
such addition ; but I must say I have seen as pretty negatives 
produced with a 80-grain bath as with either of the former ; 
but the strong baths have this recommendation in their favour, 
they last longer. Some are of opinion that a neutral bath 
works best ; with some collodions this cannot be doubted, but it 
has always a tendency to fog. Some prefer an alkaline bath, 
supposing that thereby they secure a film peculiarly sensitive 
to light ; and, if we can place any faith in those instantaneous 
workers in the sun, and we have little reason to doubt them, it 
must be allowed they have all a leaning to the alkaline side of 
the question ; but, for good, dean working, with an average 
exposure, that can be counted by oneself without annoying 
the subject, give me a slightly acid bath, as it has less 
tendency to fog than those previously mentioned. The time 
of exposure depends on the kind of negative required. I do 
not think that a large picture requires such a long exposure as 
a small one ; but to get out detail and shadow, and to avoid 
those shocking contrasts of coal and chalk it is necessary to 
over-expose considerably ; by doin^ so the high lights mellow 
into the secondai^ tints, whilst it imparts to the resulting 
picture soft lights in shadow. I think a slight over-exposure 
in the case of negatives for cartes de visit e is a fault less heinous 
than under-exposure, or sometimes with a little management, 
in after intensifying, the " all overishness," so to speak, can be 

Now there are a variety of developers, those principallv 
in use are pyrogallic acid, gallic acid, and iron, into which 
the acetates and nitrates of other salts are introduced as 
accelerators or retarders. The gallic and pyrogallic acids, 
although yielding good negatives, being very slow of action, 
do not on this account receive the same favour in the 
eye of the professional photographer, as the plates mani- 
pulated with those acids roquire much longer exposure, and 
a greater amount of care and time in their development. The 
iron, being the most rapid developer, is the favourite, and the 
different formuln for making up the various baths from this salt 
would occupy too much time in the rehearsal; suffice it to say, 
that the usual bath of protosulphate of iron solution, from twelve 
to fifteen grains to the ounce of water, with the usual amount of 
acetic add and alcohol, is capable, when you have a good light, 
of producing negatives from the camera, without further intensi- 
fying. Now, the manner of pouring on the developer becomes 
a matter of argument also, some contending that it should be 
poured on as the collodion is poured ; as the plate is immersed in 
the bath and lifted from the slide, I pour on the developer as I 
pour on the collodion, but not as the plate is inserted in the 
bath. In flowing the iron solution over the plate, it should be 
done as rapidly and evenly as possible, else streaks and stains 
will result ; keep the solution moving on the plate, say, with a 
dreular motion, till the detail is just out, and all the greasiness 
has disappeared ; it should then be washed well under the water 
tap, care being token that the strength of the water is not too 
great, as it is apt to exfoliate the film, which may yet be re- 
quired to pass through an intensifying process, and as such, is 
likely to lift the collodion off the plate. The leas the film is 
looeened, the better. 

In the matter of fixing, there is also discussion involved, and 
the great question in this case is, which of the two substances, 
hyposulphite of soda, or cyanide of potassium, is the best and 
most expeditious agent in the removal of the unreduced iodide 

of silver, the argument in favour of hypo being that it costs less, 
and is less deleterious to health; but 1 think feven admitting 
such to be correct) that cyanide is the best ana cleanest fixer, 
clearing away all the organic matter that only serves to clog the 
pure image, allowing an intensifyer to mingle at once with the 
metallic body, and clearing the blacks better than the hypo. 
From experience, I know that if you intensify after the plate 
has been fixed and dried, using iodine as a medium, you wjill 
find it much harder to get the pjrrogallic solution to mingle with 
the silver, and further, after washing well (and it requires an 
immense washing to clear the film of the hypo), it is subject to 
crystalize under tbe varnish; and again, when your fingers are 
in the slightest way touched with hypo, dare you work near the 
silver bath, or touch prints on paper without leaving a trace of 
your whereabouts ? 

I look upon hypo-sulphite of soda as a very dangerous 
compound in the operating room. You can readily wash cyanide 
from your hands, as it has an affinity for moisture, but you 
will have some difficulty in removing the last trace of the hypo 
bath ; more especially if any oxide stains are on your fingers. 
I am, therefore, of opinion, that friend Cyanide, though, a 
dangerous fellow to diink, is the sharpest fixer, and those who 
would work expeditiously, for " time is money," should hold 
on by Cyanide. 

If it were possible, always to develope the negative at once 
with iron, I uiink we would have the perfection of results, as 
those pictures which are done in the field, right from the camera, 
are indeed the most beautiful. In them " Ilka blade o' grass " 
has its due share of intensifying from the moment that the 
photographic sunbeam darts from its tender stem. I would avoid 
all after intensifyers, as they have a tendency to attack the 
finer gradations of shade, eating up those tiny tints which 
make the nature picture most valuable, intensifying those 
bolder lights that can resist their action, and, on the whole, 
swelling disproportionately the finer lines of the picture, I 
have no doubt but that yet we shall be enabled to do so, and 
then we shall bid farewell to those old intensifiers, to which we 
have been indebted in the past, and are still indebted, in a fix, 
to give our fair subjecte the Ethiopian wash. The oldest 
intensifier with which I worked was the fumes of sulphur ; 
then was introduced bi-chloride of mercury in conjunction 
with iodide of potassium, pyrogallic acid, gold, hydrosulphate 
of ammonia, ammonia. I show from the negative debris of 
the past specimens of the different intensifiers, but how simpli- 
fied oecame the process of intensifying when it was made known 
that pyrogallic add, with a slight proportion of silver solution, 
could still be precipiteted in fine division, even after fixture. 
It gave photography on paper an impetus that no other intensi- 
fier had done previously, and until, as I said before, we can 
develope an image direct from the camera with iron, it must 
continue to hold supremacy over all other intensifiers with 
which we are yet acquainted. But even here we have a moot 
point for controversy amongst our ablest photographers ; some 
contending that it is better to intensify the image bsfore fixing, 
as if there is any detail not brought out by the iron, it is sure to 
come out with the pyrogallic acid, I have tried this method 
over and over again, and although occasionally successfol, 
still I was never sure when I had arrived at the proper pitch 
of intensity, owing to the manipulation being done under 
cover of the yellow light, as the yeuow film of iodide caused it 
to look denser than it really was, and often when the picture 
was fixed, it was only to find it coated with a predpitate of 
silver, either above or below the film ; now it is a waste of time 
to intensify a picture that you do not know is worth intensify- 
ing or no, those are my objections to that mode, although I 
know many gentlemen who work it successfully. Others are of 
opinion that the pyrogallic solution should be added when the 
picture is just fixed ; a very good mode ; and I think, with all 
due deference to those who think otherwise, it is preferable to 
allowing the picture to dry before intensifying, because if the 
collodion shrinks in drying, as undoubtedly it does, it gives a 
sharpness to the detail, that can never be possessed by a picture 
that has been intensified after drying. Those who inteusify 
their negatives after drying, are of opinion that they have a 
sharper or harder image to work upon ; and there is no doubt 
they have, as the pictures have not been intensified previously ; 
but when you coat a beautifully sharp piece of chasea or cai ved 
work with paint, you take away materially from the sharpne^^ 
thereof. It is covering the sword with scabbard ; whereaa if 
the pyro and silver had been added when the collodion and 
silver were in a porous condition, the effect of the intensifier 

FraBVART 18, 1863.] 



would be to smroand the molecules of sUyer more completely, 
and fill up the interstices between them, thus binding the 
image more cloeely together, which, on drying, shrinks with the 
film, making a more compact picture. However, it has this 
drawback, if the collodion has any chance of being crapy it 
shows it more so than in the other case. In reference to dry- 
ing pictures, I think it proper to observe that as the heat 
exercises a double effect on the negative at this stage it should 
be carefully dried ; we know that the film shrinks with the 
drying heat as also that the glass expands. Now if the collodion 
be very contractile, the expansion of the glass acts as the great 
producer of what is called crapy negatives, for I have seen such 
crapinesa displayed by collodions, in which I knew there was the 
purest material. But could we possibly reduce the image to the 
negative condition at once, I think the permanence of the nega- 
tiTe would be enhanced, the beauty of detail in the softly and 
gradually blending lights and shadows would be more truthfully 
given than by our present intensifying processes, as, however 
small the distortion, it is still a distortion, for we clothe a beau- 
tilul subject in a drapery it was never intended to wear. 



The photographic processes may be divided into two distinct 
dosses— first, the processes in which silver compounds are 
used ; second, those in which silver compounds are not used. 
The first deserve principally our attention, because they are 
need almost exclusively, and because of the numerous investi- 
gations of which they have been the object. 

1. The Silver-Salt Processes. — ^These can be divided into two 
categories. The first, including those in which the sensitive 
sorface is exposed to the action of the light for a very short 
time, and the kUent image is developed by gallic acid or any 
other reducing agent. The second, m which the sensitive sur- 
fsice is exposed to the light long enough to produce an intense 
blackening. In both cases the light acts in the ratio of its 
intensity, and produces inverse images, in which the light parts 
are reproduced in black, and vice versa ; but, as in the first cate- 
gory of processes, the time of exposure to the light necessary to 
produce an image is very short, they are used directly in the 
camera, and in this way a negative is obtained. The processes 
of the second category, on the contrary, requiring a long expo- 
buio to light, the sensitive surface is placed in contact with a 
Mgative, through which the b'ght reaches it, and forms & positive 
or image in which the whites correspond to the whites or lights 
of the object primitively reproduced. The processes in the two 
categories are thus very distinct in their uses. We will dis- 
tinguish them in calling the former negative processes and the 
latter positive processes. 


Sntion 1. — Formation of the Image in the Camera. — ^Although 
most of the silver compounds blacken when exposed to the light, 
there are but few amongst them which yield an image by a 
short exposure, followed by the action of gallic acid or other 
developing agent. The compounds which possess this property 
in a remarkable degree are, in the order of their sensitiveness, 
the iodide, bromide, and chloride of silver. 

The iodide of silver, being the most sensitive of the three, is 
used as the basis in the negative processes. It is produce^ by 
the action of the vapour of iodine on a surface of polished 
nlver (daguerrddtype), or by double decomposition in the texture 
of paper (talbotype), of a layer of albumen {albumen process), 
of pyroxyline {collodion process), of gelatine, &c. 

But here we meet with a question on which we have to insist. 
To form iodide of silver a soluble iodide is introduced in a 
porous ffur&ce, which is then immersed in a solution of nitrate 
of silver. Now it is possible that the substance which constitutes 
the porous sorfiace has a chemical action on nitrate of silver, 
and then we have two silver compounds in contact, and even 
three, if we count the excess of nitrate of silver which remains 
on the Bur£Eice. This is just the case in the albumen and 
gelatine processes, but not in the collodion process and in the 
process on unsized paper. 

We also remark here a curious fact, and that is that the 
organic silver compounds in the albumen and gelatine processes 
are able to yield an image by a subsequent development, when 
no iodide of silver is present, provided a sufficiently long 
exposure to light be gifen. It is also remarked that in these 

* Scad at a meetLog of the Lonaon Photographic Society, Feb. 3, 1863. 

processes the addition of iodide of silver exercises but little 
effect, that the time of exposure is always very long, and that 
the image is visible before the development with gallic acid. 
The same thing takes place when the pyroxyline or the 
cellulose (paper) contains organic substances capable of com- 
bining with nitrate of silver, and this principally when the 
substances are albumen (Taupendt's process) or gelatine (sized 
paper processes). 

To examine how light acts in the negative processes, we will 
only consider perfectly pure iodide of silver (daguerr6otype) or 
iodide of silver in presence of an excess oi nitrate of silver 
(unsized paper) — (collodion). 

Two theories are proposed to explain how iodide of silver, 
exposed during a very short time to light, possesses the property 
of condensing the vapours of mercury, or of attracting the 
particles of silver reduced by the action of gallic acid on the 
excess of nitrate of silver. 

1. It is said to be a chemical action. 

2. It is regarded as a physical action. 

The first tneory, which has been presented very clearly by 
M. Davanne, is almost exclusively adopted on the Continent. 
The second is due to Moser, and adopted by Mr. Hardwich and 

Let us analyse M. l>avanne*s theory. The principal argu- 
ments on which he founds it are the following : — 

1. The salts of silver in general, the iodide of silver in par- 
ticular, darkening by a sufficient exposure to light, should, by a 
very short exposure, darken also, but in an imperceptible way. 
However, the very small quantity of reduced silver acts as an 
attractive nucleus on the particles of silver set free by the gallic 
acid (and probably, eHao, in the opinion of this author, on the 
vapours of mercury). 

2. If this theory be true, in certain processes in which the 
exposure is very long, the image will do visible. Experience 
proves that this happens in the albumen, gelatinized-paper, and 
waxed-paper processes. 

8. Their principal argument consists in the celebrated 
experiment of Mr. Young, who had exposed an albumenized 
glass in the camera, and dissolved out the iodide of silver by 
hyposulphite of soda before developing, and had, notwithstand- 
ing that, obtained an image. Thus, says M. Davanne, the 
light has decomposed a small fraction of iodide of silver into 
iodine and silver ; and the hyposulphite has not dissolved the 
silver, which, in the development, becomes then the attractive 
point for the particles of the same metal set free by gallic acid. 

Let us examine the value of these three arguments. 

1. A film of coUodio-iodide of silver exposed to sunlight for 
yUth of a second, blackens under the influence of gallic acid, 
while it does not change visibly in five minutes' direct exposure 
(that is, if no bromide of silver or no other organic matter than 
the pyroxyline be present). Thus, let us repeat it, no appreciable 
change takes place in 82,400 times longer than the time 
necessary to produce an image by a developer, and notwith- 
standing that M. Davanne protends that silver exists there, 
which is the cause of the subsequent reduction {vide our 
article in The British JotmuU of Photography, 1862, page 840.) 

2. Yet in certain processes the image is visible before deve- 
lopment. But let us well remark it here, it is precisely in these 
processes to which we have called attention ; because, besides 
the iodide of silver, there also exists in the film an organic 
compound capable of combining with nitrate of silver. This 
is so true that a simple comparison will be sufficient to prove 
this fact beyond doubt. The collodion process is a hundred 
times more rapid than the albumen or waxed-paper process ; 
and notwithstanding if an excited collodion plate and a waxed- 
paper (both with a base of iodide of silver) be exposed in the 
same camera, and for the same length of time, the collodion 
plate will show no image when the exposure has been long; 
enough to show one on waxed-paper. But, as the reader win 
well imderetand, this image is not produced by the iodide of 
silver, but by the organic silver compound in the waxed-paper. 

8. The third argument, the strongest one of the French 
theory, does not seem to us more convincing than the others. 

In fact, how is it that the collodion plate, which is much 
more sensitive than an albumenized plate, does not give a 
trace of an image if fixed before developing, although it has 
been exposed in the camera for the same length of time ? 

This is very easy to explain. M. Davanne attributes the 
formation of the image in the experiment of Mr. Young to 
the decomposition of the iodide of silver. But that which 
proves it is not so is, that an albumen plate without iodide of 



[Febhuaky 13, 1863. 

silver gives a very vigorous image ; and bo it is in all photo- 
graphic processes where an image is visible on removal from 
the camera. 

Let us explain what takes place. In Mr. Young's experi- 
ment the film contains iodide and albuminate of eilver. The 
first is not blackened by the light ; the second, on the contrary, 
decomposes into a brown subsalt, which is soluble in nitric acid 
and caustic potash. The hyposulphite dissolves the iodide of 
silver, and leaves, not metallic silver, but blackened albuminate, 
which causes the development. We were the first to explain 
this phenomena in The Britieh Journal of Photography, 1862, 
page 840. 

According to us, then, no metallic silver is reduced by the 
action of light on iodide of silver, and no chemical action takes 
place, provided the iodide of silver be not mixed with an 
organic silver compound. If the least doubt remained in the 
mind in regard to the fallacy of M. Davanne's theory, the fol- 
lowing facts would completely solve it : — 

1 . If light acts chemically on the iodide of silver in the collo- 
dion film, and metallic or suboxide of silver result, an applica- 
tion of diluted nitric acid must dissolve the silver or the sub- 
oxide. Now, a plate treated in this way, washed to take away 
the excess of nitric acid, and covered with a mixture of pyro- 
galllc acid and nitrate of silver, yields an image which, although 
feeble, is still very visible. 

2. Bromide darkens easily when exposed to light ; and, not- 
withstanding that, it is less sensitive than iodide when a deve- 
loper is used. 

8. If the action of light on iodide of silver be a chemical one, 
it must be in proportion to its duration. Or, to state the matter 
in a more simple way, if in one second a vigorous image is 
formed, in two and three seconds it will be twice and three 
times as vigorous. 

Now, in virtue of a singular property of the iodide of silver, 
it is not so. Light, to produce a maximum of efiect, requires a 
certain time. If this time be overreached, the effect decreases 
and the image loses in intensity (Moser). This effect has been 
called iolarization. This argument seems to us to be deci- 

Let us state here some curious facts discovered by Moser, and 
which we have had occasion to observe also. 

A. A sheet of glass is exposed, behind a piece of paper in 
which some figure has been cut, to the light of the sun ; the 
breath condensed on the glass will make the action visible. 

B. A piece of silver plate gives the same result ; but, if for 
the moisture of the breath we substitute the vapour of mer- 
cury, the image can be made visible by a much shorter expo- 
sure to light. 

C. A copper medal, sb'ghtly warmed, is put on a polished 
plate of silver. The breath of the vapour of mercury will 
make the image visible, even if the experiment be made in 
the dark. 

J). If the medal be left very long on the plate of silver, or 
even for a short time under certain circumstances which Moser 
hag not been able to determine exactly (he only stated the fact), 
the image formed by the breath or mercury will be solarized, 
and can even be the reverse of the one of experiment C. 

This fact presents a striking analogy with the action of hght 
on iodide of silver — action which tends to reverse itself if the 
action be pushed sufficiently far, and which is indeed reversed 
if, while the image is being developed, the light be allowed to 
enter the dark closet. 

We say, then, that the action of light on iodide of silver ie thua 
purely phytieal ;♦ and if in certain proceeeea an image he pro- 
duced by a chemical action, it ie due not to the iodide of silver ^ but 
to an organic compound of silver. 

But what is the nature of this physical action ? 

Dr. Hill Norris thinks electricity has something to do with 
it. M. Testelin, and, before him, M. Poey, think the mole- 
cules of iodide of silver Have acquired electric polarity, and that, 
in consequence, the vapours of mercury and the silver become 
deposited on the affected molecules, in the same way that a 
light body is attracted by an electrized surface. But these 
hypotheses are, we think, mere assumption, and do not rest on 
a single precise experiment. Moser has been more explicit 
when he put forth the following principle, which was at least 
founded on neat and clear experiments — that when one body 

* M. BeuTl^re remarked that if an Iodized Bilver plate be, by meani of a 
galvaaic proceae, covered with copper, the copper will deposit on the partf 
affected by light. 

has been touched by another one, vapours can make the point of con- 
tact vieible. 

It is supposed, according to this principle, that light can in 
a determined time give new physical properties to iodide of 
silver ; but how can it be imagined that this time cannot be 
exceeded without the primitive action being destroyed ? This 
negative action is, moreover, obtained long before the chemical 
action begins, at least we have no proof of its existence, when 
already the light has acted too long. 

A fact which is not less singular is that certain reducing 
agents, although more energetic than pyrogallic acid and sul- 
phate of iron, produce no image, although they set free the 
silver in the nitrate of this metal. Such are, for instance, 
hypophosphorous and phosphorous acids. 

Let us say, then, without reserve, that we do not know the 
nature of the physical change which takes place by the action 
of light on iodide of silver. Moser's theory seems the most 
rational, but does not give a sufficiently exact explanation of 
the singular phenomena of solarization to be strictly true. 

If, in the processes where pure iodide of silver is used, or 
iodide of silver mixed with nitrate of silver, the formation of 
the image must be attributed to a physical action, it is not so in 
the processes in which an organic silver compound is in contact 
with the iodide of silver ; and in this case the chemical and 
physical actions take place together. What proves this, is that 
the organic silver compounds alone give images which are the 
more vigorous, as the action of the light has been pushed 
further, without offering the phenomenon of solarization — at 
least we have not been able to prove it.* The onlv silver com- 
pounds susceptible of giving images by a physical action are 
the iodide, bromide, and chloride of silver, and each possesses the 
property of solarization. 

Section 2. — Development of the Latent Image. — ^The points 
where the sensitive substance has been acted upon by the Ught 
condense the vapours of mercury (daguerrtotype), or attract 
the particles of silver which have been reduced by the action of, 
the developer on the excess of nitrate of silver which covers the 
film (wet processes). 

In the first case, the image is formed by an amalgam of silver, 
the iodide of silver being subsequently dissolved by the hypo- 
sulphite of soda. In the second case, the imago seems to be 
formed of metallic silver — at least, such is the opinion generally 
entertained. Kecent experiments, however, have proved to us 
that it is not always so. 

Images on albumen, gelatine, and waxed-paper, when treated 
with caustic potash, abandon an organic compound of silver, 
proves that their composition is complex. The images on col- 
lodion do not seem always formed of pure silver, either, as Ibo 
following experiment seems to prove : — ^A collodionized and 
sensitized glass, after having been exposed to the light and de- 
veloped vfiih. pyrogcUlic acid, is well washed, and then dipped in 
nitric acid. The image dissolves almost entirely ; but it may 
happen that a weak, scarcely visible, image remains. This, I 
observed, is the case principally with old collodion, such as is 
proper for use in the dry process. 

The acid being washed away, the image can even be deve- 
loped a second time, and a new application of acid leaves 
always a secondary image. 

The examination of the film proves thus :— 

1. That the iodide of silver is not altered by the reducing 

2. That the image is formed for the greatest part, if not 
entirely, of pure silver. 

8. A fraction of the image is at times formed by an unknown 
substance.]: The fixing agent then dissolving the iodide of 
silver, leaves in the film pure metallic silver, or silver almost 
pure, which, by rubbing, takes the metallic aspect. 

* We have made numerotu experiments on gelatinised, albomenlaed, and 
waxed paper, albamenised and gelatinised glass, and coUodlo^bumen. In 
all these processes, particularly those on albumen, the Iodide of silver haa 
appeared to us as being of no use ; and it is sufficient, for instance, to albu- 
menixe a glass, and dip it in nitrate of silver, to obtain negatives in the ordi- 
nary way {vide Dr. Monckhoven, the British Journal of Photoarajpky, for 
1862, p. 340). ^^ -«—».'"'- 

t Some authors affirm the contrary, and pretend that a film of pare iodide 
of silver can be developed with pyrogallic acid without the addition of nitrate 
of silver. The experiments of MM. Barreswil and Davanne, Hardwich and 
ourselves, prove the contrary. 

t "VVhat is this substance ? It is soluble in hyposulphite of soda and cyanide 
of potassium. When dissolved by the latter the image can again be developed 
weakly. The silver, deposited by a mixture of pyrogallic acid and nitrate of 
silver, is entirely soluble in nitric acid, thus it does not come from the 
reducing agent Moreover, the same thing takes place with sulphate of 

Pebboabt 13, 1868.] 




As to four of the medals, we have had do hesitation in G ^ 
upon the tuunes of those hest entitled to the honour of the 

To begin with the Amateurs' Medal. There is a beaotifal 
picture exhibited by the Earl of Caithness : but it is simply a 
translation, though very faithful and artistic, of an accidental 
effect of natnre. Greater merit is, vie thiuk, showu in th 
series of studies from nature exhibited by Lady Hairatden. 

2. In the clan of elaborate figure compositions, ire can Be 
nothing; that can be placed an a level with Robiceon' 

, Thurston Thompson is faeiie 
'x exhibited by Col. S. 

l>e pi 

3, As For reproductio 
prfncnw in this Exhibitit 

4. Of iostantaneoua vie 
Wortley stand alone in their eioellencc. 

So far it has been easy for ua to assign the places of 
honour. In landscape aubjects we had much more difficulty, 
and hare not without much hesitation made up our minds as 
to the rightful claimant of the medal. Messrs. Bedfoiil, 
ADoan. Mudd, Temon Heath, Dixon Piper, and White have 
each exhibited pictures of the greatest beauty. If the medal 
were to be the reward of the best single prodaction, we 
might have found tbe duty of deciding even more difficult 
thsn it is. The medal, however, is to be given as the reward 
of the greatest general excellence Wo hod Instances in the 
works of each of the gentlemen already named either of 
happy choice of subject or of skill in th'> composition of 
their picture, or of due attention to contrast of light and 
(hade, and to gradation of distance and atmospheiic per 
spetlivc; but wo think that we ace m Mr Bedford a works 
ID; most complLte union of nil tlie qualities which mnst be 
united in a good photographic picture 

Taking the same principle of general excellence as our 
^ide in examining the merit of the portraits in the Exhi 
bitioD, we consider that M Clandet la entitled to the first 
place : but we moat add that m delicacy of treatment 
nothing can be finer than Mr Williams i vignetted por 

The carte de visite portraits of M Joubert are nnsnr 
passed, we think by any of that class ofpictures We were 
slso much pleased with the portrait of Thomas Carlisle, by 
Jeffrey, and with one of tbe large portraits exhibited by Mr. 

Br a. a. mcBOU. 
Mit t of your correspondents ask for a method to restore 
Dtgativea that hare become useless by the cracking of the 
urniah. Having frequently repaired negatives which have 
itiffered that misfortnne, I will briefly state the way I manage 
li ; bat moat state at the same time that a little practice and 
a little caution is necessary to ensure success. 

The apparatus I use ia constructed in the following manner: 
—Procure a tin dish about an inch lar^r each way than the 
cpgative and about two inches deep, with a piece of tin, the 
toe of the plate, or of the largest siie of plate used, raised 
flboQt a quarter of an inch from the bottom ; ^eit a rim of 
■ood on the outside to be laid on the top edge, so that a plate 
<ir f;ls£H, when laid on, fits comparatively air-tight 

Now for manipulating. First, to know the solvent for 
tlie cracked varnish proceed thus ; — Touch the 
iJcohol on the end of a glasa rod, the plate being slightly 
■umed at tome unimportant part of the negative. If it dia- 
solrcs, alcohol is tbe solvent ; if not, beniole is probably the 
KiWcDt of the gum in the varnish. That having been 
t^Dcd, we now proceed. Place the injured negati  
railed part of the dish ; pour   •' '  

o the lower pcfftion a little 

alcohol or bensole, whichever be the solvent, taking care that 
none of tho spirit comes in contact with the varnieh surface. 
Put the glass cover on, and heat the dish by any convenient 
method — I use a hot tile. The vapour of the spirit will 
cause the varnish to swell ; the cracked portions will unite, 
at which period remove the glass top, let it cool gradually, 
and finally varnish again. 
2, St. Jude Strut. 


The bag of oxygen, when wanted, is placed between a pair 
of pressure boards ; half-hundred weights ore placed on the 
upper edge of tho Ixiards, and tbe gas is expelled at any desired 

ul of presBure. 

the prosaure boards, as ordinarily constructed, are of 
size, I have adopted a suggestion of Hr. Maiden, 
n gentlomsn very convorsant with pliilosophical 
indinake them to fold up, so as to make packages 
nvenient form, the parts, when opened for use, 
being kept firm by clamps and swivel bars. The arrangement 
adopted will be readily understood by aid of Figs. G and 6. 

FJg. (. 

oxy-hydrogon jet (Fig. 7). whence they are convoyed to a 

' imlSr.Irom which tho combinedgoses are projected npou 
ball placed at about one-eighth of aa inch from the nozzle 

iug chamber. 

of the jet. The lime-boll is flxed upon a pin that is fumed from 
time to time ; or, if the mixed goaes are to be used under greater 
pressure, the lime-ball is kept in constant rotation by moans of 
clock-wort, to prevent holes being burnt in the lime, and the 
light being thus thrown out of focus of the lenses, or the light 
hoiug diminished in Intensity through the distance between tho 
jet and lime cylinder being iucreoaed beyond the proper point. 
The proper proportion of the oxygen to the hydrogen is regu- 
lated hy stopcocks till the best effect is produced. If a picture 
only 10 feet in diameter is to be produced, a very simple arrange- 
ment may be employed, a fine jet of oxygen ia forced from abag 



1 13, 1863, 

imdBr moderate prenore tlirOQ|;h a flame of bonae gaa bamiDg 
at the end of a braaa pipe coanected with a flexible tube to the 

bnTDST of a lamp or other gai lupplj, Fig. 8, the mixed gasea 
being projected on a lime cylinder, ai in the pravianB artange- 
ment, the iocandeBcent lime being the raal ■ouioa of light. 

When, bowevet, house gaa ia not attainable, and the troable 
of making |iDre hydrogen is an objection, a veiy good light 
may be obtained by foTcine  fine jet of oxygen thnnigh a 
apirit flame on to a lime oylindar, by the airangamMit ahoiru 

It ibonld be stated that an uwuid oil lamp, even if the 
brilliancj of the liebt is increased by adding oainphor to the 
oil, is not suitable for photographic Tiews. 

If the lime cylinders are to be subjected to s lengthened 
exposure, under great prewure, they must be made from the 
beat and httrdestlimo; ifundermodoratopreasnre.aofl limes may 
be employed with adTanlage. Mr. Fryer, of Maocheater, has 
proijosed the employment of cylinders, made of two parts of 
calcined magnesia fo one part of sulphate of lime miied with 
water, cast in a mould, and then baked, which he states, after 
cajefalphotometriccompariBon,giToaa light, aa compared with 
ordinary limes, aa M to 28 ; aa far aa I have tried this form of 
cylinder, I cannot confirm this statement, but much 
depend npon the details of preparation. 

(To bi eoHlinucd.) 



St». — I notice in last week's News a atatement from yonr 
foreign correspondent relating to the Photographic Society 
of Paris, in which, amongst other things, it ia snnonnced 
that an exhibition of photographs will be held there on the 

Irt of May next. English artists are reminded of this; and 
Bome flattering remarks are added with regard to their 
photographs. Having myself sent seTeml landscape photo- 
graphs to the last eihihition held by the Paris Society, I 
feel, with the foregoing announcement before me, that I 
may be doing some service if I relate what has oocuned to 
me in connection with that exhibition. Let me, however, 
say that I do this with reluctance, and that I greatly regret 
the necessity of makiog this public statement. It will, 
though, be seen that I have given those who should have 
furnished the explanation required more than reownabk 
opportunity for doing so. 

The photographs f sent to the Paris Exhibition in 18C1 
were in six frames, arranged aa my exhibition pictures 
usually are, some containing four subjects, others two. 
They were forwarded by myself, packed m a case, carriage 

fiaid, duly arrived in Paris, were nung, and I pcsaesB a cata- 
oguo of the Exhibition in which they are mentioned. 

As the time approached when, according to the original 
announcement, the Exhibition should have been closed, I 
received a letter informing me that it had been determined 
to keep the Eihihition open for an extended period, at the 
end of^ which period, if I desired it, my contributions should 
be at once returned to me ; or, if I did not object to it, 
they should be retained by the Society until the time came 
for sending to London the Paris contributiona to the luter- 
uational Kxhibition, and they should come with them. 

I replied by sending the address of my own a^ent in 
Paris, and requested that, at the ciose of the Exhibition, my 
pictures should be packed up and sent to him. Some time 
then elapsed, and not bearing anything of them, I wrote to 
the Secretary of the Society, but had no reply, and I mado 
other applications by letter, but without any result. 

Being in Paris at the commencement of this year I 
determined, if poesible, to obtain an explanation of tbta 
matter ; and having bad the good fortune to make the 
acquaintance of Mr. Ernest Lacan, I aaked that gentleman 
to go with me to the Secretarr of the Society. 

Perhaps 1 should mention here that just before going to 
Paris I heard thai Mr. H. P. Robinson had had similar 
experiences with regard to his contributions to the Paris 
{Exhibition ; his case, however, being a stronger one than 
mine, inasmuch aa, beyond the pictures sent for exhibition, 
he sent a large number of duplicates for sale. But. to con- 
tinue: — On the 8th ulto., with Mr. Lacan, I called upon the 
Secretary at the rooms of the Society, who, while admitting 
that my picturea were received, stated that he was then qnite 
unable to give any explanation as to what had become of 
them. Mr. H. P. Robinson's contributions he knew nothing 
about, and stated that be did not even know him as an 
exhibitor I He would, however, make every possible in- 
quiry, and we were to call the next day. Tbia we did, but 
nothing had been found out; it was promised me that the 
inquiry should be continued, and that 1 should be written 

Now, sir, I submit that from the 9th of January to the 
5th of February is reasonable time for inquiry, but aa yet 
1 have had no letter; and, though 1 can now hardly expect 
that even this public statement will bring mo the informa- 
tion I have hitherto failed to get, it may be useful to thoec 
who intend to send pictures to the forthcoming exhibition. 
I do assure you that I regret that this baa happened ; had I 
been treatcil with even the moat ordinary conaideratioa 1 
should have been happy to have oontinued an exhibitor at 
Paris. VBasON Hkaih. 

43, PieeadUly. F^ruary Uh, 1868. 

[We regret exceedingly the necessity for pobluhing the 
statements above made, or in any way damping tie ardour of 
intending contributors to the French Exhibition ; bnt such 
circumstances call for explanation or remedy. In Mr. 
Robinson's case, we believe that not less than ten copiu 
of "Fading Away" were sent and never acconnled for. 
The fact that the prints are now scarce and Tery valuable 
renders their loss the more annoying. — En.] 

Fkbbuabt 13, 1863.] 



Privatb Psotoosafhio ExHIBITIOSr. 

SiB,--I was Btuprised on reading y<mr article of Friday last, 
not haying met with the disapprobation of other photographic 
journals or of the local press. Yoor criticismB in no way daunt 
me, already nearly all the space is engaged by some of the best 
artists and well-known publishers; a sufficient proof of the 
confidence reposed in the projector of the scheme. 

By the condition of six postage stamps, the Oontribntors' 
Guide is likely to be desired only by those wishing to forward 

The gninea intended to be nsed for purchasing prizes and 
procuring jndges does not refer to a/2 exhibitors, but to those 
only who, after fifteen clear days' inspection of the works of other 
competitors, may deem it expedient to invest their monay. Of 
the gentlemen kind enough to act as umpires, some may not be 
able to do so without considerable loss of time, not to speak of 
travelling expenses ; it is therefore but natural that those to 
whom the aidyantagca accrue should provide for such con- 

Should the above plan fail in making the exhibition defray 
its own expenses, four gentlemen of property and respectability, 
who take an interest in the undertaking, are pledged to me as 
manager to bear .an equal share of the liabilities. These 
;:entlcmen*8 names I am not at liberty to set forth except when 
their financial connection with the exhibition may render it 
necessary. One important item you have not laid before your 
readers, many of whom may not have had an opportunity of 
seeing my droular, yiz.,the packing, arrangement and repack- 
ing of aU goods sent. This, together with catalogues and 
other incidental expenses, will be no slight matter, consider- 
ing that I run the risk of that failure you have so kindly 
* progncsticated. 

Supposing the whole proceeding to be a " blunder,'* on whom 
will the responsibility devolve ? Not on the exhibitors, they 
are merely invited to accept an opportunity of displaying their 
productions, but on the daring individual, the originator of an 
enterprise, who, though " a private unknown individual," will 
be able to carry out the entire project to the very letter. 

The insertion of this in your next number will greatly oblige, 
sir, your obedient servants, A. G. Gbant, Manager, 

G. LA88ALL, Secretary, 


Snt,— I have much pleasure in being able to give a method 
for preventing the silver bath turning colour after nsing 
aUnunenized paper. 

Instead of dissolving the silver in distilled water, use common 
hard water that has b«en boiled in an ordinary kettle, and then 
let it get quite cold before dissolving the silver. 

I tried the plan of using common water before boiling, but 
I found such an objectionable deposit in the bath, so gave 

There is a sligbt deposit by using my method, which is 
scarcely worth mentioning, and which had better remain in 
the bottle. 

I have had this plan in use for the last two months, and my 
bath now is as white and clear as when first made. — I am, sir, 
TOOTS, &c. Wm. Clark. 

Britua, Feb. 6, 1863. 

How TO KEEP Gun Cottok. 

Dear .Sir, — The foUowing incident, which occurred to mo 
the other day, may, perhaps, be interesting to some of your 
risers, as showing the danger of keeping pyroxyline closely 
»U}ppered. I have had some pyroxyUne by me for about a 
Tear, made from paper ; it has been in a stoppered bottle, 
cemented, and capped with bladder and leather. I happened 
to take it firom the cupboard in which it has been kept, and 
f'Uerved the pyroxyline, in the upper part of the bottle, to be 
'ii^tly tinged with yellow, so thought it advisable to open it, 
koowing t&t pyroxyline keeps much better when exposed to 
, the sir. I took off tne leather and bladder caps, and removed 
I the cement, when the stopper fiew out witn a loud report, 
lir^ quantities of nitrous mmes were emitted, the bottle was 
cracked, and quite hot at the upper part. I have always made 
uy own pyroxyline in India, and have found it keep perfectly 
vt)U, simply wr^ped in paper, and placed in a cupboard, or on 

a shelf. I have pyroxyline, which was made three years ago, 
and has been kept in this way ; it is in the same condition as 
when it was made. I have received samples of pyroxyline in 
India, which were sent out to me by different firms in England, 
and there were always nitrous fumes in the bottle — sometimes 
plentiful, sometimes in small quantity. I have kept the same 
pyroxyline for a considerable time afterwards, wrapped in 
paper, and it has not suffered any further decomposition. 
I feel sure that pyroxyline may be kept for any time if exposed 
to the air. I have kept it myself for three years in this way ; 
if it is hermetically sealed, it will begin to decompose in less 
than six months ; much, doubtless, depends on the thorough 
washing of the pyroxyline. The samples I have alluded to 
I believe to have been perfectly washed ; but I am confident 
that the above remarks will apply to any cotton, however well 
washed. — I remain, yours faithfully, N. L. Koverre. 

25, South Street, Park Lane, Feb, 8, 1868. 

[Under some circumstances pyroxyline will undergo change 
with keeping, however stored ; but it should never be kept air- 
tight. We always keep it in paper parcels, or in a wide jar 
with loose paper cover, and have kept it for months and years 
without injury. — ^Ed.] 

Substitutes fob Pbintino Frames. 

Dear Sir, — Having some time since invented substitutes for 
printing-frames, which I find to answer perfectly, and at the 
same time do away with the slightest risk of breaking a negative, 
whilst the cost of them is trifiing. I send you a description of 
them for the benefit of your readers. The principle in all sizes 
is the same, but I will describe the frame for a ^-plate negative. 
I first get a 6x4 plate, and having measured the right length 
across it, when at full tension, of a very wide piece of elastic ; 
cut it off, and sew two hooks to each end of it. I do the same 
with two other pieces. I then take a i-plate and cut it in two with 
a diamond. The frame is now complete, and is thus made use of; 
— ^The Opiate negative is placed on the 5x4 plate, then the 
sensitive paper, and pads of soft paper, &c., cut exactly 8i x41 
then the half piecest)f quarter plate, and then the elastics hookea 
over all onto the 5x4 one, over each half, and one over the 
joining (but this is not essential^. If properly made there is 
abundance of pressure, no risk of oreakage, and they are easier 
to open for inspection than the ordinary fhtmes. — I ours most 
respectfully, D. Ward. 

Mancheater, Feb. 8, 1868. 

Gutta-Pebcha Paper. 

Dear Sir, — ^It seems that there is nothing new in the world. 
Scarcely is an improvement suggested, or something new 
introduced when a somebody appears revealing that it has been 
done in such and such places, and even in our neighbourhood. 
Now there is only one question that arises from such assertions : 
if paper has been prepared by Mr. So-and-so, &c., and it proves 
valuable, wh/ was it not maae public? What is the use speak- 
ing now about filthy lucre, sordid gain ? For my part I must 
confess I never heard of any other paper but albumenixed and 
plain, and lastly of Mr. Cooper's, to whom photographers owe 
many thanks. Mr. Sutton's paper will prove a great boon 
when he has overcome all difficulties. The preparation of the 
waterproof solution is even not very easy ; it may do for 
waterproofing shoes but not paper : but even when it has been 
done properly, there are other things which most leak 
out in order to obtain a fit paper for photography. I 
take the liberty of enclosing two cartes de vttite printed 
on my gutta-percha paper; they were done by Mr. Hogg, 
of Kendal, and yuu will see his remarks. The paper sent to 
him was Canson's, which I had in possession for the last seven 
years. He speaks of the slow printing, which I account for the 
not having known the strength of his oath. I will feel obliged if 

fou point out the defects, and it will guide me how to improve, 
must not omit to state that I have prints which were only 
washed for five minutes, and are now for four weeks exposed 
to light, and I do not perceive any change. I expect some 
paper from London, and by your permission I will send you 
some prepared paper; and if you should find it good, I shall feel 
glad that my experiments have not been in vain.^ As customary, 
begging you to pardon my bad English, I remain youn respect- 
fully, Alex. Arnstein. 

Ambleeide, January 27, 1868. 

[The prints received are a trifle flat and inky in tone; but 
that would doubtless be overcome by practice. — ^Ed.] 




[Pmruaby 13, 1863. 

%^lk m tbz ^tttiiia. 

Soiree of the Photographic Society. — ^The soirte of the 
London Photographic Society will be held on the evening of 
Friday the 20th. inst., in the Saffolk Street Gallery, where the 
exhibition is now held. 

Xew Exhibition. — We understand that In conseqnence of 
111 J ilattering manner in which Mr. Highley's paper on "The 
Application of Photography to the Magic Lantern " was receiyed 
by the members of the Society of Arts, he proposes opening a 
public evening exhibition of his science and art photographs, at 
the Burlington Gallery, 191, Piccadilly, on Wednesday next. 


— Mr. A. Wood, of Brunswick Street, Edinburgh, informs us 
that he has found an easy and efficient method of rendering 
insoluble, or " coagulating," as it is improperly termed, the 
dried albumen on albumenized paper. Ho says : — " The means 
I employ is a pipe leading from a steam boiler into a receiver — 
the steam is admitted or shut off by a cock at the receiver. I 
enclose the paper in a box having holes in the sides, and 
covered with blotting paper and allow it to remain live or six 
minutes. When taken out it is only slightly damp, and 
completely changed in appearance, the surface being much more 
brilliant and beautiful." Mr. Wood has sent us some samples 
in which the surface is rendered quite insoluble. He states that 
with a 40-g^ain bath very brilliant results are obtained. We 
consider the subject very important, and shall take an early 
opportunity of giving it more attention. 

%o ^axxz^^oxibtvis. 

COLoirBsl> Olass. — Sxcklsios forward!! a specimen of yellow glass for 
cxamluation. It is coloared throughout, and is of rather a light colour. 
In the spectroscope it is seen to be tolerably opaque to the chemical rajs, 
but a few of the blue struggle through, which would render it unsafe in 
bright light To Excelsior's ftirther questions we may stxite that common 
water may be useil for making an Iron developer, bat if it contain any 
large proportion of chlorides, carbonates, Ac., it may cause some trouble by 
throwing down the free nitrate on the plate as a chloride or car1x>nate, in- 
stead of allowing it to give density to the negative. The chloride of gold to 
which you refer will doubtless answer for a toning solution after the 
Abbe La Borde's formula. 

G. F. S. forwards some flashed orange glass. It is of the best quality, and 
perfectly trustworthy as a medium for ghudng the dark room. 

BaADPORD. — Dr. Hill Morris's plates will keep after a packet has been opened, 
but not so well as before. 11 is important to keep dry plates air-tight as 
well as protected from light Moisture and vapours present in the atmos- 
phere are often injurious to dry plates. 

B. W.— The No. 1 Triple is not intended for, nor well suited for card por- 
traiture ; nor is it suitable for stereoscopic work. It is of a focus too long 
for such work. If you require a lens fur both these purposes, a quarter- 
plate or No. 1 B of the maker you name will meet your wants. 

A. — Two gndns of iodide of potassium are sufficient for a pint of nitrate 
bath. You have added too much, and probably, firom the eandiness you 
describe, supersaturated your bath. The two grains in the formula to 
which you refer doubtless are meant for the whole bath, not for each 
ounce ^ solution. Dilute your bath with an equal bulk of distilled water ; 
let it stand aU night, then filter, and add sufficient nitrate of silver to 
make it the proper strength. 2. The patch of iasensitiveness to which 
yon refer may arise firom the film having got dry at that end before im- 
mersion, or from a variety of causes which we cannot with certainty 
specify without seeing a plate. 

IsTQciRsa.— We do not know of any plan of drying prints except hanging 
them up or spreading them out If they are blotted off with clean 
blotting paper, to remove the surfkce moisture, they soon dry, however 

Airxioci». — ^If, when using pure albumen, it sink Into the paper, drying dull 
and irregularly, the fkult is in the paper, which is too absorbent, and pro- 
bably new. Until age has thoroughlv hardened the surface of paper, the 
Rise is very apt to become partially dusolvedj; this will cause the albumen 
to sink partially in and drf with a dull, irregular surface, disfigured with 
curtains. The only way to meet this difficulty when the tendency exists, 
Is to float the paper for a very short time, not more than a few seconds, or 
indeed not more than on and off the albumen, taking care to add no am- 
monia to the latter as sometimes recommended, and to have the room at a 
sufficiently high temperature, not lower than 70°Fah. There i.<t no " secret 
dodge** in successful albumenising, except the knowledge of conditions 
arising from experience, and good manipulation. We do not know of any 
book which gives any especial details of this subject. 

A:r Am ATKira. — ^Mr. Sutton's patent is for a method of preparing paper with 
india-rubber previous to albumenizing. The paper is to oe had of Messrs. 
Ordish and Lampray, Paternoster Bow. The reslniced paper process is 
due to Mr. Cooper ; paper by his formula Is prepared by Messrs. Francis 
and Co., Islington. We have not tried the rose-tinted paper. 

n. &— It somewhat depends upon the quality and form, of your quarter- 
plate lens, as to whether it is well suited for enlarging at all ; but there is 
no especial limit to the extent of enlarging to which It may be put A triple 
lens in the moflt suitable for enlarging. 2. Considerable difference of opinion 
prevails amongst antborities as to whether the presence of some free 
nitrate increases the sensitiveness of a dry plate. The general opinion is 
that it does ; but Dr. Hill Norris, one of the best authorities on the subject, 
says it doei no^ and that his instantaneous dry plates have no free nitrate 

P. Skkolax.~A form provided at the Register's Office at Stationer's Hall 
must be filled up with the necessary particulars and left at Stationer's 
Hall, together with one shilling for each photograph to be registered. 
Ton will find ftUl particolan in the number for December 26th last, and 
some preceding numbers thera referred to. Also in our Alm akao. 

LiNoiL. — Tho tone and general character of the print are good. The dark 
patches doubtless arise from the varnishing. We have noticed sometimes 
that negatives intensified with bichloride of mercury when varnished vith 
a rather thin varnish, especially if the nlate be made a little too hot, are 
spoiled by the varnish passing through the film made porous with the 
mercury, and settling in small patches between the film and the glass. In 
all these patches the negatives become more transparent, and the patches 
print blacker, as in your case. 

M. D. — Mr. Osborne has not published any specific work on photolithographj. 
He delivered a lecture on the subject in Melbourne, which was publisb^il 
in the English photographic Journals, and also in a small, separate 
pamphlet In this lecture, contained a sketch of various photolith> 
graphic processes, which you will find on pp. 374 and 388 of our fourih 
volume. Yarious articles on the subject, historical and practical, have 
recently appeared in our pages. A work recently issued by M. PoiteviD, 
entitled "A History of Printing without Salts of Silver,'- also contain^ 
much iBformation on the subject 

8u B.— Your figures are lighted with too much dilAised and too little dirKt 
light ; and you have decidedly too much front light There is no appear- 
ance in your prints of want of bromide. 2. Of the two makers of leusea 
you name, the latter is the best. 

Enigma.— Dallmeyei's new stereo lens is not Intended for card portraiture, 
and with fiiU aperture it will not be likely to answer the purpose satis- 
factorily. To obtain good definition with it over the whole of a standing 
figure a small stop will be required. For rapid work in card portraitare 
you must procure a lens especially constructed for the purpose. 2. A 
solution of iodine is sometimes used in intensifving before fixing, prior to 
the application pyro and silver. We will make u^ of your other com- 
munication, for which accept our thanks. 

X. Y. Z. — We do not know anything of the qualities of the first lens regarding; 
which you inquire ; but have seen excellent work with that of the second 
maker. 2. A great many qualities go to constitute rapidity and excellence 
in a lens. The conditions you name, lai^e diameter, short focus, and pure glass, are important in securing rapidity, but there are otbent 
not less important, which the skilled optician must consider. Every 
varying density in the glass, for instance, will require some modification 
in the figure of the lenses to meet the case. There are many such points, 
which are the business of the optician, and he who best understands his 
business produces the best instruments. 

J. W. S. — Our pages have almost teemed with recipes for toning baths 
during the last few years. That with the acetate of soda is as simple as 
any. Here it is again : chloride of gold, 1 grain ; acetate of soda, 30 
grains ; distilled water, 6 ounces ; mix 24 hours before use. With skilful 
manipulation, 1 grain of gold will tone flrom 1 to 2 sheets of paper. A 
deep tone depends on a good negative, strong nltnte bath, good paper, deep 
printing, and sufficient toning. 

A. B. D. — If you send us a specimen of the defect we shall be able to form 
a better opinion of the cause. 

Joseph Food.— We will take an early opportunity of noticing your slides. 
2. You may copy engravings in which no copyright exists, but you may 
not photograph copyright eugrravinga. 

Q. Stanham. — Some samples of chloride of gold are adulterated, but. as a 
general principle, the adulteration is not of an ii^Jurious kind beyond robbing 
the purchaser of a portion of the gold he pays for. A common adnlters- 
tion is chloride of sodium. Any solution made with such gold will be 
weaker than intended in proportion to the amount of adulteration present 
We have no means of saying that the samples sold by any manufacturer 
are better or worse than others. 2. If you make an ammonio-nitnite bath, 
make it according to the formula we have given several times ; but if you 
are uncertain of your manipulation make a plain TO-grain bath and use it 
as nearly neutral as possible, or very faintly acid with nitric acid. 

J. M. LiAHY. — ^In the case referred to, Mr. Barrett used the Stanhope lens 
almost in contact with the portrait lens, and your conjecture tliat the 
latter In such played an unimportant part in the matter is correct The 
greater power of the former would almost ignore the action of the 
portrait lens. The most satisfactory lens for the purpose is a microscopic 
object glass of about 1^ inch power. You might use one of the lenses you 
name as a condenser. Your letteri unfortunately, got mislaid, or it would 
have had attention sooner. 
WiLLiAJi Cock, Bio de Janeiro.— This gentleman is requested to send tus 
address to Mr. Wall, who, having mislaid his first letter, was unable to send 
the desired information. A second note received since did not give the 
Several correspondents in our next 

9iotograpl^« ICegistevelr Irurtng tit Vast WUOl 

Mb. H. J. Wbitlock, Birmingham, 

Porti-ait of Prince Louis of Hesse. 
Mr. Thomas Wardbn, Newcastle-on-Tyne, 

Photograph of '< Old Nag's Head," and other buildings. 
Mr. C. M. Dratson, 13, St George's Street, Canterbury, 

Two Portraits of Henry Alfred, D.D., Dean of Cantezbury. 
Mb. a. S. Watsov, of Great Yarmouth, 

Portrait of the Prince of Wales. 
Mkssrs. Prtschlsr ahd Co., Manchester, 

Portrait of Professor Bunsen, 

Portrait of Professor KirchhoO; 

A Group, Bunsen and Kirchhoff, 

Portrait of Rev. Dr. Beard, 

Portrait of Rev. Dr. Parker. 
Mr. Jons Stuart, Glasgow, 

Two Portraits of Rev. H. M. Williamson, 

Two Portraits of Rev. George Phillip. 

Portrait of Rev. Ivie Maclachlan. 
Mkssrs. ScuNAOBORax ajid Hsilbrohn, 433, West Strand, London, 

Portrait of Augustus Ironmonger, Esq. 


Vol. Vn. No. 2SS.—F^n-uary 20, 1863. 


„ .^ . PAO» 

Fmninr AlbameaiMd Psper with Ammonia 85 

The Photop«phic Exhibition.— Fourth Notice 86 

Printing lUfficnltles. Bj a Photognpher's Assistant 87 

On Iron Dereloping Solutions. By M. Ho. A. Qaodin 87 

An Apology for ArtpPhotography. By 0. O. R^Iander 88 

Thomas Satton, B.A., on Art>Photography. By Alfred H. 

Wan ...,„ ,. 00 


The Application of Photography to the Magic Lantern Bdnca- 

tionally Considered. By Samuel Highley, F.O.S., F.O.a ... 02 

Proceedings of Societies m 98 

Correspondence. — Foreign Science, Ac 94 

Tallc in the Studio 96 

To Correspondents 96 

Photographs Registered during the Week 90 



Palmam quimeruUJerat, is a good motto at all times, and is 
frequently of e8]^ecial application in an art-science like 
pkotog^jybj, which owes its rapid prof^ress and present 
pnyad position to the ability and ungrudging liberality with 
which so many of its votaries have given their discoveries, 
small and great, to the general stock. It is not unfrequently 
a matter oi some difficulty to trace the exact origin oi many 
new ideas or improvements, as they often appear to spring 
op simultaneously in different quartets. Here is one of those 
cues in which a misunderstanding has arisen regarding a 
process, of which we scarcely know yet whether it is to become 
imnortant and popular, or to drop into " the limbo of vanities " 
and be forgotten. The worthy Editor of the American 
Journal of Photography has received some unintentional 
injustice at our hands, in not receiving the amount of credit 
doe in connection with the process of forming ammonia- 
nitrate of silver on albnmenized paper by fuming. The 
case stands thus : — 

Some time last Autumn, Professor Emerson communicated to 
us in confidence the process in question, for our own use, and 
not for publication, as the origmator, Mr. H. T. Anthony of 
New York, did not wish it published then. We had a dim 
impression at the time that we had met with the idea before, 
but could not quite recall it. We had respect to the confi- 
dence reposed in us, and did not publish any idlusion to the 
nuitter. A few weeks afterwards, Mr. Penny, of Cheltenham, 
wrote to us a letter for publication, stating that such an idea 
liad occurred to him, and that he had tried it with success. 
We could not of course, in fairness to our American friends, 
publish this letter without alluding to the fact, that the 

Process was used by some gentlemen in America, whilst Mr. 
enny's letter announcing his independent discovery, absolved 
OS from secrecy. We therefore fransly stated the circumstances, 
endeavouring to do justice to Mr. Penny, to our readers, and 
to Professor Emeison. A few weeks afterwards we received 
from that gentlemen a letter, in which, amongst other things, 
he asked, as Mr. Anthony's secret discovery had got into print, 
would we give him due credit. It was really Mr. Penny's 
discovery which had got into print, with a courteous allusion 
to the prior use of the process in America ; but in deference 
to a ^ntleman who nossessed our esteem, we made the 
desireof announcement, in reference to this, a recent Amirican 
Jfmrnal contains the following remarks :— <• 

What does it mean f The editor of the Newt (December 

12), announcing the receipt of a letter from Professor E. Emer- 
son, coQoeming matters photographic in America, says, *' In the 
^t place we are desired to place on record that it it to Mr, 
Befuy T, Anthony, of the well-known firm of E. and H. T. 
Anthonv, phoiographert are indebted for the discovery of the 
Talae of ammonia fumes in printing on albumenized paper. . 
. . . Professor Emerson communicated to us the process in 

Some further remarks follow in reference* to Mr. Sellers, 

who, having seen the announcement first referred to in our 
pages, wrote to a contemporary promising particulars, and 
adding that without doubt the discovery was due to Mr. 
Anthony. The Editor then further remarks : — 

How strangely sound the expressions we have underscored ! 
The fuming process was pubb'shed in this journal, for plain paper, 
by Mr. Campbell, of Jersey City, vol. i. p. 57, and for albu- 
menized paper by the editor, vol. iv. p. 600. Mr. H. T. Anthony 
is not a subscriber to this journal, and therefore may be excused 
by some for being far behind the times. Mr. Sellers without 
doubt has overlooked the articles in this journal, and will make 
the proper explanations. Professor Emerson has informed us 
that he was not aware of the publication of the process in this 
journal, not having been at the time a subscriber, and that his 
information came only from Mr. Anthony. On the supposition 
that the claim of Mr. Anthony is just, wnat a funny thing it is 
that we must get the news not direct, but by way of Phila- 
delphia and England ! From 601 Broadway to Canal Street is 
only a good stone's throw ; but by the other route it is 6,000 
miles ! We have more to say on this subject. We only add 
now that we never heard the name of Mr. Anthony connected 
with the fuming process till the receipt of the English journals 
above quoted from. 

To whom the discovery was really due we cannot state. 
Mr. Anthony, it is quite possible, may have discovered it and 
used it years ago. But to the American Journal is unques- 
tionably due the merit of first publication. We stated 
that when Professor Emerson first mentioned the matter we 
had a dim conviction that we had heard the suggestion 
before. If our readers will turn to p. 213 of our last volume. 
May 2nd, 1862, thev will find an article from the American 
Journal in which the suggestion is made. The precise fact 
had escaped our memory, an uncertain impression only 
remaining when the matter was again brought under our 
attention. It is only just now to recall the fact. 

About the exact value of this process wo are less certain ; 
and at present wait for evidence. It stands on our note- 
book, amongst many more processes, to be tested and verified 
when time and circumstances permit. Mr. Penny, of Chelten- 
ham,* exhibits, in the present exhibition, some illustrations, 
from which it appears that a 40-grain silver bath with the 
fuming gives equally good results as a 60-grain bath with- 
out it. On the other hand, we have had some communica- 
tions from an able photographer, from whom we learn that 
in his hands the raming was a failure. No accession of 
sensitiveness was gained, and the prints were flat, poor, and 
grey, much inferior in brilliancy to prints from the same 
paper, silver bath, and negative, without the use of ammo- 

Whilst referring to the above subject, we may take occasion 
to correct another misapprehension in the mind of our 
American contemporary. In another article he complains 
a little of the " harsh criticism " on American inventions of 
English photographic journals; and states that perhaps 

* A contemporaiy, by the way, has orerlooked the fket that the use of 
ammonia fames In piinting is an Independent discovery by Mr. Penny, and 
refers to his specimens as the result of Mr. Anthony's suggestion.— Sd. P. N. 



[Fjcbbuart 20, 1863. 

they receive "some tinge of the present prevailing prejudice 
Against almost everything American." Wo feel concerned 
to disabuse our American friends from any such notion. 
We are profoundly thankful that the charse of a scientific 
journal absolves us from the duty of dealing in any way 
with the complicated difficulties wnich now harrass the great 
American nation, and from which we wish them a speedy 
and satisfactory deliverance. But, as regards American pnoto- 
graphy and pnotographers, we can assure all concerned, that 
they are held in very high respect, indeed, in this country. 
The time was indeed, when, as a whole, American photo- 
graphy was immeasurably ahead of that of any other 
country. We have seen in the galleries in New York, 
Philadelphia, Baltimore, Washington, and other American 
cities. Daguerreotypes which were, beyond all comparison, 
superior to anything we have seen in this country, or in the 
cities of continental Europe. In the production of photo- 
graphs on paper, this superiority does not, we believe, exist, 
but it is rather because of the advancement on this side of 
the Atlantic, tlgian of any inferiority either in knowlege or 
executive skill in our American friends, whose productions 
are still inferior to none in the world, and whose enterprise, 
ingenuity, and skill, have largely contributed to the general 
advancement of the art. 



Thb landscapes in the Exhibition, as we are told by the 
adjudicators of the medals, present the greatest equality of 
excellence. It is perfectly true that in no previous exhi- 
bition have we noticed such a large number of thoroughly 
good landscape photographs. Whilst, however, there is so 
much uniformity of excellence, we have never noticed an 
occasion in which the distinctive characteristics, or " manner," 
of each artist was more broadly marked. 

Amongst the best as well as largest of the landscapes 
exhibited, are those of Mr. Annan, of Glasgow. In all his 
pictures there is much artistic feeling, and they are charac- 
terised by an amount of massiveness, vigour, and breadth, 
very unusual in photographs. The relief, distance, and 
atmosphere are also exceeaingly satisfactory. Mr. Annan 
avoids the enormity of white skies ; clouds of an atmo- 
spheric tint is present in each of his pictures, admirably 
preserving harmony and breadth. Mr. Annan usually 
prints from separate cloud negatives, and is very successful 
in results. An interesting illustration of a favourite dictum 
of ours, to the effect that results depend on the man more 
than the method, is illustrated in Mr. Annan's contributions. 
We have, amongst his pictures, tannin and wet collodion, 
with a singular identity of characteristics. His "Loch 
Banza " (No. 258), a picture about 16 by 12, from a tannin 
negative, and the "Last Stocks of Harvest" (No. 152), 
another charming picture of similar size, are in no sense, 
photographic or otnerwise, inferior to " Kelvin Grove " (No. 
222), " Aberfoyle " (No. 182), nor " Head Waters of the 
Frith " (No. 257) ; all of which are from wet collodion 
negatives. The "Muirland sae Dreary" (No. 145), and 
" Ben Venue from Loch Ackray " (No. 108), are also two 
charming pictures from tannin negatives. The three very 
admirable reproductions produced for the Glasgow Art 
Union, are also exhibited by Mr. Annan, as well as some 
other good pictures. 

Entirely differing in style from those we have just noticed, 
and possessing excellence of altogether another order, are 
the landscapes of Mr. Vernon Heath. If the last were cha- 
racterized with massiveness, these are distinguished by 
wonderful delicacy of feeling and manipulation. These 
qualities have always distinguished Mr. Heath's pictures, 
and in this year's pictures they are present in a more than 
usual degree ; we have very rarely seen photographs uniting 
so completely force and delicacy, brilliancy and softness. A 
large number of Mr. Heath's pictures have been taken in 

the grounds of Lord Ashburton, at The Grange, in Hamp- 
shire. One frame of four pictures especially pleases us. 
(No. 127). The two lower pictures in this frame are as per- 
fect as we have ever seen photographs. The exquisitely 
defined distance, with its reflections in the transparent 
water, seems rather a dream of fairyland than a photographic 
transcript of actual nature. No. 133, "By me Lake," is 
another specimen of this marvellous delicacy of treatment. 
The chief feature in the picture is a silver cedar of rare 
magnificence; and although rendered in the monochrome 
of the photograph, it seems modelled in frosted silver. " A 
Study of Ferns " (No. 143), is such a bit of foreground, the 
rendering of which will delight the heart of Brett or LinnelL 
Several of the views of Windsor are magnificent pictures. 
Mr. Heath has introduced natural clouds into all Im pictures 
this year, from separate negatives, whereby an immense 
gain in unity, harmony, breadth, and atmosphere is obtained. 
His pictures have given rise to some discussion, from the 
fact that the clouds in many of the pictures ai-e printed 
from different parts of one negative. We feel so strongly 
the value of the sky in making a picture, that for such a 
purpose we would pardon a fault more venial than this. 
Variety of effect is doubtless desirable, but if the clouds are 
obtained under the same conditions of light, and are used so 
as to aid the composition, and be in harmony with the land- 
scape, we are disposed to think that the repeated and judi- 
cious use of the same negative is" quite permissible. 

jlr. Bedford exhibits a number of his Eastern views, which 
we have already noticed, and a few other, of landscapes and 
interiors in this country. All his pictures have gained 
immensely by the introduction of skies. Perfect as the 
photography always was, and characterized as it was by 
artistic feeling, the harmony of some of his pictures was in 
former years impaired by the white paper sky. Now we 
find always a tint or clouds. Mr. Bedford adopts the method 
perfectly successful in his hands, of painting clouds occa- 
sionally at the back of his negatives. In less skilful hands 
such an attempt would fail in producing good results. But 
here we never dream of questioning its legitimacy, and we 
think it a noteworthy circumstance that pictures so treated 
secured the prize for landscape excellence. It would be 
difficult to select from these contributions any one excelling 
the whole, and all are pre-eminently characterized by soft- 
ness, completeness, and narmony. 

Mr. Henry White, amongst the earliest artistic landscape 
photographers, still preserves his position. Every picture is 
chosen with an artist's eye, and the photography is in all 
cases good ; althou£:h in one or two instances the harmony 
is disturbed by a white sky. 

Mr. J. Spode, who generally sends some good pictures, 
has some very fine landscapes indeed at this exhibition. 
His " Harlech Castle " (No. 256) is a most charming photo- 

Mr. Dixon Piper contributes some very excellent photo- 
graphs, many of which we have, however, seen before. His 
'* View near Rokeby " fNo. 75), is especially fine. 

Mr. G. S. Penny exhibits some very tine pictures from 
negatives taken on plates prepared with tannin and malt. 
" Tintem Abbey " (No. 170), is a very fine picture, with 
some well managed clouds. " On the Wye, Chepstow " (No. 
3G2), is also a charming photograph. 

Mr. Baynham Jones exhibits some good tannin pictures, 
one of which is hung near the fireplace, but not numbered, 
and is worthy of remark from its similarity to the pictures 
by the ^anoramiclens in shape and size. It is'apparently 
about eight inches long and three and a half deep, and is 
taken with a Dallmeyer No. 1 triple lens. The effect for 
many subjects is very good. 

Sir A. K. Macdonald exhibits a view of " Antia Core, 
near Torquay " (No. 269), which is very fine, and possesses 
some fine natural clouds, apparently produced at the same 
time as the bold foreground of sea and rock. 

A picture by Mr. A. S. Fisk deserves attention for the 
same reason. It is a view of the " London Extension Bail- 

Fbbbuabt 20, 1863.] 



way Bridge, Battenea," and besides being a good picture, 
possesses some fine natuial clouds. 

Mr. F. C. Earl contributes some of his large views of 
" Witley Court," which haVe been exhibited before, but now 
ha?o the effect of new and better pictures by having ^ood 
skies printed in. Some large interiors of the same building 
are remarkable, as illustrating the depth of focus yielded by 
the triple lens, and as showing the advantages of a coating 
of honey with wet plates, where long exposure is necessary. 
These, notwithstanding the large sixe of the plates, are very 
brilliant, perfect, and clear. 

Mr. Stephen Thompson's " Durham Cathedral from the 
Wear (No. 176), is a fine picture, as are also some of the 
views of the " Abbey, Lindisfame." 

There are some other landscapes more or less worthy 
of notice, for which we have not space at present. 


BT ▲ photographer's ASSISTANT. 

TffE neoessity for an observance of a definite and more 
clearly understood rule inchlorodising albumen, is strikingly 
perceptible in the samples of slightly albumenized papers 
now in the market, the ever varving colour yielded by those 
papers has hitherto been considered the results of the acid 
or alkaline sising employed in their manufacture. I think 
a little observation would convince the most sceptical that 
the sizing has but little, if anything, to do with it, that, in 
fact, the changes are caused by the changing influence of 
the light employed in reducing the silver salts ; if the sensi- 
tive surface of a slightly albumenized surface is exposed to 
a dull light, the results are directly opposed to tnose ob- 
served in the highly albumenized samples ; the former will 
yield prints of a bold blue tone, because the excess of chlo- 
ride salt is most sensitive to light, and for this reason will 
reduce most rapidly, so that the print has attained the 
necessary depth ere the albuminate of silver has been acted 
upon to any extent. This extra sensibility is, doubtless, by 
some photographers considered an advanti^e ; I am inclined 
to believe it is not, for whilst the chloride salt is the most 
unstable, and consequently requires deeper printing, the 
absence of the necessary proportion of the albuminate is liable 
to mislead us, however careful we may be in conducting 
toning operations, for this deep violet colour will oftimes 
cause the prints to be removed from the toning bath ere it 
has gone the necessary depth to resist the reddening in- 
fluence of the fixing solution. 

Do we require proofs to convince us that the albuminate 
of silver remains unreduced in a dull light ? If sceptics to this 
doctrine exist, let them place their printing frames in a 
shaded comer, if the paper employed oe of coarse texture, 
and slightly albumenized, except the quantity of chloride 
salt is unusually small, the print will assume a blue or violet 
tone. Now let the frame be removed, and exposed to i^righter 
light, and speedily this cold tint will change to a bright 
and warmer hue. Why ? because a reduction of the albu- 
minate of silver has been effected, and a satisfactory print is 
the resnl t. Now, llad a more j udicious salting been observed, 
the quantity of chloride of silver present would not of itself 
have been sufficient to give the necessary depth to the 
picture, and consequently the assistance of the albuminate 
would be needed, to produce the necessary depth of printing, 
or at all events, the print would contain a larger portion of 
the last named salt, the reducing action would move slower, 
hut the improved results would make amends for loss of 

In highly albumenized paper, the printing proceeds too 
slowly, because the albuminate is in too great an excess ; 
whilst the slighter coated samples, in a dull light, print too 
rapidly, because the excess is in favour of the chloride salts. 
Hence we see the necessity of a series of well conducted 
experiments in this direction, to determine the proportion 
one should bear to the other, in order that the best results 

may be arrived at. Some may here feel disposed to inquire 
the reason why lightly albumenized surfaces should contain 
a larger proportion of the chloride of silver than the highly- 
coated samples ? Simply for this reason — the greater tne 
fluidity of the albumen, the stronger its penetrative and 
diffusive power, and it follows that it extends itself over a 
larger surface than the thicker fluid can possibly do; it per- 
meates the interstices of the paper, thus increasing largely 
the area of surface, and its every atom of chlorine is brought 
into immediate contact with the silver ; and this is sufficient 
of itself to guide us in c^erations of sensitizing. A bath too 
strong is onimes an unsuspected cause of failure ; the paper 
becomes saturated, and bears in its surface even to the 
ck)sing of its pores a large amount of free nitrate. When 
this occurs tne print bears a mealy appearance when 
removed from the printing frame. The chloride and albu- 
men salts have been reduced, but the nitrate of silver 
continues in an unreduced condition; the finely-divided 
atoms extended over the entire surface of the picture, giving 
it the appearance of a flour bag having been shaken upon it. 

And now for a word or two concerning the strength of 
sensitizing solution required. I stated in the early part 
of this paper that an 85-^ain solution was required for 
highly-coated papers. With the slightly albumenized 
samples no advantage is gained by using a bath too strong ; 
from 60 to 65 grains per ounce, is ample and most safe in 
working. To go beyond that quantity renders it necessary 
to float but a short time, say from one to three minutes. 
This method may do for the uioughtful printer that studies 
the requirements of his paper ; but for the amateur, whose 
experience is small, it is dangerous, as he either nervously 
withdraws the paper too soon, or he leaves it too long, and 
thus engenders mealiness with the strength above named. 
A little over-floating makes no difference in results. 

And now concerning water employed for washing, I would 
counsel all who value satisfactory results in their printing 
operations, avoid rain water that has been deposited in a 
tank ; use spring, well, or any other clean waters that are 
fresh, but avoid rain water, however tempting its appear- 
ance, insidious organic poison is lurking in the crystal 
goblet which will insinuate itself into the affections of the 
silver the surface of your paper contains; and then with 
weary dejectedness you will watch the changeless prints as 
they float on the placid bosom of your toning solution, and 
as the old brass clock strikes at the expiration of each fleet- 
ing hour, the chloride of gold solution will again and again 
be added, moving the prints — yes, moving them more 
swiftly toVards tne mealy destruction the organic poison 
from the first had consigpied them. If the printer would 
avoid this evil, and any trace of it crosses his path, let him 
suspect his water. Change it for another sample ; for evils 
created by water are the easiest to be rid of; and now, in con- 
clusion, 1 would observe my object in writing is to endeavour 
to rid the art of photography from empiricism ; I wish to 
see its principles tnoroughiy underatood ; in a word, I wish 
every practitioner of our art to know the causes of success as 
well as the reasons of failures, and I see no reason why a 
space in the Photographio Nbws should not be set apart 
for discussing the causes of success in every branch of photo- 
graphic art ; if this plan was adopted, and photographers 
would assist the Editor in his arduous duties, our art would, 
I am convinced, be greatly improved by the practice. 



I HAVE undertaken, as promised, a fresh examination of the 

Sroto-salts of iron, other than the proto-sulphate, for the 
evelopment of negatives. This time I have had a certain 
success, which I hasten to communicate to my readers. 

The salts of iron, at the minimum of oxydation, possess of 
themselves alone every degree of reducing ener^ which we 
encounter in the series of organic substauoes with a carbon 



[Febbuabt 20, 1863. 

base, and each of these salts exhibits behaviour which depends 
on the nature of its acid. 

The proto-sulphate, so much used at the present day, is 
distinguished by the fineness of the details it gives, and the 
sensitiveness it produces, but it rarely gi^es sufficient intensity 
which necessitates strengthening. The proto-nitrate and 
the proto-acetate give at once pictures of tne greatest inten- 
sity ; but the half-tones are onen defective ; the difficulty 
consists in their giving a sensitiveness as great as that 
inherent to the employment of proto-sulphate of iron. 

In order to avoid their preparation by double decom- 
position, which is always tedious, expensive, and irksome, I 
have attempted to prepare these salts in a direct way with 
iron and the acids ; and I have been very successful. 

To prepare proto-nitrate of iron, it suffices to dieest during 
four and' twenty houra iron in a fine state of division, in 
nitric acid, diluted with ten parts of toeaker. It thus forms, 
after being shaken from time to time, an olive green liquid 
when viewed by reflected light, and deep red by refracted 
light. This is the proto-nitrate of iron ready for use. 

To prepare the protd-acetate, according to the same process, 
we tase the concentrated acetic acid of commerce, and 
promote the reaction by a gentle heat which manifests its 
action by the disengagement of an infinity of microscopic 
bubbles, due to the decomposition of the water. This action | 
is very slow, but little by little the liquid assumes a wine- 
red tint, and at last becomes as red as blood. 

While these salts are forming, it is necessary to test them, 
in order to stop the reaction at the opportune moment. To 
this end we soak some pieces of ordinary white paper in the 
solution of nitrate of silver used for sensitizing, and after 
having submitted them to the action of light until they just 
begin to turn yellow, we place them near the salts in course 
of preparation, to make them serve as tests, which is done by 
touching these papers with a glass rod dipped into the 
solution. At first, the salt in which acid predominates dis- 
colours the paper, especially the proto-nitrate ; but graduallv 
the salt becomes a reducing agent, and makes a black mark 
on the paper. When the blackening appears very distinctly, 
the salt has attained its maximum of reducing power, but it 
may be too strong. To make sure of this, it must be sub- 
mitted to a reverse test. After having diluted the salt with 
four or five pai-ts of water, as if it were to be emploved for 
development, we take a glass rod moistened with it, and 
touch a piece of the silvered paper that has not been exposed 
to light. In this case, the paper must not become coloured 
in less than five or six minutes. If a black colour appears 
immediately, which often occurs with the proto-acetate, the 
salt must be aerated, or some drops of nitnc acid added, to 
oxvgenate it, for, in fact, as I have many times repeated, the 
emcacious salts of iron are the oxydule salts, and not those 
of the protoxide. The instantaneous blackening of the 
nitrate of silver bath, which I have before attributed to an 
organic matter derived from the acetic acid, has no other 
cause ; in every case we can remove this impediment by a 
gradual addition of nitric acid, followed by aeration. 

The proto-sulphate and the proto-aoetate of iron have a 
tendency to make the developing solution muddy during 
the developing, which the proto-nitrate does not. I fully 
believe that this is due to a double decomposition ultimately 
produced : there is the formation of insoluble sulphate and 
acetate of silver* which are reduced to the nascent state, while 
between the nitrates this phenomenon does not occur. 

The essential characteristics of the proto-nitrate are, the 
slowness of its reduction, the constant limpidity of the liquid, 
and the pushing to an intense black, which is permanent ; 
but, on the other hand, the most delicate half tones are wholly 
wanting ; and this is just what remains to be attained. For 
example, after having sensitized a. small plate and having 
placed at its back a piece of red or yellow glass, if we expose 
the plate to light for a few seconds, and then develop it, the 
profile of the coloured glass will detach itself perfectly pure 
and clear upon a black ground of the greatest intensitv, and 
in this clear portion, at the end of ten minutes, the iodide 

of silver will have become insensitive to light, for we may 
pour upon it in the open air some nitrate of silver mixed 
with proto-nitrate of iron, and double the intensity of the 
black without sensibly dimming the light portion. 

While we cannot obtain the half-tones by development 
with proto-nitrate of iron ; this salt is found, by the same 
fact, superior to all others for certain purposes ; for example, 
the negative of an engraving is composed of lines or points, 
more or less distant from each other, but aU of the tame 
intensUy; the blacks cut sharply on the whites. With the 
proto-nitrate of iron, the blacks will not send sufficient light 
to impress, while the whites will work themselves upon the 
negative in a black of an intensity proportionate to the 
duration of the exposure. This does not take place widi the 
proto-sulphate and pyrogallic acid, which seldom gives skies 
fit for printing, without some additional coating. 

The proto-acetate is intermediate between the proto- 
sulphate and the proto-nitrate ; it nves a bistre tint of the 
greatest beauty, the intensity of which is exactly proportioDate 
to the duration of the exposure ; but it, at the same time, givca 
half-tones ; and from the day when it gives them as faithtally 
as the proto-sulphate of iron, it will be the developer par 
excettence, because it keeps very well in a corked bottle, when 
concentrated, and it is sufficient to dilute it with four or 
&Ye parts of water to have it always ready for use. 

By adding an imperceptible quantity of ordinary sulphate 
of iron to a proto-nitrate that works well, we succeed in 
making it act quicker ; this is useless with the proto-acetate, 
which works quick enough. I have thought of employing 
these solutions in a warm state, but this deviation produced 
the worst results at every increase of temperature ; for, these 
developers are of an excessively delicate natoze.— Za Lu- 



Some time ago you did me the honour to elect me an honorary 
member of this Society. I felt it to be an honour, and take this 
opportunity of returning you my warmest thanks for the distinc- 

I have diligently read the reports of the meetings of the 
South London Photographic Society, and find that there is no 
branch of photography with which you are not thoroughly 
conversant. What has pleased me most in your proceedings 
has been the earnest interest you have shown, and the encourage- 
ment you have given, in raising the science we practice to the 
dimity of a fine art. Such course, however, has been much 
misunderstood by friends and foes, and as I am an old sinner 
in that direction I have come forward to be the "horrid example," 
show my complicity, and present An Apology por Abt- 

In doing so allow me, in the first place, to explain how I 
first tumbled into photographic art, and how I nave been 
"bobbing around" ever since, without being able to benefit 
myself in the way I have been preaching to o&ers. 

I had always a hope that I should be able to sit down and 
paint with the aid of those photographs that I had invented, 
and grieved I have often been to send out gems for others to 
paint from ; but the fact is that my experiments have cost me so 
much, and my elimtile been so small, I have never been able 
to get the upper hand. Commercially, the cost has been to me 
sometimes more than what I earned ; and it is impossible to 
have a painting in hand — a lone man — and run backwards and 
forwards from the camera to the drying pallet ; so I must stick 
to the camera for my living, though in my own way. 

In 1862 I was in Kome, and saw photographs of the Apollo 
Belytdere, the Laocoon, the Tar$o^ Gibson's Venus, &c., &c., 
which I bought and studied ; and I was delighted to have a 
fair chance of measuring the relative proportions of the antique 
on the flat and true copies of the origmals. That was my first 
acquaintance with the fair results of photography. I merely 
recollected having seen some reddish landscape photogmphs 
the year before at Ackermann's, in Regent Street, but these 
made no impression on me. What I saw in the Exhibition of 

* Read at a meeting of the Soutli London Photographic Society, Feb. 12th, 

FSBRUABT 20, 1868.] 



1851 had proved as eyanescent as looking at myself in a glass 
— " out of sight out of mind." They were all Daguerreotypes, 
and awaken^ in me at the moment nothing but curiosity. But 
in Rome I was fairly taken with the capabilities of the art, 
so I made up my mind to study photography as soon as I 
returned to England. 

My view at this period, to the best of my recollection, did not 
extend farther than showing me the usefulness of photography 
in enabling me to take children's portraits, in aid of painting, 
and for studies for foregrounds in teuidscapes. 

In 1868, having inquired in London for a good teacher, I was 
directed to Henneman. We agreed for so much for three or 
fire lessons ; but, as I was in a hurry to get back to the country, 
I took aU the lessons during one afternoon I— three hours in the 
calotype and waxed-paper process, and half-an-hour sufficed for 
the collodion process ! I He spoke, I wrote ; but I was too 
cleTer. It would have saved me a year or more of trouble and 
expense had I attended carefully to the rudimei^ of the art for 
a month. 

It is curious to notice how frequently trifies decide some men's 
actions. What really hurried me forward was my having seen 
the photograph of a gentleman, and the fold in his coat sleeve 
was just the very thing I required for a portrait 1 was then paint- 
ing at home, and coidd not please myself in this particular point. 
My sitter had not time or inclination to sit for it ; my lay figure 
was two thin (I soon sold that ) ; but this was just " like life !" 
** Now," said I, '* I shall get all I want." I could not exercise 
proper patience. I therefore took all the lessons at once, to turn 
out as a ready-made photographer the next day. Alas ! for a 
Tery long period my attempts at photography resembled those 
of a young Miss at the piano, looking altemately at the music 
and the keys. If I had to speak at the time of operation, I very 
easily went wrong— often drawing up the shutter of the plate- 
holder with the coUodionised plate outside. 

I wish here also to add my acknowledgment that in my early 
photographic education my guide and comforter was Professor 
Hnnt's Manual — that, even then— contained the germs of most 
of the processes since enlarged upon. 

I cannot forbear mentioning that some of the earliest portraits 
that I took, and which I had sensitized with ammonia-nitrate, 
are as vigorous now as they were then, although they had but 
three changes of water — ^ten minutes or a quarter of an hour in 
each dish after hypo, as my instructor had told me — while others 
and later, according to the usual process, have proved as 
treacherous as a bad memory. At length Maxwell Ly te let his 
light in on my manipulations by the publication of the alkaline 
gold-toning process. At that time I was nearly giving up 
photography. I felt as if I were only writing in sand. 

Hy first attempt at " double printing," as some call it, was 
exhibited in London in 1856. It was named in the catalogue 
Gnmp Printed from Three Negativee. That plan I hit upon 
through sheer vexation, because I could not get a gentleman's 
figure in focus, tiiough he was close behind a sofa on which two 
b^es were seated. Up to this time I considered postures on the 
principle of boM-reliefe — ^that is, with as few foreshortenings as 
possible ; but now I felt freer. 

I will now tell you how I first drifted into [making nhoto- 
graphic pictures ; and it seems to me that any one might ex- 
case me — even Mr. Sutton— after hearing it. I had taken a 
grcMip of two. They were expressive and composed well. The 
light was good, and the chemistry of it successful. A very 
good artist was staying in the neighbourhood, engaged on some 
commission. He called, saw this picture, was very much de- 
lij^bted with it, and so was I. Before he left my house he 
Ijoked at the picture again, and said it was " marvellous ;" but 
adiled : — " Now, if I had drawn that, I should have introduced 
another figure between them, or some light object to keep them 
together. You see there is where you photogpraphors are at 
lAolt. Good morning !" I snapped my fingers after he left — 
bnt not at him — and exclaimed aloud, "I can do it!" Two 
days afterwards I called at my artist-friend's hotel as proud as 
—anybody. He looked at my picture and at me, and took 
enoff twice. He said — " This is another picture." " No," said 
I, " it is the same, except with the addition you suggested." 
" Never !" he exclaimea ; " and how is it possible ? You should 
patent that f" • • • Well, our interview ended with 
another suggestion that if a basket or something else had been 
on the left side in the foreground it would have given greater 
depth to the picture, and adding that the light dress of the 
female on the shady side was not shady or dark enough. I 
igreed fully ?rith my friend's criticism ; and, after a week, 1 1 

sent to him, to London, the picture amended as at present. He 
wrote some time afterwaros and thanked me, saying that it 
was very successful ; but (he wrote), of course, now that that 
was known, any one who practised photography could do it. 
• • • rp]^ yjf^^ jj^y gj^^ gjp ^^ ^^Q sweet and bitter cup 

in my photographic career.* A thought of the share he had in 
this first effort in composition-photography did not occur to my 
friend. I should very likely not have done it but for his *' you 
can't !" Now why should this cause all the fuss and abuse for 
interfering with legitimate art ? To me double printing seems 
most natural. Vignetting is allowed and admirea. The manual 
part of photographic composition is bnt wholesale vignetting. 
It has proved most useful in portraiture when a family group 
was to be taken ; for if one figure moved, he or she could be 
taken over again alone, and put in afterwards ; or, what is still 
better, a sketch of the group may first be made, then take each 
fig[ure separately — for then each would be more perfect— «nd 
print them in agreeably with the sketch. 

But please to believe that I did not look upon photography 
as an ultimate art, or an art depending on itself, or complete in 
itself, except details ; though I can guess of its extended appli- 
cability, or rather nlasticity. In amost all the art-studies I 
have made, I have had one object in view — ^they were for the 
use of artists ; and if I had not done them, how could artists, 
who are not acquainted with photographer, Jmow what could 
be done ? The^ know now, and they avail themselves of it. 

But as there is no mind in the photographic picture, so accord- 
ing to some it cannot contain any new idea, pose, light, or 
expression capable of representing impressions produced on the 
human mind, and " not being the work of man," it must be, 
indirectly, the work of the devil — and, since as " the work of 
man is indirectly the work of God," as Mr. Sutton has it, where 
are we to go to ? 

Still I think highly of photography. It ^is &ir, open, and 
above-board. There is no sham about it — ^no pretensions to 
anything that is not discernible. And the world wouldn't be 
without it, in all its branches — ^including the one I most practise, 
art-studies and details from the life. Though to me this branch 
of the art is unprofitable, yet it gives me pleasure. I live in it, 
if not by it. As to those dreadftd composition photographs, I 
haye only executed one since the ''abominable " '* Two Ways of 
Life," and that one I meant as a set-off to the other, and called 
it the *' Scripture Reader ;" but that was neither good nor had 
enough to attract any notice whatever. I have not exhibited 
for some years, so I think I might have been let alone. 

I have been so ill-used and abused^ about the picture, the 
" Two Ways of Ufe," I should be glad to once more— not de- 
scribe it, as I did to the Central Society — ^but explain that it 
was dedicated to English artists, which dedication was written 
under the one exhibited at the Manchester Exhibition ; — ^not as 
a challenge, for that would have been ridiculous, but to show 
various studies from nature, which at that time were rather 
novel. And again, as the most difficult drawing is that from 
the living model, I presumed thereby to point out a handmaid 
to art — not alone in full light, but in shade — ^yet transparent. 
Each figure was meant as a specimen of variety of light and 
shade. I dislike a mere nude, if it (apart from study) conveys 
no idea. So I brought all the figures together as woU as I 
could, and gave the resulting picture a name. This composi- 
tion was also meant to show that there might be a little real 
sun-painting employed when needed, to harmonise or soften 
harsher light in photographs. These are indeed no after- 

I will not tire you with fiirther description. Those that 
objected to the " Two Ways of Life " being exhibited had a 
perfect right to theii opinion ; but they have no right to ask the 
names or profession or religion of models, still less to use vile 
epithets in speaking of them, as Mr. Sutton has done in his 
paper read before the Photo^phic Society of Scotland. When 
children are inconveniently inquisitive, we tell them they were 
" found in a parsley bed ;" and a similar answer might be given 
to those who cannot or will not comprehend the matter. There 
are many female models whose good name is as dear to them as 
to any other woman. But I prefer to believe that Mr. Sutton 
did not use those harsh expressions on mere supposition ; but 
that he may have been misinformed, in his search for the 
truth, by those who wished to increase their attraction by saying 

* It Is not difficult to understand the ^raigue notions (tf an artist the first 
time he sees such a thing acoomplished—sach a result in 80 short a timo— 
when compared with his own laboiioos method. 



[FmBUABT 20, 1868. 

that they had been models for Mr. So and So ; for I haye been 
told that that is not an uncommon practice. Of course I need 
not be ashamed to say I have heard it. 

Mr. Sutton is a very hasty writer, and is often wrong in con- 
sequence ; yet he is always frank enough to admit his error 
when convinced that he is wrong. This opinion is formed on 
my lopg reading of the " Notes, to which I have been a sub- 
scriber from its first publication, until I removed to London, 
when I missed it, or it has missed me, owing to my having for- 
gotten to send my new address. I have always found the 
*' Notes" full of promising information. 

It is very hard — ^but I must confess it — ^that I positively dare 
not now make a composition photograph, even if I thought 
that it might be very perfect. I have brought with me a 
sketch over which I have thought for a very long time. Up to 
this moment it is a work of art. Is it not ? The same way a 
painter goes if he means to paint a photographer must go if he 
wishes to make a composition-photograph. The two go toge- 
ther — part here, and meet again. 

Fine art consists of many parts ; and a photographic com- 
position commenced in this manner must contain many parts 
in common with art; and even where they part company 
photographic art does not stand still, but proceeds and gathers 
other merits on another road — ^though a more humble one, yet 
full of difficulties, requiring much thought and skill up to the 
last moment, when they again converge, in the production of 
light, shade, and reflected lights which have been predeter- 
mined — ^in general keeping and aerial perspective. 

There is no valid reason for saying that, because yon have 
not seen a good photographic composition, there could not be 
one. I beheve there can be produced— even after all that has 
been done — wonderful pictures by photography. And why are 
there no ^ood art photographs ? Because it requires art and 
long training to execute them, beside encouragement. I do 
not believe m haphazard excellence. Photography, in my 
opinion, is essentially excellent for details, lou may take 
twenty good figures separately, but they cannot be taken at 
once. You cannot take even four good ones at once ; but then 
you cannot draw or paint a picture at once. 

I believe photography will make painters better artists and 
more careful draughtsmen. Ton may test their figures by 
photography. In Titian's " Venus and Adonis," Venus has her 
head turned in a manner that no female could turn it and at 
the same time show so much of her back. Her right leg also 
is too long. I have proved the correctness of this opinion by 
photography with variously-shaped female models. In *' Peace 
and War," by Rubens, the back of the female with the basket 
is painted from a male, as proved by the same test. 

The real ^ood .old painters — such as Ra£faelle, Leonardo da 
Vinci, Luini, Velasquez, Teniers, Titian — you often find re- 
flected in photograpny in apparent finish and effect. I can 
exemplify presently what I mean by the photographs which 
are now oefore you. 

There are many ways in which photography can prove use- 
ful to artists, although few of them are aware of it. Here is 
one : — ^After they have made their sketch, or uncoloured car- 
toon, they may have a photograph taken from it ; and then on 
the prepared albumen paper they may play with colours as 
much as they like, until they arrive at what they wish for their 
painting ; for a wet brush removes any colour objected to, just 
as if it had never been there, yet the outline underneath re- 
mains the same. 

One of the reasons why painters are troubled in using a 
photograph to print from, is that almost in every case (I am 
now speaking of portraits or figure pictures) the lifi;ht on the 
photograph is different to that on the sitter at the artist's 
studio. Here is a source of confusion and vexation. I have 
often felt it, and wished that I had not looked at the photo- 
graph ; yet it saved the time of the sitter. But if a photo- 
graphic study is taken in alight similar to that at artists' 
studios generally, and that be enlarged, if the artist gets the 
same model or sitter into his own studio, the work is only plea- 

I think picture-dealers are, or have been, from interested 
motives, the greatest opponents to photography, and they have 
great influence. As to art-critics, they vary so much in their 
opinion from one year to another, and differ so much between 
tnemselves, I am induced to conclude that they write generally 
from the information they have received from persons they trust 
to ; for I believe if they possessed even the data that we have, 
they would be more Christian like— rather help with their criti- 

cism than damn with their sneers. Tbongh individiiAlly I 
must not complain much. I have had praise, and I was silent. 
Lately the tables have been turned, and from a ** sucoessfiil 
delineator," &c.,— happy in catching transient expressions— I 
had come down to be a " clever operator," when recently I was 
reduced to the position of a " manipulator " in a potioe— and 
such a notice ! — ^in the Athenaum, of an aUegorioally-treated 
photograph of "Garibaldi Wounded, Supported by Hope, 
Pointing to Rome." My intention in this photograph was to 
show that my opinion of the hero was that he never would give 
up the idea of possessing Rome. But in the notice in the 
AtkmoBum'^ above alluded to, I was rudely taken to task. It was 
intimated that I had paid my model Is. 6d. per hour, when I 
myself was the model, and never realised 6d. per hour I After 
my many days' trials, and heavy printing expenses, my pub- 
lisher ceased to order immediately upon that veto being placed 
upon the pictur^. I hoped to have secured an adequate return 
from its publication : I never had a catchpenny yet. But what 
angered me most was that the critic called the photograph in- 
decent ! I cannot guess in what. 

A funny thing it is that some people actually prefer the 
chalkings of a boy on the walls and shutter to the finest photo- 
graphic pictures ! Just think how superior are the mackerel 
and ship at sea we find drawn on the pavement in coloured 
chalks ! I am ambitious, too ! 

I have here a picture,! in which I have attempted to draw 
something, like a good boy, and beg the Chairman's acceptance 
of it. I only wish there had been another sunny day, to have 
enabled me to have made it more perfect. It is a real sun- 
painting, or rather it has been painted by me with pencils of 
light about ninety-three millions of miles long ! and the points 
varying considerably. I exposed it so much to diffused day- 
light for want of sun, that I have been obliged to take up some 
lights still that have been done chemically b^ the cyanide of 
potassium. When I painted it I almost imagined I heard its 
notes whistling.— Now, Use Photogkapht ; Don't Abxtbs It. 



Saith Atticus— *' Let every man enjoy his own spouse ; " and 
I have no reason on earth for denying every man his right so 
to do, providing only that such spouse be quite legitimately bis 

But the man who enjoys one spouse while he has anoUier 
living I conceive that I have a perfect right to denounce as 
guilty of no less a crime than bigamy ; and that, gentlemen, as 
your worthy Treasurer will inform you, is against the law. 

Before this bar of public opinion, and in the interests of one 
of two spouses thus enjoyed, I therefore charge Thomas Sutton, 
B.A., editor of the Photographie Notea with flat, downright, open 
and avowed bigamy. For that, whereas, up to the year 1860, 
he had openly announced himself as wedded to Ari^Photography^ 
he in that identical and aforesaid year did publicly espouse 
Mechanical Photography, And in support of this charge I beg 
leave to introduce the following witnesses : 

My first witness is a valuable little work on " The Poaitive 
Collodion Process," written by Mr. Sutton in 1857, which aays — 
" Photographic portraiture ie not a mechanieal art. It involve* 
the appliecUion of certain prindplea of art" 

lay next witness is the Photographic yotee, date 1860, which 
very wisely remarks: — "Although photogrt^hy is certainly a 
me^usnical meane of representing Nature^ yet^ when toe compare 
a really fine photograph with an ordinary mechanieal view, toe are 
compelled to admit that it exhibits mind^ and appreciation of the 
beautiful, and skill in selection and treatment of the subject an the 
part of the photographer, to a degree which constitutes hizn on 
artist in a high sense of the word,^* 

M^ third witness is a number of the Photographie I^otes 
published in 1862, which remarks of the productions of T. H. 
Williams, that " sentiment and grace " are infused into them 
by the artist, and that to such an " extraordinary extent that 
they are quite undistinguishable from the fine works of art.'* 

Here, then, we see Mr. Sutton holding within his fondly- 
encircling arms the first love of his fickle heart, — Art- 

• "I wish I was in Dixie 1 Idol Idof 
t A donkey's bead, drawn bj light alone, guided by me. 
X Read at a meeting of the South London Photogiaphlc Society, on 
Thorsday Evening, Veb. 12th. 

FlBBUABT 20, 1868.] 



photography — recognized, as we see, in 1867, and not disowned 
entirely in 1862. 

To prove the existence of the second *' spouse," and that she 
was wedded before any legitimate separation had divided Mr. 
Satton from his first spouse, is the business of my next follow- 
ing witnesses. 

Witness No. 4 is a number of the Photograpkie Notes for 
September, 1861, and says — '' Photography has its peculiar value 
oi a handmaid of the fine arti^ hut it is not one of them'' This 
witness, moreover, gives as a reason for such a conclusion, that 
" the essence of art is to suppress coarse particulars," which ** the 
camera has no power of rejecting ; " and that if the photographer 
remo?es these " coarse particulars " so that the camera can 
have no power of recording them, although the photographer is 
then admitted to be an artist, still photography is not art. 

In dismissing this witness, I would, if the poor thing were 
not already sufficiently confused, commence a cross-examination 
to discover how the man could be an artist by virtue of works 
not the production of an art.* 

Witness No. 5 is a paper by Mr. Sutton, read before the Photo- 
graphic Society of Scotland on the 18th of January, 1863, which 
completes my case by asserting that " the first chalk drawings 
of a 8chool-bov on a wall are " (in the opinion of Mr. Thomas 
Sutton, B.A., &c.) " more admirable, from the human interest 
which they possess, than the finest view of inanimate natural 
objects upon the ground-^lass of a camera-obscura. 

As I am not in possession of more than a few numbers of the 
Photographic Notes, and have not time to look carefully through 
even the few I have, no more witnesses will be called, although 
I have in remembrance the words of many others capable of 
nvineeven more conclusive evidence than that I have advanced. 
Still, I believe the case, even as it here stands, will be found 
tolerably clear and conclusive, and that the verdict will be in 
accordance with the evidence and with truth. 

To quit joking, however, I wish to tender a few remarks con- 
cerning a paper written by Mr. Sutton, ** On some of the Uses and 
Abuses of Photography, or rather upon that portion of it which 
refers to the so-styled " abases." 

Mr. Sutton commences this portion of his paper by saying 
that everything in the way of composition photography which 
he has seen, by Messrs. fiobinson and fU^jlander, " has been a 
failure, and has aflbrded increasing evidence of what every true 
artist knew before to be impossible and opposed to correct 
principles. What you want in a work of art " (says Mr. Sutton) 
" is not an exact and truthful resemblance of a group of natural 
objects, however cleverly arranged and lighted, but a reproduc- 
tion of such objects, or a new combination of such objects, 
aecordntff to impressions thai they have produced im the human 
mtW.'*t And tnen follows that truly remarkable paragraph to 
which I have already referred, concerning the school-boy's 
iiret chalk drawings on one of mv more illustrious namesakes. 

The question thus stated by Mr. Sutton simply resolves itself 
into that old, old question on which artists and artistic critics 
have themselves been divided for very man^ years past. Long 
before photography was dreamt of in our philosophy, the degree 
and character of truth which ought to be embodied in the 
highest aspirations of art were a source of continual discussion 
and contention in all the various schools. But in none of these 
schools however strong party influence or feeling might run, 
was there ever found an advocate for the ideal in art so 
extravagant as to assert of truthful art that it was not art at all. 
This has been reserved for Mr. Sutton. 

But the question of artistic versus mechanical photography 
will never be decided on these grounds of the real and the ideal. 
Upon the evidence afforded by simple truthfulness of imitation, 
photography can neither be denied nor awarded a place among 
the fine arts. Every art which aspires to the distinction im- 
plied by the term " Fine Art," must base its claims upon the 
amount and degree of intellectual power of which it can be 
made the vehicle. If we find that photography can convey as 
moch of the artistic intellect into the minds of spectators as any 
other art called " fine " has the power of doing, then, and then 
only, is photography a fine art. By this test I ask that photo- 
graphy shall be judged ; and if such works as those of Rej lander 
and Bobinson be allowed to plead in the minds of competent 

* * It— the camera— treats everything alike, and If the man interferes and 
>Uer4 the arrangement of things that nothing objectionable shall be presented 
to the camera, his art consists in making that arrangement, and not in after- 
wards taking a photograph of it."— iVo<«i for September Itt, 1861. 

t These Italics are Mr. Sutton's. 

and nnprejudioed witnesses, I have little fear of the decision 
which must be arrived at. 

On this subject of true and ideal art I know no one who has 
said more in fewer words than that eminent and high authority, 
Mr. Buskin, has done in the following : — " Every alteration of 
the features of nature has its origin either in powerless indolence 
or blind audacity — ^in the folly which forgets, or the insolenco 
which desecrates, works which it is the pride of angels to know 
and their privilege to love." 

In contrast with this noble sentiment of a humble and reve- 
rential love for the works of the Divinity, emanating from the 
soul of a true artist, let us place the following, uttered, in the 
paper I have mentioned, bv Mr. Sutton : — " God created these 
objects and He also created man ; and man's works are there- 
fore indirectly His works. But man is the noblest creation of 
the Deity ; and if you follow up the train of thought you will 
see that pictures which are the result of human imagination, 
observation, and powers of imagination^ are more noble and 
belong to a different class of things altogether from the images 
in a camera-obscura. 

I must confess that any clue to the train of thought Mr. Sutton 
here refers to is, to me, perfectly invisible ; for I cannot of course 
conceive that Mr. Sutton is so blindly audacious, so forgetfully 
foolish, or so sacrilegioualy insolent (to give Mr. Buskin's words 
their legitimate application) as to claim greater superiority for 
the works of man than for those of God, as represented in all 
their glorious perfection on the ground-glass of the camera- 

Putting aside the abstract question of reality and ideality, 
then, as bieing no concern of ours (for I cannot conceive that 
even Mr. Sutton would deny the claim of the minutely and quite 
photographically truthful paintings of the Dutch school to be 
considered works of art), let us turn to Mr. Sutton's attack upon 
photographic studies from the nude, which runs as follows :->- 

" When the Council of this Society [the Photographic Society 
of Scotland] some vears ago, banished from the walls of its exhi- 
bition a photograph entitled ' The two Ways of Life,' in which 
degradea females were exhibited in a state of nudity, with all 
the uncompromising truthfulness of photography, they did quite 
right, for there was neither art nor decency in such a photo- 
graph ; and if I expressed a different opinion at the time I was 
wrong. There is no impropriety in exhibiting such works of 
art as Etty's ' Bathers Surprised by a Swan,' or the * Judgment 
of Paris ;' but there is impropriety in idlowing the public to see 
photographs of nude prostitutes, in flesh-and-blood truthfidness 
and minuteness of detail." 

The great sting of this attack is perhaps intended to reside in 
such terms as " degraded females" and " nude prostitutes ;" but 
Mr. Sutton has no more right to scatter his foal woids among 
the models chosen by Mr. Bejlander for his beautiful photo- 
graphs, than he would have to apply the same course expressions 
to the models Mr. Etty painted from in producing the identical 
pictures he mentions. Mrs. Grundy and Mr. Sutton notwith- 
standing, it is by no means impossible that the very models thus 
publicly stigmatized as " degraded prostitutes," because they sat 
as stucUes to Mr. Bejlander, may be really respectable wives and 
mothers. Of course, I use the word " respectable " in its anti- 
Grundy sense.f 

If, however, Mr. Sutton objects to the representation of nude 
models, simply because he imagines that they should bo 
idealized or conventionalized, before their images are fit to bo 
presented to what he must evidently regard as a lascivious- 
minded, British public, then I have another answer for him. 

Canova, the great sculptor, in a letter to the Earl of Elgin, con- 
cerning those celebrated works of Greek art, the Elgin marbles, 
says : — " I admire in them the truth of nature, united- to the 
finest forms. Everything here breathes life. The naked is 
perfect fiesh, and most beautiful of its kind. I think myself 
happy in having been able to see with my own eyes these dis- 
tinguished works, and I should feel perfectly satisfied if I had 
come to London only to view them." Haydon, the historical 
painter, says of these same glorious and unequalled productions, 
that, "having dissected man and animal for two years," he saw 
in this sculpture "every tendon, bone, and muscle distinguished 
from each other in substance and shape, and always indicated 
where nature indicated them ;" and adds that, therefore, " it 

* The italics are Mr. Sutton's. 

t In reading this, it mubt be remembered that the writer Is an artist who 
has himself studied flnom the nude, and is, therefore, fkmillar with the general 
chantcteiistlcs of artists' models. 



wsa DotluDg but Datnral that be shonld at once Tect^Diae their 
Boperioritr to all other sculptute, because in no other (calpture 
vaa this BTsteia of nature so diitiiiolty clear." Enthiuiajbcallv 
dwelling upon their truth and beauty, poor Haydon added, 
that ho " would jojiully have died in their defence." Eozlitt, 
the popular art-critic, aajs of thew wme miracles of art : — 
"The oommnnication of art with nature ia here everywhere im- 
mediate, entire, palpable. The artist Ktvea hiiuBelf no fattidioua 
nir a of BUperiorityover what he leea. He has not arrived at that 
stage of his progress, described at mnch length in Sir Joebaa 
ReTnotds' which, having served out bis apprentice- 
sbip to Nature, he can set Dp for himself in opposition to hsr. 
.... We can compare these maibles to nothing but the 
human form porifled ; they bavo every appeantnce of absolute 

faaimila, or casts taken Inim nature Let any one, 

for instance, look at the leg of the IliKaus or River Qod, which 
is bent under hini : let him observe the swell and undulation of 
the calf, the inner texture of the muscles, the distinction and 
union of all tbe parts, and the effect of action everywhere im- 
pressed on the external form, as if the very marble wero a 
substance, and contained the vaiions springs of life and 

motion within itself, and he will own that art and nature 
here the eame (bicg." Rerorring to some advocates of tbe ideal 
in art who urged that in the Elgin Uarbles the real and the 
id^ are only combined with very eilraotdinarj ekill, Hazlitt 
replies : — " If by idtal form they moan fine natural fonas, we 
have nothing to object ; but if they mean that the sculptors of 
tbe Theseus and Iliseus got the forms out of their onu heads, 
and then tacked the truth of nature to them, we can only say, 
' Let them look again ! let them look again ! ' We consider the 
Elgin Marbles as a demonstration of the impoasibility of sepa- 
ratiag art &Dm nature, without a proportionate loss at every 

remove The truth of nature is incompatible with 

ideal form, if the latter is meant to exclude actually existing 
form." This same able art-writer then goes on to say :— 
" That troth of nature and ideal or fine form are not always, 
or generally united, we know : but how they can over be united 
in art, without being first uuiled in nature. Is to us a mystery, 
and one that we as little believe as understand." 
To make the illustration thus supplied by a writer of position 

S [leaking, it must be remembered, before photography existed) 
e more remarkable, I shall give one more quotation, in which 
Hazlitt writes : — " Suppose, for illustration's sake, that these 
marbles were originally done as casts from actual nature ; ~~ ' 
then let us inquire, whether they would not have possessei: 
the same quahties that tbey now display, granting only 
the forms were in the first instance selected with the ev 
taste, and disposed with knowledge of the art and of 

This inquiry u most conclusively answered in the afflrmal 
'' Inoontestibly there wonld have been, besides tbe same grani 
of form, all the mmulia and individual details in tbe cant 
subsist in nature, and that find no place in iiital art. . . 
Tbe veins, the wrinkles in the skin, the indications of 
muscles under the skin, the finger joints, tbe nails, even 
smallest part cognisable to the naked eye, would be given i 
tbe same prominence and the same subordination. . . 
Therefore, so far these things — viz., nature, a cast from it, 
the £lgin Uarbies — are the same ; and all three are oppose 
the faahionable and fastidious theory of the ideal."* 

What beoomea of Mr. Sutton's disgust at '' flesh-and-b 
truthfulness, and minnteness of detail," in the face of t 
proofs as ore supplied by tbe Elgin Marbles, and such opini 
OS are here, by voices of the greatest aothority, soemplmtic 
expressed? No higher or more widely-recognized authoi 
and none more conclusively eloquent in faronr of absolute li^.^ 
in studies from tbe nude, can possibly be edvauced than will bo 
found in these marbles, many of which were undoubtedly, if our 
best records of ancient art may be robed upon, faithfully copied 
from what Mr. Sutton chooees to call " prostitutes, " or "degraded 
women." Phryne, whose beauty preserved here Ufe, courtesan 
though she was, has won world renown as the " Venus of 
Cuidos," and her golden image took its place among those 
"consecrated by public piety." 

In conclusion, I will quote Cowley, tbe good old poet, 1« 
show how far from now this controversy of the real and the 



Lecturer's DBMOKBTSATtKa Lahtesk. — The best form 
of lantern for lecturers or institutions is one made in mahogaaj 
(the older the stuff, of which it ia constructed, tbe better), 
twelve inches square, and twenty inches hi^h, fitted with Ito 
jets and two nozzles, the lower one being used fur lantom views, 
the upper one ia fixed on a hinged panel, so that if a dissolviDg 
view arrangement is dcsirod, the two discs on tbe screen may 
bo made to coincide by depressing tbe upper nozzle by the 
action of a spring and screw adjustment. The upper nozzle 
may be replaced by a microscope arrangement, or a polariscope, 
and to the fiango of the lower nozzle various pieces, such as 
knifo-edgo slit platoa may be fitted foe Spectram Anolyeia. or 
other optical experitnonts. To economise space and cost of 
prodnction, in place of tbe ordinary chimney, I use a fiat 
dome of iron, fitted with aide plates, so that by raising the 
dome or lid from behind, ventilation is secured, while the 
egress of light is prevented by the angular side-screens. 
Inside of tbe ordinary dissolving view fan, which I dispense 
with tn tolo, I make one view die away while the other 
brightens, by means of alternating gas-taps (that admit th« 
oxygen supply), worked by a lever arm, all of w" " ' ' 
ts are shown in section, in Fig. 10. 

Pig. 10. 

f which improvs- 

 Thfl ■Dthor (leaUf rcgreti tbat hr ciiinsl hrre glv. 
■rgnmcDl* and demriDitruloni Iij vhich lUiUtt arges Ihi 
nl«illjr pndnccd, these WMlu are Um v«ry bigticit sod mi 


The optical parts consist of the condensers, which are formed 
of a meniscus and a crossed lens, and the front lenses, which 
should be achromatic cemliinations, adjustable by a tube 
sliding in a ctoth-lined jacket, or by a rack and pinion motion. 

The lenses should separate, so that while in combinatioD they 
may give an obtuaed-anglod dispersion to the rays of light, and 
then bo used near a screen of moderate diameter, and when the 
buck lens is removed, an acute-angled diepersion, so as to be 
aniled for a large screen placed at a considerable distance from 
the lantern. By tbe latter arrangement, at an equal distance 
from the screen, a smaller, bot conseeuently a brighter, picture 
is secured, as the same amount of ligbt is not di^uBcA over so 

 omtioiud Iran p. BS. 

FBBBtABT'20, 1863.] 


wlian the two combiaaUonB ( 

large a nirfaca 

If this lantern is to bo emplojed b; a tnirelling iBctnrer, I 
voolii aiiggeat tbe adoption of an airangament I exhibited at 
the Interoational EiMbitioD, and vhjch staads apoa the floor ; 
it coDsiatB of Bzinc gasonteter, encloeed in a wooden eating; 
within the bodj; of the bell, the lantern is packed, while a case 
containing the jets, nozzles, &c., fits witmn the body of the 
lantern, at shown in Fig. 11. 

HI i^^^ii il 




When the porta are unpacked foar rods tcrew into the oomer 
(if the outer case of the gasometer, on to the top of these the 
folding lid clamps, and uien forme a table for the lantern and 
■hdaa as shown in Fig. 12, while the bell of the gasometer is 
Mpable of holding snfflcient oxygen for an hour's lectnre (or 

Hie hntera cMe of flttings, and gssometer, when packed, 
iKiipT a space of 14 b; 16 inches squue by 24 inches in nelght. 
The lonr iron rods strap together as a separate package. 

If, bowsTer, the lantern is to bo in constant use at au Tnali- 
tntion for demonstrelionB, pictorial or optical, then the lectare- 
loom itaod J hare devised is more coaveDient. Bjiaclcwotk 

and turn-table adjustments, the huilem placed on its stage can 
be centred with any piece of optical apparatus ; or, when required 
for views, it can, by a telescopic slide in the sopporting bars, be 
carried up to the centre of a screen Gve or seven feet from the 
ground. By turniogthefoldingflapbackat anydeeired angle, 
and plncing the lantern upon it, the rays of light might be pro- 
jected upwards or downwards, as may be desired, according to 
the way the nozzle is placed in reference to the incline of the 
flap-table. T do not mount my photographs in Boparste frames, 
but, to economiee space, pack them in grooved boxes like those 
used by photographers, and employ a pair of "view-holders." 
These open like a book, the slide is dropped into a square cell, 
and on the flap being shut and clamped by a tum-bttckle of 
peculiar construction, the view is kept Arm by four springs 
preasiog on the comers, as shown in Fig. 18. 

On a view-holder being taken from the lantern it is replaced 
by its fellow bolder, and during the description of the subject 
on the screen, it is opened, the previous slide removed from its 
cell, dropped ioto its groove in the stock box, and replaced by 
the next subject, and the two view-holders are thus kopt alter- 

"With regard to screens, they may be transparent or opaque, 
the latter being distempered in "flatted" white by any method 
that prevents the surface froni cracking when rolled up. 
Opaque Bcreeos can be made as large as ten feet in diameter, 

FJg. 13. 

and np to this ate may be conveniently mounted, like library 
maps, in cornice rollera. Beyond this size, they should be 
constructed of calico sheeting, as they then fold into a small 
space for the purposes of carriage, and when mounted may bo 

strained by strong poles jointed together like a fishing 
The smaller screens may be sufiported, and strainea on 
portable folding stand J have designed, a model of which 

placed on the table. 

The advantages I claim, then, for magic lantern views, over 
those in general use, when educational value is aimed at, are 
delineations truthful to nature, and abounding in detail, cheap- 
ness, compactness, as compared with paper diagrams, and 
their utility in mnseums, when not in use for their legitimate 

(To be mntinj4td.} 

HifffttMttSs of Sffriftieif. 

BoiTTB ^HDOH Photooeaphic Socuti. 

The nsnal monthly meeting was held in the City of London 
Collage, on the evening of Thursday, February 12th, Mr. 
Sebastian Davis in the chair. 

The minutes of a previous meeting having been read and 
confirmed, the following gentlemen were elected members of the 
Society :— Messrs. C. Bmartt, T. R. Williams, J. H. Dallmeyer, 
T. H. Mills, Henry Squire, and C. E. Elliott. 

A parcel of two-ounce bottles of bromo-iodized collodion, by 
Uessrs. Hoxmb and Thohhtbwaits, was pieced upon the table 
ss a present from that Arm to the Society, each member being 
requested to accept a bottle. It wss explained by Mr. Msrtin 
that the collodion was believed to be of unnsually fine quality, 
and he read a note received from Messrs. Bom and Thompson, 
of Edinburgh, ordering six pints as early as possible, and remark- 
ing that it was the very best collodion they had used. We may 
here, vrith propriety, add that since the meeting we have tried 
the collodion snd found it fully justify the enconiums it had 
received. It is very rapid, clear, and brilliant ; full-bodied, 
giving a rich creamy fihn, and yielding flue half tone, clean 
shadows, and dense lights, the negative being in some cases 



[February 20, 1868. 

safficiently yigorooB with nmple iron deTelopment without 

Mr. Squibe exhibited a variety of photographs iUustrating the 
capabilities of Shepherd and Go/b lenses, amongst which were 
. some fine instantaneous stereographs of scenes in the neighbour- 
hood of Plymouth. He tdso exhibited a novel printing frame, 
in which facilities existed for printing half-a-dozen card por- 
traits on separate negatives, the arrangement permitting not 
only the easy examination of each, but of removing any print 
and negative without disturbing the others. He also exhibited 
a rolling press for card pictures, after the design of Coleman 

It was explained by the Chairman that the exquisite card 
picture consisting of a view of Edinburgh from Calton Hill, with 
fine natural clouds, which had been so much admired at the last 
meeting, was by Mr. Archibald Bums, and that some of them 
were ready for distribution amongst the members, in accordance 
with the resolution of the last meeting. He hoped that all 
would be ready by the next meeting. In the mean time, those 
members who chose to send to Mr. Wharton Simpson a stamped 
and addressed envelope might receive copies without delay. 

Mr. Rejlander's paper, " An Apology for Art Photography " 
(see p. 88), was then read by Mr. Wharton Simpson, Mr. 
Rejlander himself suffering from some indisposition. At the 
conclusion of the paper, Mr. Rejlander handed round for inspect 
tion a couple of pictures, consisting of donkeys' heads, drawn 
by light on sensitive paper without the aid of negative or 
camera ; the pencil of the sunbeam simply being wielded by 
Mr. Rejlander s hand. He also exlabited a sketch showing the 
plan of his studio, in which a much smaller amount of glass 
than usual is employed, the especial object being to produce 
studies for painters ; the mode of lighting is intended to produce 
similar results to those obtained in the studio of the painter. 
A group designed for a composition picture, as referred to in 
the paper, was exammed with much interest 

Mr. Wall, in continuation of the discussion, read a paper 
entitled " Thomas Sutton, B.A., on Art Photography " (see p. 

Mr. Rejlander then laid before the members a choice selec- 
tion of photographic studies from his portfolio. Some of these 
were selected with a view to illustrate the plasticity of photo- 
graphy in producing effects, and faithfully imitating in life, 
studies in the style or manner of various great masters, amongst 
whom were Raphael, Yelasquez, Titian, Teniers, and others. 
In some the test of photography had been applied to the draw- 
ings of Raphael, in which the figures were in peculiar action, or 
unusually lighted ; and, as Mr. Rejlander observed, it was as 
pleasant to observe that the test of photography proved the 
truth of drawing in the muscular action and anatomy of 
Raphael's figures, as it was to know that effects so similar to 
those of the great master could be produced by photography. 
Others illustrated how, by the posing and action only, a senti- 
ment could be expressed or a story told. This was shown by a 
charming pair of studies entitled " Cupid in Trouble and Cupid 
in Despair," the action in the latter, in which the baby model 
leans forward grasping his leg, being wonderfully expressive. 

Another picture illustrated a similar idea, showing how a 
story could be told, and expression thrown into a picUire pro- 
duced by the aid of lav figures only. It was an aUegorical pic- 
ture, the title of which wo forget, but which might have been 
called a "Dream of Life." A male figure is laid sleeping, and 
his dream is indicated by the aid of a mysterious-looking article, 
in shape like a hollow truncated cone, consisting of a series of 
rings, or hoops, known, we believe, by the initiated, as a 
" crinoline." On these hoops, as on the bars of a ladder, the 
small lay figures were climbing, the different action and posi- 
tions aptly displaying character and intention. Some were 
resting happy and content on the lower round of the ladder, 
whilst others toiled eagerlv forward far above them; some had 
dashed forward with such precipitancy that, having nearly 
attained the summit, they then missed their footing and were 
tumbling headlong, whilst others — ^very few— having reached 
the topmost round, look calmly or proudly down on the toilers 

A charming study of a child, smiling and interested, called by 
Mr. Rejlander, " Do it again," gave occasion for an anecdote of 
the mode in which the expression was obtained. The ordinary 
bribes of childhood had been insufScient to interest the little 
urchin, and a female attendant had, therefore, attempted the 
extraordinary feat of eating a nail, which was in the wall oppo- 
site to the child, who was mightily tickled, and exclaimed, 

" Do it again," and whilst waiting, watching with amused 
interest for the feat to be done again, the portrait wai 

Many other studies of expression were exhibited, with anec- 
dotes of the mode in which they were secured. Studies c^ mus- 
cular action, of gracefyil action, of the nude, of dnqpery, &c., 
were also exhibited and explained during a desultory conversso 
tional discussion, in the course of which a gentleman present 
remarked, in confirmation of some remarks on the aid to the 
artist furnished by photography, that Burford's " Panorama of 
Rome " was painteid by Mr. Selous from photographs of that 

After a few remarks by the Chairman, a vote of thanks to 
Mr. Rejlander was moved by Mr. Simpson and seconded by 
Mr. Wall, who wished Mr. Rejlander's detractors had been 
present, as he thought the studies they had examined, and the 
comments and explanations they had heard, would have been 
sufiScient to convince the most stubborn of the art claims of 
photography. The vote of thanks having been passed by 

Mr. Rejlander, in acknowledging the vote, said, that in 
his endeavours to make photography an aid to the painter, he 
had almost been as modest as the most fastidious person could 
wish. Where he had in the service of art delineated by photo- 
graphy the nude figure, he had scrupulously avoided the 
violation of modesty, both in act and thought. He disliked im- 
modesty, and in his pictures had always avoided it ; and he was 
sure if those who had spoken of the indelicacy of his pictures 
knew the injustice they had done him, they would be sorry for 
it. However, when his pictures were condemned, he did not 
care about fighting, and instead of producing other composition 
pictures for which he rai^ht have to fight, he confined himself 
to studies for artists, which were often required most by those 
artists who most decried photographic aid. He had many con- 
ceptions, and should have liked to have produced many pictures 
but for this repression. In reference to the art claims of photo- 
graphy, it was undoubtedly a mechanical and chemical art, but it 
was capable of being applied as a fine art, and he hoped for the 
time when there would be a class for photography in the Royal 
Academy, under the guidance of approved ariists. By this 
means, artists and photographers would g^t better to understand 
each other, and the capabilities and limits of their respective 
methods. Once more he thanked them, and if health permitted 
he hoped again perhaps to do something in composition photo- 
graphy. Bui he would bide his time. 

Some prints were presented to the Society bv Mr. Sidney 
Smith, and Mr. Price's paper " On the Theoretical Principles of 
Positive Printing" was deferred until the next meeting. The 
proceedings then terminated. 

[rxoic oax spicul ooaaasPOXDivT.] 

Paris, lUh Feb, 1868. 
A NEW method of microphotography is proposed by M. H. 
Yogel, which is so simple, that any one, however little 
acquainted with operations of this nature, may easily avail 
himself of it. To a micit)scope, placed horisontally, a small 
photographic camera is adapted, fitted with a single achro- 
matic landscape lens, of about 4^ focal distance, and 
arranged in such manner that the optical axes of the two 
instruments coincide, and that the oVjective of the camera 
almost touches the eye-piece of the microscope. M. Yogel 
has also attempted to pnotograph telescopic images, but the 
undertaking was much more difficult, and the results hitherto 
obtained are not satisfactory. 

MM. Bunsen and H. Roscoe have published, in Poggen- 
dtJTf's AnrudSf a very important article on the chemical 
action of light applied to the phenomena of the organic 
and miner^ kingdoms. The learned authors propose to 
themselves to examine the modifications and the cnemical 
effects which the surface of the earth is susceptible of 
receiving, either from the direct rays of the sun or from 
diffused light. These researches, extremely delicate, require 
new means of experimenting, into the details of which it is 
not possible to enter in this place. It must sufKce to notice. 

FBBRUiBT 20, 1868.] 



among the resnlts obtained, that the chemical action of 
light, photochemijdryf variea according to the geological 
coQsiitation and the agricnltnral condition of the soil, the 
annual and dinmal obliquity of the rays, the hours of the 
day, the latitude and the seasons. The maxima of effects 
are remarked at the period of the solstices. In order to 
riassify the phenomena, the points of eqnality might be 
united by lines, as is done with the distribution of heat on 
the terrestrial surface. We should thus obtain a set of 
Uopkotockemieal lines, diurnal, monthly, and annual, and of 
unquestionable utility for the progress of general physics 
and meteorology, which are still in their infancy. iBut to 
realise this magnificent and difficult programme requires 
the union and co-operation of all the observers liying in 
eTery quarter of the globe. A consummation which, un- 
fortunately, is very unlikely to be attained. 

M. A. d' Abbadie has presented a report to the Geo- 
^phical Society, on The Photographic Plane-Table, in- 
rented by M. Auguste Chevallier,'*'' in which he pays a 
warm tribute of admiration to the efforts of the persevering 
inventor in perfecting his apparatus. Qeograpbic photo- 
graphy is placed between two extremes, one of which is the 
microficope, the other the telescope — ^the infinitely small 
and the infinitely great. It aims at employing the flat 
pictures, upon which are fixed the panoramic landscapes 
and varied planfi, which the traveller perceives unfolded to 
his view in all their new and changeful details. But how 
shall we deduce the precise data of latitude, longitude, and 
altitude, that hidden but substantial framework which sus- 
tains the varied structure of a map? This problem has 
been ingeniously solved by M. Chevallier, who, disdaining 
the more enticing phases of the photographic art, has put 
a^ide the picturesque, and in his landscapes disregisters 
onl J the relations essential to geography ; or the forms and 
positions relative to the signaJ^. To this end he has con- 
verted the photographic negative into a plane-table, and 
hj a mechanical, and we may also add, automatic process, 
retained all the advantages of this elementary instrument, 
hat which is, in the last analysis, the capital instrument of 

In using the ordinary plane-table we must carefully trace 
the lines which note the direction of each interesting signal, 
rachas the angles of houses or fields, mouths of rivers, summits 
of mountains, &c. ; we must afterwards write the name of 
each object projected, or, if ignorant of it, as is frequently 
the case in travelling, it is indispensable that an exact 
fketch of each signal noted be made, in order to recognise it 
at the new station to which the traveller repairs to set up 
again his plane-table. We may have already anticipated 
that photography employed in such a case will cause the 
sketching to oe dispensed with, and provide a guarantee 
a^nst the errors which may, in the sketches, seriously 
aSect the accuracy of the essential details. Moreover 
these sketcheB demand much time ; and experience has 
often proved to us that after having fixed upon a distant 
signal, atmospheric changes will veil it from the sight 
I'efore there has been sufficient time to sketch its form. 
And this is not all : the ordinary plane-table does not 
admit of the projection of many objects very near together 
without introducing confusion into the work. Besides, 
it gives only the relative azimuths. It has therefore been 
fi/^nd desirable to add to it a lens and a circle, or at least a 
graduated arc, to obtain the angle of height, or apozenith, 
an element indispensable for knowing the altitude of the 
'ignal. Bat tnen the instrument, although conn>lete, 
wcomes very complicated, like that invented by M. Porro, 
&nd most practical geographers prefer to replace the plane- 
table by a more precise instrument, which gives both the 
vertical and homsontal angles at the same time. The 
eltmients thus obtained, fitst transcribed in a register, must 
1>e repeated upon another sheet of paper by means of a 
transfer. Ano^ after all, this method of observation does 

* Vide PHOToaaiPHio Nswa, vol. vi. pp. d3, 77. 

not dispense with the minutious care of sketching each 
signal. And it is difficult lor the energy of the topo- 
graphic traveller to overcome all these obstacles. By the 
aid of photography he can accomplish in a quarter of an 
hour a more satisfactory result than in six hours without it. 
It is easy enough to obtain a panorama of the horizon by 
means of photography, but it was a difficult task to give to 
the photographic plate all the advantages of an ordinary 
plane-table. M. Chevallier has solved this difficult and im- 
portant problem. Other operators had shown, as he has 
done, that an objective, furnished with a rotary movement, 
can reproduce a panorama, without confounding the images 
in it by superposition ; but what appears to specially consti- 
tute his discovery, is, that of being able to operate usefully 
upon a plane surface, by fixing his glass plate, coated with 
a sensitive film, upon a moving vertical wheel articulated 
at rieht angles, with a fixed horizontal wheel, the teeth of 
which force the vertical wheel to terminate a complete revo- 
lution upon itself at the precise moment when its norizontal 
axis has finished its tour of the horizon. The principle of 
this invention consists in the transformation of the hori- 
zontal movement of the camera into an equal but vertical 
movement of the glass plate, which registers the picture in 
a continuous manner. Beyond the well-known manipula- 
tion of photography, the employment of this instrument 
requires no other preliminary than the regulation of the 
level which the positive requires. 


Snt, — I quite intended to have been present at the last 
meeting of the South London Society to take part in the 
discussion on the papers by Messrs. Wall ana Rej lander, 
but the weather was so provokingly brilliant here last week 
that I was compelled to remain at home to take advantage 
of it. However, the papers read by those gentlemen so com- 
pletely upset all that Mr. Sutton advanced against art-photo- 
graphy in his paper read before the Photographic Society of 
Scotland, that it would have been scarcely necessary for me 
to have said one word on the subject. Having been coujpled 
by Mr. Sutton with Mr. Reilander, as an offender against 
photographic propriety in the pictures I have produced, I 
have to thank the latter gentleman, and also Mr. Wall, for 
the very valuable and convincins^ arguments they employed 
in our defence, although I think the matter was not worth 
the trouble they took about it, for I am sure that if Mr. 
Sutton were left to himself for a little time, he would, with 
his usual heedlessness of cotisistency, turn round in favour 
of all he now opposes. The efforts of those who endea- 
voured to raise the character of our art having the appro- 
bation of every other journal devoted to photography, it 
cannot be of the slightest importance to them what are the 
present opinions of an editor who c^riciously praises and 
condemns by turns. Hbhet P. Robihson. 

Leamington^ Feb. 16, 1868. 

No Outline in Aet.— Mr. Ruskin, in speaking of his mode 
of teaching drawing at the Working Men[s College, says, *• There 
are no outlinee in nature, and no pupil in my class is ever 
allowed to draw an outline "—arguing, it would appear, that 
as there is "no outline in nature," there should be no outline 
in art. Nature, he says, relieves one mass or one tint against 
another, but there is no outline. In theory, this is to a great extent 
true ; but yet it is very convenient to the artist, in making a 
composition, to define by an outline how far and in what form a 
mass or a tint extends itself ; and the effects producod by these 
artistic lines of demarcation are so agreeable to the eye in 
themselves, if done in a true artistic sprit, that many pleasing 
decorations may be made with outline alone. The outline 
sketches of some artists are indeed more sought for by the true 
connoisseur than the finished work in which they have been 
blended into the masses. Nevertheless, Mr. Ruskin's acutely 
perceived and ingeniously defended crotchets, though often 
untenable, are always full of suggestive hints of the highest 
artistic value. 



[[Febrttabt 20, 1863. 

9)alfc in ibt Sixnina. 

The Rbv. T. F. Hasdwioh.— Many of our readers will learn 
wiUi pleasure of the publication of a portrait of Mr. Hardwich, 
who, although retired from the photographic worlds is still 
kindly remembered by photograpnera. Mr. St. George has 
recently issued a card picture, which is a characteristic portrait 
and a brilliant photograph. We have pleasure in commending 
it to our readers, and we may also call attention to it as a 
specimen of fine printing. 

RoBBESY OP Lensbs AT THE Ceystal Palaoe. — Georgo 
Bestall surrendered at the Surrey Sessions to take his trial upon 
an indictment charging him with stealing eighteen lenses, the 
property of his employers, Messrs. Negretti and Zambra, 
opticians, at the Crystal Palace. Mr. Bobinson, with Mr. 
Oppenheim, for the prosecution; and Mr. Sleigh, specially 
retained, with Mr. Thom^n, conducted the defence. The 
evidence for the prosecution having closed, Mr. Sleigh ad- 
dressed the jury for the defence ; when the Chairman summed 
up, and the jury, after an absence of nearly an hour, returned 
a verdict of guilty against the prisoner, with a strong recom- 
mendation to mercy on account of his previous good character. 
Sentence was postponed. 

Moist Sensitive Photographic Plates. — ^A correspon- 
dent of the Sdeniific American says;— It has long been an 
object with photographers to keep prepared sensitive plates 
moist longer than ordinary, as it is well known that in a dry 
atmosphere, in doors or out, a sensitive plate will crystallize in 
a few minutes and be rendered unfit vxt use. My remedy is 
this : — ^Take newly-made plate frames and varnish them with 
gum shellac dissolved in alcohol, until the wood is thoroughly 
saturated ; after being dried, immerse them in water for an 
hour, take them out, drain and wrap them in a wet towel, and 
^ace them in a box made of wood or leather, with a close lid. 
The towel should be wet daily, and the frames kept in the box. 
By these means, with a nitrate bath of thirty to thirty-five 
grains, I have no difilculty in keeping the plates two or three 
hours or more. I have had many inquiries about my process 
upon the supposition that there was some secret in the prepara- 
tion of the plate ; but it consists in preventing Uie evaporation 
of the moisture, and that is effectually done by the above 

Photogbaphy at the Seat op Was. — "Decidedly" says 
the Corinth Tribune, " one of the institutions of our army is the 
travelling portrait gallery. A camp is hardly pitched before 
one of the omnipresent artists in collodion and amber-vamish 
drives up his two-horse wagon, pitches his canvas gallery, and 
unpacks his chemicals. Our army here (Fredericksburg) is 
now so large that quite a company of these gentlemen have 
gathered about us. The amount of business they find is 
remarkable. Their t^nts are thronged from morning to night, 
and " while the day lasteth " their golden harvest runs on. 
Here, for instance, near General Bumside's headquarters, are 
the combined establishments of two brothers from Pennsyl- 
vania, who rejoice in the wonderful name Bergstresser. They 
have followed the arm^ for more than a year, and taken, the 
Lord only knows, how many thousand portraits. In one day 
since they came here they took in one of the galleries, so I am 
told, 160 odd pictures at one dollar (on which the net profit 
is probably ninety-five cents each). If anybody knows an 
easier and better way of making money than that, the public 

hould know it. 

9^0 ^ant»]sauiiaixis. 

B.— There are several modes of producing enamel photographs on china, 
sofne of which are secrete and others patents. The process of H. Joobert 
has repeatedly been described in our columns, and is patented. It con- 
sists in coating the china or slass with a mixture of honey, albumen, and 
a bichromate, exposing under a transparent positire, coating with an 
enamel powder, and buming-in the image. The process of H. Gamarsac 
has not been stated In detail so fiur as we know : we believe it consists in 
producing a transparent positive on a collodion film, either direct upon 
the china, or by transfer from a glass plate ; toning this with gold, and 
then buming-in. We do not think the latter Is patented in this country. 

A* R. P. — ^Two ounces of hyposulphite of soda ov^ht to be sufficient to tone 
two batches of 40 caid portraits, provided they are well washed and the hypo 
is kept neutral. 2. Orey tones, if vou desire them, may be produced by 
the aid of almost any of the toning formulas, by making them strong 
enough and toning long enough. With some samples of highly albn- 
menixed paper, however, it is verf difficult to get beyond tints of purple 
brown. 8. There may be a limit to the time an exciting bath ought to 
be used even if the strength were kept up, as it is constantly receiving some 

foreign matter from the albumen, and some aggregation of nitrates ; W 
we have not noticed any deterioration, when the strength WM watn tai iwl , 

in our own case. . , ,« *j . 

J. K.— The price of Oolonel James's work on photoiincography w 1»-„»J- » 
it is necessarily a somewhat high-priced work, having sevenl photoUtho- 
graphic illustrations. -_.t.^ 

T. W. &, Cambridgc^Any good bromo-lodlMd collodion will answer for the 
honey and tannin process ; but we cannot with certainty recommend u^ 
commercial sample. It should not contain less than one grain of bromide 
to the ounce, and might, without disadvantage, contain more. 

Y. Z.— The lens you name may be used for an enlargement of about four or five 
diameters, with a moderate stop, without impropriety ; but the Na 1 triple 
lens is best for the purpose. Report onyour glass in our next 

L. Shaw.— Tour prints are promising. Many of your difflcnlttea win dis- 
appear with practice. The spot on the shoulder appears to have arUea 
from an air-bubble or other similar cause having prevented the perfect 
action of the toning bath at that spot, and thus left it browner than the 
remainder. The toning bath with gold and acetate of soda Is a very good 
one. If you have any especial difficulties please state them speciflcaUr. 

Calico.— The formula of Messrs. Fordos and Gelis appears very aatisfsctofy. 
Chloride of calcium is altogether a dilTerent salt to chloride, or hypochlo- 
rite, of lime, and must not be substituted for the other. 2. The exact action 
of acetate of soda in a toning bath is somewhat uncertain, and the fotmala 
not less so ; the chief thing that is known on the subject is, that, practi- 
cally, it gives good results. Samples of chloride vary In addity, aad 
samples of acetate of soda, which should be neutnd, ve some faintly sdd 
and some slightly alkaline ; generallv, however, the latter. Wherever we 
have any reason to fear a trace of acidity in the toning bath we place the 
prints in a weak solution of carbonate of soda before fixing. This is a veiv 
safe practice, and permits the use of the gold bath if even faintly acid. A 
bath of gold, quite neutralised with carbonate of soda, will tone very well 
without any other addition. 8. We will try the Intensifying process with 
a bromide. We cannot give any opinion ck priori as to whether the resoils 
will be more stable than those of the iodide. ^ 

OiLOHBiSTO.— The best enlarging lens is the triple ; but a good portndtlens, 
say a quarter-plate, may be used for the amount of enlarging you propose. 

CuDDii Luois. — You have quite misunderstood us. There have been cq^- 
right acts in force for the protection of engravings ever since 1785. We 
believe the term of protection is twenty-eight years, and, therefore, all 
engravings published within that period, which have complied with the 
provisions of the law, are copyright, and may not be copied. 2. In filling 
up the office form for registering photographs you may place more than 
one picture in the form, but you must pav the fee upon each picture. 8. 
We have not seen any of the prints to which you refer, and cannot offer 
an opinion thereon. 
ExoKLSioa. — ^Your glass is too brown, not the tnxe silver-flashed tint It 
lets some active rays through, but very few, and could be used with safety 
except in a very bright light We may here give a word of ad vice to those 
of our readers who may require to send us samples of glass for examina- 
tion. It will save some disappointment and trouble, if, in obtaining a 
sample of glass from a dealer, it be ascertained at the same time that he 
has a suffident stock of the same sample on hand. Manv dealers think 
they are quite near enough if they supply something which they conceire 
to be similar In tint, but which really may be altogether different in its 
power of repelling chemical rays. It Is also important to secure, if 
possible, the sUver-Jlashed ghiss, which generally has a somewhat mottled 
effect, as though It were stippled rather than stained. 
AxATKus Dry Platb.— Almost all photographic materials, which come under 
the general head of "Chemicals," keep, if properl^f stored. Nitrate of 
silver, hyposulphite of soda, acetic acid, pyrogallic acid, gallic add, 
chloride of gold, acetate of soda, Ac, if kept dry and air-tight» keeps 
almost indefinitely. Plain collodion, cadmium-iodised collodion, and good 
bromo-iodized collodion will keep a long time— at least a year, if kept with 
any care ; as will also iodized paper. Albumenized paper is best used as 
fresh as convenient, and will i^Jure in a few months, if at all damp. Sensi- 
tive plates, or paper, should be kept dry and air tight^ but in most eases 
there is a tendency to deteriorate. 2. Mr. Bartholomew has given toler- 
ably ftiU details of his morphine process in our pages ; but he will, doubt- 
less, have pleasure in supplying more details on the points you wish, 
namely, the length of exposure, as compared with wet plates ; whether an 
iron developer be necessary ; whether acetate of morphine may be used in 
place of nitrate, and the proportion ; whether any preliminary coating be 
necessary, and what is the best 3. We cannot tell you much of the pro- 
bable value of negatives of foreign landscapes. You will best ascertain by 
writing to some of the photographic publishers in this country. 
GHAJILB0 DxaBT.— We have delayed publishing your description of a photo- 
meter, until we had more time to examine it carefully, as it does not 
appear very explicit We certainly should not recommend you to patent 
it We never undertake the duty of attending to patents, and did not 
undentand you as making any inquiry about the subject 
J. B., SoEurborough. — ^If you take the portrait of any person on your own 
account^ with a view to publication, no agreement is required to permit 
you to secure the copyright You execute the work for youraelf, and it is 
yours. But if you take the portrait for the sitter himself, or for some one 
else, it being, as the Act phrases it " a commission," then an agreement 
in writing is necessary. If the commission were for the sitter himself, and 
he be dead, then the agreement must be with his heir, who is his legal 
representative, can give you the proper permission in writing. We do not 
charge any fee for advice ; but the claims upon our time prevent us writing 
private letten on subjects which can be answered in this column, where 
the information can also be of use to others. 
T. R. — We do not know of any certain method in which old manuscripts oin 

be copied by simple pressure. 
Several Correspondents in our next 


yi^otograp^tf tUgisterelr irurtng tf|e 9a0t QflieeiL 

T. Smith, Cemetery Road, Sheffield, 

View of St John's Church, Biasboro^, Rotherham. 
Mb. Thomas Wobdiit, Newcastle-on-Tyne, 

Two Photographs of Scenes in Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
MB8SB8. PiTSCHLKB AXD Cc, Manchester, 

Two Portraits of Mr. Wright, the prison philanthropist 
Mb. Alfbbd Thkodosius Hsath, 86, Camden Street North, N.W., 

Portrait of James B. Btmning, Bsq. 


Vol. VII. No. 2U.— February 27, 1868. 



Photographic Soirees , , 97 

On a Proeeas for Direct Intensifying 97 

Pbotographic BxhlUtion.— Fifth Notice 98 

Grittcal Notices 99 

Collodion Wet and Dry. By M. 1/ Abbft DespraU 100 

Olasgov Photographic Association. — Soirfte, Sxhlbition, and 

CoDTeraasione 101 

The Application of Photognvhy to the Magic Lantern Sdncar 

ttonaUy Oonaldei«d. By SamneL Highley, P.a.8., V.C.& ... 104 


Nev Process for Positive Printing. By H Bertrand 101 

Proceedings of Societies 105 

The International Exhibition.— Beport of the Jury 106 

Photographic Notes and Queries , 106 

Miscellaneous 107 

Talk in the Studio 108 

To Correspondents 108 

Photographs Begistered daring the Week 108 


A TEKT sncoessfal soirto of the Loudon PhotoOTaphic 
Society was held on Friday eyening last, at the Gallery of 
British Artiste, in Suffolk Street, where .the exhibition of 
photographs is now held. A brilliant company, including 
many persons of distinction, thronged the rooms, examining 
the excellent display of pictures until a late hour. 

We call the especial attention of our readers to a copious 
report, on another page, of a very brilliant soiree, held 
hj the Glasgow Photographic Association. Indefatigable 
efforts had been made to secure a first-rate collection of 
photographs for exhibition; very able and interesting 
speeches were delivered, yarious photographic illustrations 
and experimente made, amongst which the crowning one was 
the production, by the aid of the electric light, of a portrait 
negative ; Mr. Jabez Hughes, whose name is well known to 
oar readers, being the sitter. 

From this a transparency was immediately produced, and, 
in the coarse of a few minutes, the portrait was perfected on 
to the screen of the magic lantern, and shown, amid much 
enthusiasm, to the entire audience. We commend the 
account of this soiree to photographers, because it exhibits 
an amount of energy, unity, ana enthusiasm among photo- 
graphers, rarely witnessed, but worthy of all emulation. 


K. Blavquabt Evbabd has addressed the following com- 
munication to the Paris Photographic Society and recorded 
in the BvOeHn, 

It has for a long time been known that when a sensitized 
surface is exposed to light, idPter it has been impregnated 
with a reducing salt in solution, we obtain, upon removal 
from the camera, a completely developed image. 

In ordinary practice, in which the sensitized film only 
is exposed in the camera, the image obtained by the exposure 
remains latent until revealed by a reducing solution. 

Three agento, therefore, concur to produce the image. 

1. A sensitized film (sensitized collodion.) , 

2. Light. 

3. A developing salt. (Sulphate of iron, gallic and 
pyrogallic acid.) 

I shall not occupy myself in this place either with the. 
sensitive film or with the reducing salts whose action varies ; 
the sulphate of iron precipitates the silver in the metallic 
itate ; tne gallic and pyrogallic acids form with silver, in 
my opinion, gallates of silver more or less coloured ; — but I 
shall examine the action of light, from which it seems to me 
poBsihle to derive a new resource under certain circum- 

It is admitted that there is a complete formation of the 
Image by the exposure to light, however short may have 
Wen its doration. We may then infer that if the image 
<ioes not entirely appear under the action of the reducing 

salt, it is because the latter is not sufficiently subtle. It 
remains, then, to find a reducing salt capable of revealing 
the image in all ite strength. 

But has the sensitive film itself been so deeply impressed 
as to be able to transmit afterwards the image in its 
entireness ? 

From what ocean in ordinary practice, we may be allowed 
to doubt if it does. 

When the exposure has been too short, the imM^e is formed 
only on the surface of the film. It results from this, that the 
layer of reduced silver has not sufficient thickness to oppose 
a sufficient obstacle to the passage of light. In taking the 
positive, we obtain only a pale and ineffective design. If, 
on the contrary, the exposure has been too long, the reverse 
action is produced, the parts most lighted assume too great 
an importance. The details in the lights disappear, in com- 
pensation we obtain details in the shadows which a short 
exposure would not have given, but the picture is none the 
less poor and inharmonious. The negative is lost. 

The point at which we must stop the exposure is then very 
difficult to seize upon. There is an equilibrium to be pre- 
served, which becomes impossible under certain conditions 
of lighting and colour. 

We employ, it is true, different means to give either more 
importance to certain parts of a negative, or to diminish the 
value of certain others, but^these partial intensifyings, by 
means which I am almost tempted to call mechanical, are 
almost always defective. 

Thus far, theb, we have actually acquired the possibility of 
intensifying a negative as a whole, and still the means em- 
ployed are nazardous, and very often compromise its exis- 
tence by causing a softening of the collodion, wrinkles, rents, 
&c. Besides, it seldom happens that a successful intensifying 
does not cause the image to lose a portion of its primitive 

For the chemical means hitherto employed we must sub- 
stitute a more inoffensive method, so as to develop any 
portion of the image at pleasure, by localizing the operation, 
either by too short an exposure, or that the colouring of 
certain objects adverse to tne photogenic action be suitably 

This method will be ike conJtinwxtion, under certain con- 
dUions, of the action of light upon the sensitive JUm^ or, in 
other terms, (he light comjAeiei ike manifestation ofihe image 
formed in the camera, 1 sum up the principles upon which 
my theory is based. 

On removal from the camera, the image in its entireness 
is imprinted on the sensitive film. The impression is more 
or less decided, according to the duration of the exposure or 
the intensity of the light. 

The image is visible only after being developed by the 
reducing agent, and it is not till then that we can judge its 

However, if before developing the image we assume that 
the exposure has been insufficient, and that wc dcsiro to 
augment it, we have only to remove the cap* from before the 



[Pbbruaet 27, 1863. 

objectiref the impresHion continnes, nothing being changed 
in the chemical condition of the sensitive film. 

Query : would it be the same if we re-cx posed the image 
after it has been precipitated by the reducing agent ? 

A priorif we reply, No! Nevertheless experience has 
shown me that it, upon removal from the camera, we 
develop the image by the gallic acids or sulphate of iron, 
and that afler having washed the negative simply in water, 
we expose it to the light, the image strengthens more and 
more, it may even attain to an astonishing vigour. 

To account for this phenomenon, and explain why the 
image does not become a black mass, as happens when we 
treat a paper negative in the same manner, we must con- 
sider that in a collodionod glass plate the surface only is 
impregnated, and that the reducing salt which precipitates 
the image removes at the same time all the silver which has 
not been impressed, and is carried away with it by the wash- 
ing in water. There remains, then, on the negative no other 
silver upon which the light can act beside that which forms 
the image. 

We can readily understand that it is different with a paper 
negative. The washing in water clears only the surface. 
The interior of the paper retains a quantity of silver which 
is impressionable by light so long as it is not dissolved in 
the hyposulphite. 

How does light continue the development of the image ? 
Does the metal pass to a higher state of oxidation ? Is a 
thicker film precipitated? It is certain that the opacity of 
the image sensibly increases. Positives obtained in the first 
and second states of the negatives exhibit very striking 

The atmosphere plays an important part in the action 
produced. It we preserve a portion of the image from con- 
tact with the air, and cover it with a transparent varnish 
which permits the light to pass, the part covered with 
varnish becomes only feebly coloured, while the remainder 
sensibly deepens in tone, we must, therefore, admit that 
there is a greater oxidation of the metal. 

As to the precipitation of a thicker metallic film — for this 
to take place it is necessary that the first exposure in the 
camera has impressed more of the sensitive salt than the 
reducing salt can precipitate ; there will then be an incom- 
plete reduction of a portion of the silver, a reduction sufficient 
to prevent its being carried off by the water in washing, but 
susceptible of being continued and completed by a second 
exposure. I admit this more readily from what takes place 
when, if after washing, the negative be fixed by hyposulphite 
of soda, and afterwards exposed to the light* we no longer 
obtain an intensifying of the image, the hyposulphite having 
dissolved all the iodide of silver not completely impressed by 
the light. 

Whatever the theory I humbly submit to the appreciation 
of the eminent chemists to whom you refer questions of this 
sort, it has always appeared to me 

Thai it ia possible to strengthen a collodion negative^ by 
exposure to light alone, after simply washing in toater, on 
removal from the developing bath. 

That we can follow with the eye the progress of the 
operation, and stop it at will by irrevocably fixing the 
image with hyposulphite of soda. 

Thai we can also localize the action of lighi by exposing 
to its contact only a portion of the image, and thus obtain a 
partial intensifying. 

To arrive at this interesting result, we must, by means of 
screens suitably placed, so as not to form gaps in the image, 
merely obscure tnosc parts of the object which may be con- 
sidered as being fully impressed. In this manner wc can 
strengthen at will any portion of an image just as the 
engraver in mezzotinto lights his plate by means of a 

Note. — If, to carry the comparison with the work of the 
engraver still further, we wish to obtain the reverse effect, 
that is to say, darken the parts which are too light, and 
give more depth to the shadows of a negative, wc must 

diminish the opacity, or thickness, of the film of reduatl 
silver. We arrive at this result by submitting these portions 
to the action of the vapour of iodine. These vapoun com- 
bine with the silver forming, at the expense of its thicknem, 
an iodide of silver, which dissolves in hypoeulphite of soda. 




As the last week of the exhibition approaches, and it is now 
open in the evenings, as well as during the day, we hope 
those of our readers, who can, will make the most of the 
remaining opportunities of examining the contributions. 

We have not hitherto given much attention to the por- 
traits exhibited, chiefly because a very large number of them 
had been already exhibited in the International Exhibition. 
We will now, nowever, briefly glance at such pictures as 
have chiefly attracted our attention. The two portraits, 
which have, perhaps, excited more interest than any others 
in the exhibition, are those of Alfred Tennyson and Thomas 
Carlyle, both by W. Jefi'reys. These, apart from the dis- 
tinguished character of the men, although only half-plate 
pictures, are as admirable specimens of portraiture as any 
in the exhibition. Characteristic in pose, round, soft, and 
full of half-tone, yet very vigorous and forcible ; they are 
altogether exceedingly fine photographs. The grim power 
of the Chelsea philosopher, and the lofty thought of the 
laureate, are well rendered in the pictures, and convey the 
impression at once that the portraits are characteristic of 
the men. 

Mr. Claudet's portraits, to which the medal was awarded, 
are very numerous, and are scattered throughout the diffe- 
rent rooms of the exhibition ; they consist of cartes de visile^ 
of various large-sized pictures, taken direct, and of solar 
camera pictures, plain and coloured. They all display 
many excellent qualities. Those we like best are the large 
pictures, taken direct from life, of which, No. 116, a portrait 
of a lady, in a light dress, is a fine example. Some of the 
enlargea pictures are also very fine. 

The solar camera pictures, of Mr. Stuart, we have before 
fully described. We need only remark here that, being 
hung amongst several brilliantly-coloured pictures, they 
are seen to less advantage than when examined alone, as 
they lose brilliancy by contrast with the amount of colour 
surrounding them. 

An untouched solar camera picture of Herr Formes (563) 
exhibited by Mr. McAndrew, looks grey, flat, and poor. It 
is unfortunate that solar camera pictures so often run to 
extremes. If they are soft they are flat and feeble ; if 
vigorous, they are coarse and hard. Mr. McAndrew's other 
contributions are for the most part very excellent, and com- 
prise some excellent specimens of large untouched por- 

Mr. T. R. Williams sends a fine selection of bis charming 
vignettes of rare beauty and delicacy, both whole plates and 
card pictures, of which, however, we prefer the larger size. 
Mr. Mayland, of Cambridge, sends a frame of albumen 
portraits (655), so nearly resembling those of Mr. Williams 
in style, and nearly eaualling them in quality, that we have 
heara^them frequently mistaken for those of the latter 
gentleman. This we consider almost the highest praise 
they could receive. Mr. Mayland's card pictures (654) arc 
equal to any in the exhibition. 

Mr. Robinson sends a small frame of his exquisite card 
portraits (653), which are unfortunately hung too high for 
careful examination. Two or three of the groups in this 
frame we consider the finest card pictures ever issued. A 
standing group of two pretty girls at the entrance of an 
arbour is especially worthy of notice. 

A frame of 10 by 8 pictures (589) exhibited by Mr. Car- 
rick, presents some lamentable instances of what to avoid in 
backgrounds, and fills us with regret. Mr. Carrick is a 
miniature painter of no mean standing: and in many rc- 
S2) jtU the portraiture and photography both arc good ; b.ut 

Fbbrcakt 27, 1863.] 



the backgrounds are so " loud*' that it is next to impossible 
to see the portraits ; the objects in the painted background 
will obtrude themselves, and the whole eflFect is one of ex- 
treme confusion. To use the remark of a foreign gentle- 
man who examined them, they looked " very mucb troubled." 
There is one exception to the remark amongst Mr. Carrick*s 
pictures. In this (690), a lady is standing in a room, her 
face apparently lighted from an open door, and in this case 
the effect of the flood of light on the objects in the interior 
is very pleasing. 

Mr. Joubert exhibits some very fine cards. Mr. Mull ins, 
of Jersey sends some very charming card pictures of the 
same class, and Mr. Brooks, of Newberry, sends a frame of 
cardg which are interesting as specimens of double printing. 
Mr. Cooper contributes a good selection of examples of 
resin printing, many of which are also veir charming pho- 
tographs. Artistic in feeling, soft, and delicate, as well as 
bnlliant, they are admirably fitted to recommend the use of 
resinized paper for very many purposes. In these, as also 
in the exquisite specimens of Mr. Cooper on silk, the system 
of double or fancy printing, is applied with excellent 

Hennah and Kent send some very fine portraits, which, if 
they do not maintain the pre-eminence in portraiture they 
once possessed, yield that position, not from any lack of 
excellence of their own, but from the gradual progress of 
others up to a similar standard. 

Some exceedingly perfect specimens of portraiture, by 
Angerer, of Vienna, are not numbered, but they should not 
be overlooked by visitors interested in this branch of the 
art. There are four other unnumbered portraits to which we 
would call especial attention : they are hung in the door-way 
leading into the room containing French contributions. 
These are by Dr. Diamond, and will interest photo- 
graphers not only as far surpassing any other specimens of 
amattiur portraiture, but as equalling the best to he found in 
this exhibition, both as artistic and characteristic portraits, 
and as perfect photographs. 

Associated closely with portraiture are life-studies, of 
which, whilst there are not very many in this exhibition, 
there are a few gems. We have before referred to the studies of 
Viscountess Hawarden, and which, very properly, we think, 
gained the medal as the best amateur contribution. There is 
a wonderful charm of freshness about these pictures which is 
much less common in photographs than we like to confess. 
These consist for the most part ot female figures with interior 
accessories : there is much grace and beauty both in the fair 
models themselves, and in the posing and general arrange- 
ment, but the chief charm consists in the daring lighting and 
the artistic effects of light and shade- secured. There are 
figures brought close to the window of a room into which 
pours broad sunlight : the portions tipped with the bright 
light are full of detail and free from chalkiness, and the 
masses in deep shadow are perfectly transparent and free from 
blackness. In some cases a portion of the window, balcony, 
and objects beyond is included, and these have sufficient 
detail to be compatible with atmosphere and distance. In 
some cases the effect of light reminds of some of Hem- 
bniodt's pictures, in which one bright light is in strong con- 
trast with a mass of shadow into which, however, the light is 
sufficiently carried to secui-e both transparency and breadth. 
We regard these pictures as most instructive and well worthy 
of study as illustrations of lighting of the effects possible in 
iphotography. They are produced we understand with a 
highly bromized collodion: a very strong iron developer, 
sometimes containing as much as fifty grains of iron to the 
ounce, and with Dallmeyer's No. 1 Triple lens, which secures 
this wondrous depth of definition. Should these studies be 
published, and we believe we may venture to hope they will 
be, Lady Hawarden, having, we believe, given her consent, we 
should recommend every portrait photographer to possess and 
study them. 

Mr. Rej lander has not contributed many of his fine art 
p'aotographa to this exhibition ; wo find however, two very 

charming studies, Nos. 567 and 574. The first is one of 
those genuine touches of humour in which Mr. Bej lander is 
so happy, and is entitled, " Give us a copper, yer honour." 
A comical, ragged urchin with broom in one hand, and the 
other touching his cap, is trotting along evidently in front of 
some one, to whom he turns his head and looks up ; his face 
wears a droll, coaxing expression, as he begs the copper he has 
earned by sweeping the crossing. The second picture is a 
beautiful head surrounded with white drapery, arranged some- 
what after the fashion of a nun ; the geneitd effect being after 
the Madonna of Sassoferata. The expression and general 
treatment are very beautiful, the whole of the face being in a 
mezzo-tint, with an exquisitely transpai'ent and delicate 
shadow on the forehead, cast by the projecting drapery. 
Altogether it is one of those rare gems seldom obtained by 

Besides these and some before noticed, there are not many 
figure studies. There is a picture by J. J. Eeet, entitled:, 
" The Lost Grame," which does not convey any especial idea 
beyond two persons playing a game of chess ; and a couple 
by J. T. Lucas ; one, " Hard Times," the interior of a Lan- 
cashire cottage with its inmates ; and another. " The Maid 
of Llangollen." The first of these is best, and has many fine 
points ; the second is hard as a photograph, and a little 
wanting in reason for its title. 

The coloured portraiture strikes us as a mistake; very 
much of it here is staring, vulgar, and coarse, with little of 
photography, and nothing of art. Some garish looking 
solar camera pictures coloured in p^tels, are particularly 
offensive, in their hard, crude, raw colour, glaring without 
brilliancy, and suggesting nothing but chalk. The great evil 
of these things is, that while nothing of photography remains, 
being overlaid by the stiff drawing of the painter, the 
glaring colour spoils the eye for the quiet monochrome of 
the pure photographs which are near them. The best 
pictures here are those coloured in oil, of which some are 
exhibited by M. Claudet, which are really well coloured. 
Some portraits painted by M. De La Follie, and exhibited 
by Mr. Mc Andrew, possess great truth and purity of colour, 
with much force ana brilliancy. No. 508 is a good example ; 
No. 510, a portrait of a lady, is well coloured, but badly 
posed. Nos. 519, 539, 543, and 551, coloured by this gentle- 
man, are all exceedingly good, the flesh being healthy and 
pure. The life size portrait of Mr. Chance of Birmingham, 
exhibited by M. Claudet, and that of Lord Brougham, 
exhibited by Mr. Mayall, are both fine. Mr. Brothers 
exhibits some fine composition groups, and one of the chief 
savans at the Manchester meeting of the British Association 
is well coloured in oil. Mr. Wall exhibits a large head 
coloured in oil, which has many good points, but he can 
paint better than this. There are many more coloured 
pictures, some of which are not worthy of notice, some 
moderately good, and many in regard to which silence is 
the best praise which can be awarded them. 

Cntical ^aims. 

PAPER. Fifth Edition. London: Bland and Co., 
Fleet Street. 

The especial claim to notice of a fifth edition of this little 
work is the fact that it is entirely re-written, and becomes 
practically a new book. Notwithstanding the fact that it 
has obtained a very wide circulation in its original form, 
not less than twenty thousand copies, we are informed, having 
been issued, the publisher recognizing the vast advancement 
made during late years, has felt it important that a book, 
for beginners, should contain instructions for the best and 
most approved practice of the art, so far as it is known at 
the present time, instead of the teachings written eight years 
ago, many of which must now be obsolete. The design of 
the work has also, it appears, become more comprehensive 



[Fbbrua&t 27, 186S. 

a Beoond part being prodnoed, which is to deal with those 
branches of photography chiefly interesting to the advanced 
Btadent, whUe the first part— that now before ii8---is 
chiefly elementary, and is confined to the wet collodion 
process, and to printing. 

The style of the book is very simple and Incid : the 
student is not perplexed with discussions as to his various 
theories propounded ; but is conducted by easy and sure steps 
into the practice of the art. An introductory chapter con- 
tains a brief statement of principles, and such an explanation 
of distinctive technicalities as may render clear and easy of 
comprehension the instructions wnich follow. They com- 
prise the production of positives on glass, of collodion 
negatives, and of printing on plain and albumenixed paper. 
There are also chapters on tinting positives on glass and 
paper ; on the production of stereoscopic pictures ; on im- 
perfections and failures ; and also one which will render the 
work valuable for calculation in many of the colonies, on 
photography in the tropics. 

So far as we have examined the work, the instructions 
are always sound, as well as lucid and clear ; and such as, 
if followed, will ensure successful results. A number of 
excellent wood engravings, illustrating modes of manipula- 
tion, as well as forms of apparatus, materially add to the 
interest of the book, which, as a whole, we can cordially 
recommend as one of the most simple, clear, and trustworthy 
instruction books we have seen. 

FBOM THE COUNTRY. Photographed by Dages and 
Harman, from designs by Percy Cruikshank. London : 
Ward and Lock. 
Thx claim which this little work has to the especial atten- 
tion of photographers consists in the fact that photography 
has here taken a place very commonly assigned to litho- 
graphy, being applied to the reproduction of a series of 
original sketches. It is unnecessary for us to trace the 
career of the " young man from the country, who thought no 
one could get over him on his way to visit the International 
Exhibition, and who went back without seeing it," beyond 
remarking that the designs possess some humour, but are 
a little wanting in delicacy. The photography is, however, 
unexceptionable, the prints being scarcely distinguishable 
from Indian ink drawings. They are chiefly on plain paper, 
and are printed with a margin, so as to avoid the evil of the 
book bulging and gaping from the accumulated thickness 
of the mounted photogpraphs — an evil sometimes very annoy- 
ing in other cases where photogpraphs have been used for 

book illustration. 




Various Readiaru. — ^It now remains to add some practical 
developments of the ideas we have suggested in our preceding 
article upon the sulphate of iron developer. First remark- 
ing, however, that the various methods we have successively 
described, are principally applicable in making use of a 
sensitizing bath, which, if not new, had been but little used. 
For, with an old bath containing a considerable proportion 
of alcohol and ether removed from the collodion film, the 
development of the image is not always made with the 
wished-for regularity : and, in that case, the success which we 
announced as infallible becomes, in some measure, exceptional. 
Yet still, even with a very old silver bath, and containing a 
strong proportion of alcohol and ether, a perfect result may 
also be obtained by developing with sulphate of iron as 
concentrated as possible; only in this particular instance, 
which most frequently becomes general, we must have 
recourse to a special manipulation, which we now proceed to 
describe carefully. 

First, a word upon the preparation of a good sulphate of 
iron bath. In a quart of rain or distilled water dissolve to 

• Contiaacd from Vol. TI. p. 404. 

saturation, cold, some pure sulphate of iron. The solution 
will be saturated when some crystals remain undissolved. 
If the sulphate be really pure, the solution will be at onoe 
fit for use. If commeroial sulphate of iron be used, which 
frequently contains free sulphuric acid, and very often some 
sulphate ofdeutoxide of copper, we must drop into the solution 
some Paris white, which wnl decompose this latter salt, and also 
neutralise the sulphuric acid in excess. It is then left four 
and twenty hours to settle. The bottle containing the 
solution should be kept always full, by the addition of a 
quantity of the mixture of sulphate and water equal to that 

As we may perceive, this bath is very easily prepared ; 
but we have never allowed ourselves to believe that it wag 
necessary to complicate it by the addition of alcohol or any 
acid whatever, and still less to greatly reduce its strength. 
There may, it is true, be ver^ plausible reasons eiven for 
having recourse to these additions ; but we believe it is most 
advantageous to do without them altogether. What, for 
instance, are the reasons given for the addition to the 
sulphate of iron, of either alcohol, acetic acid, or even 
sulphuric acid? Doubtless they have been recommended 
witn a view of putting the iron bath in harmony with the 
silver bath, if not in a chemical point of view, at least in a 
physical. For the sensitizing bath containing alcohol, 
ether, or even acetic acid, experiences a kind of repulsion 
for the bath of pure sulphate, with which it mixes only with 
difficulty. An acid added to the iron bath, and particularly 
alcohol, destroys this mutual repulsion and changes it into a 
real affinity : but this advantage can be obtained only at the 
expense of energy in tho developer, which is not a trifling 

With the employment of the mode of operating which wo 
wish to see adopted, this inconvenience no longer exists, for 
the pure and concentrated iron bath retains not only all the 
energy, which by this quality is peculiar to it, but also works 
with all the desired regularity, even with a sensitizing bath 
highly charged with alcohol and ether. , 

The alcohol and ether of a bath become old by use ; being 
the only obstacle to the regular action of the bath of pure I 
concentrated solution of sulphate of iron, it would seem 
natural that, to cause it to disappear, it woidd only be i 
necessary to warm the bath. The heat ought, in fact, to 
expel these two fluids. This method has been pointed out, 
but we have not had recourse to it ; it seems to us too radical, 
if not suicidal. A bath which has become good by use is 
a thing too precious to allow us to decide upon submitting 
it to so violent a torment, exercised upon principles as yet 
but little known, and the association of which is, moreover, 
full of mystery. We preserve, therefore, the bath just as use 
has made it ; but if, to sensitize the plate, we leave it its 
alcohol and ether, there is no objection to removing them 
from the collodion film when it has been impressed by light, 
which we effect in the following manner. 

The plate on being removed from the camera obscura is 
placed flat on the bottom of a dish containing sufficient rain 
or distilled water to cover it completely. 

We then give a rocking motion to the dish, and continue 
it until the water flows freely over the film, which it does as 
soon as the greasy aspect disappears. The plate is next 
placed on the tripod, levelled, and covered with a weak 
solution of nitrate of silver (strength two per cent.), and this 
is allowed to act for a minute at most. At the expiration of 
this time we lift the plate and pour off the silver solution 
into a beaked measure, and allow the plate to draiu 
thoroughly. Meanwhile, we have ready a flat bottomed dish 
containing the concentrated solution of sulphate of iron, to 
the depth of half an inch. Holding the plate by one comer, 
we place it vertically upon the bottom of the dish, and /</ 
the aajne moment drop it, by means of a hook, into the iron 
solution without the slightest hesitation or pause: it must 
be allowed to remain two or three seconds and then lifted 
out ; if it has been exposed the right time, the image will 
appear with all its details. 

FEBBUABT27, 1863.] 



It will also be understood, that if the concentrated bath 
pofisesscs sufficient energy to cause all the details of the 
image thus to appear instautaneously, the proportion of 
silver is too feeble to gire the desired intensity of tone. A 
new dose of silver must now be made to react upon the free 
sulphate of iron which covers the plate. To tnis end, the 
plate being partially drained, is again placed on the tripod, 
and inclinea at a certain angle, and by the opposite corner 
pour quickly over it the silver solution rcscrvea in the beaked 
measure. The silver solution must be made to flow over the 

Slate as quickly and as evenly as possible, and repeatedly 
aring several seconds, in order to facilitate and equalise the 
reaction. Immediately the blacks, which were very feeble, 
become strengthened in an extraordinary degree, and all the 
details gradually appear. In this case, the action is not 
instantaneous; we can continue it daring three or four 
seconds, and it very seldom happens after the expiration 
of this lap#e of time that the development is incom- 
plete. However, if we wish for a still greater intensity of 
tone, we can drain the plate again, submit it for the second 
time to the developing oath, and a third time to the silver 
solution, and so on until the contrasts between the blacks 
and whites is satisfactory. But, we repeat, if the time of 
exposure has not been unreasonably short, and if the sensi- 
tizing bath be quite neutral, a first strengthening of the 
image will generally be found sufficient. 

In the case where, by insufficient exposure, the negative 
remains weak, we can repeat several times the methodical 
strengthening with sulphate of iron and nitrate of silver, 
without exposing the picture to the thickening too freauently 
observed when employing pyrogallic acid ; only, as the film 
too feebly impressed by light in the camera has not suf- 
ficient strength to retain the silver decomposed by the sul- 
phate, it forms a pulverulent deposit which, by its mechanical 
adherence to the film, opposes itself to the ulterior electrical 
deposit, the only one capable of forming the image. In these 
conditions the defects of the photographic impression are 
manifested by a crowd of little white or gre^ points. We 
may avoid this defect by first filtering the iron bath, and 
also by washing the plate in pure water, in order to free it 
from every mechanical deposit, before submitting it to the 
two per cent, silver solution. If we have care to take these 
precautions for cleanliness at each alteration of the silver 
and iron solutions, it will very often be possible to bring 
oat a good picture from an under-exposed plate, which at 
fitst we migat have despaired of. 

The electrical action in photogenic phenomena, of which 
we have spoken in a preceding article, appears to us 
particularly evident during the development with sulphate 
of iron. Upon the decomposition of the nitrate of silver by 
this metallic salt, an electncal current is established, possess- 
ing very great energy, which ceases immediately the decom- 
position is accomplished. By the effect of the imperfect 
couductibility of the bodies brought into contact, the dura- 
tion of this decomposition is appreciable, and it is during 
this interval that the silver carried by its excess of elec- 
tricity fixes itself upon the impressed iodide. This free elec- 
tricity of the silver reacts upon the natural electricity of the 
iodide, or, rather, it combines with the opposite electricity 
of this body, rendered free by the action of light. Whatever 
it be, some molecules of silver, however attenuated, would 
never 6x themselves upon the iodide of the film if they were 
not solicited on their own excess of free electricity ; what 
proves this is, that upon the appearance of the image through 
the action of the sulphate ot iron, there is a considerable 
excess of silver reduced, while a very minimum quantity is 
retained by the plate ; only that which is in contact with 
the iodide impressed by light, the remainder, which is found 
outside the sphere of the electrical activity of the iodide 
lemains in the bath, where its electricity is dissipated. If, 
therefore, we desire a new deposit of silver to take place, a 
fresh quantity of electricity must be disengaged, and this 
we always obtain when practising the artifice of strengthen- 
ing as we have dcscribea it. 

{To be eonthttisd.) 


BT M. BERTHAin).* 

This process does not differ in principle from that in ordi- 
nary use with chloride of silver. It consists, likewise, in 
impregnating the paper with a soluble chloride, which is 
transformed into chloride of silver, in exposing a paper thus 
prepared beneath a negative, and in fixing and toning. I do 
not enter into lengthy details, as the manipulations are 
nearly all the same as m the ordinary process. 

I prefer the papier dt Saxe ; evenness of substance is 
not absolutely necessary, but sheets having spots of iron 
must be rejected. 

The first preparation of the paper consists in impregnating 
it with a soluble chloride : it is immersed or floated in the 
following solution. 

Alcohol (Se**) 100 parts 

Benzoin ... ... ... ... 10 „ 

Chloride of calcium 5 „ 

The most expeditious method consists in taking a dozen 
sheets of paper, and immersing them one by one in the bath, 
with the aia of a glass rod ; when a certain quantity is im- 
mersed they are all turned in a heap, and withdrawn one by 
one, then hung up to dry. 

The improvement effected by the benzoin consists in com- 
pletely stopping the pores of the paper : air and moisture 
can no longer penetrate the proofs, which are thus protected 
from the principal, if not the only source of deterioration. 
The benzoin also imparts the gloss of albumen to the paper, 
but in a less degree. 

This chlorided paper will keep a long time ; it is sensi- 
tized by being placea in contact with the following bath. 

Water 100 parts 

Nitrate of silver 15 „ 

If it is desired to keep the sensitized paper a long time, it 
must be placed in a box with chloride of calcium. 

The exposure under a negative is shorter than with albu- 
menized paper : the proof is printed deeper than required 
ultimately. If the exposure is continued a long time, the 
blacks become dark green, but this need give no concern, as 
the toning bath restores the blacks. 
For toning I employ M. Bayard*s formula. 

Water 1000 parts 

Chloride of gold 1 

Sal Ammoniac 20 

Hyposulphite of soda 4 

Or the acetate bath : 

Water 1000 parts 

Chloride of gold 1 „ 

Acetate of soda 30 „ 

Or any other toning bath. 

: The proofs rapidly assume a black tone, which is ob- 
tained with difficulty on albumenized paper. 
They are fixed in 

Water 100 parts 

Hyposulphite of soda 20 „ 

When the proofs are well washed they are left to dry, then 
rubbed with a tuft of cotton wool, or a piece of flannel, to 
impart lustre. It must evidently be useless to varnish them. 
— BuUetin de la Sociitii Franqaise de PhotograpMc 




Grand Soiree, Exhibition, and Conversazione. 


The above interesting and long looked-for Soirte took place^ on 
Feb. 19th, undor the auspices of tho Council of the Association, 
in the Merchants' Hall : about 400 members and friends 

• M. Bertrand first published his process in Paris, Just prior to the pu)>li- 
eationof Mr. Cooper's ; both gentlemen havlDg been apparenUy enerimentiug 
in paiallel directions. We should, however, recommend Mr. Cooper's la^t 
improved formula as the best. 



[Fkbruam 27, 1863. 

assembled, but bad the hall been able to accommodate twice the 
numbdr, it is probable that it would have been filled, the demand 
for tickets being: so great ; but the Council deemed it better to 
limit the number to ns many as could be comfortably accommo- 
dated. It would bo well if this example were more often 
followed, for the practice is too general of issuing twice as many 
tickets as there is accommodation for, and the crush and squeez- 
ing often entirely spoils the pleasure of the meeting. 

The handsome hsill was decorated with an extensive and choice 
collection of photographs by the most celebrated artists of Eng- 
land and Scotland, also a quantity of apparatus contributed by 
Dallmeyer, Ross and other distinguished makers. 

The meeting was presided over by Professor Allen Thomson, 
M. D., F.R.S., who was supported on the platform by Dr. Taylor, 
Dr. Penny, Dr. Rainy, Professor Wallace, Professor Blackburn, 
Jabez Hughes, Esq. (of London), E. Brace, Esq., A. Mactear^Esq., 
J. Stuart, Esq., A. Macnab, Esq., J. Jex Long, Esq., J. Spencer, 
Esq., and other gentlemen. 

The proceedings of the evening commenced with a bountiful 
service of tea and coffee, an efficient band of music meanwhile 
enlivening the companv with popular quadrilles, and operatic 
selections. Tea concluded, 

The Chairman, Dr. Allen Thomson, apologized for the un- 
avoidable absence of the President, and congratulated the 
association on their excellent attendance and splendid display, 
and trusted they would heartly enjoy themselves. He maintained 
that that association represented one of the " Wonders of the 
Age " — Photography. It was an art as remarkable for its rapid 
rise and progress as for the deep and subtle scientific principles 
on which it was based. It had arisen, not only in our own 
time, but almost under the eyes of the youngest amongst us. 
But a few years since, it was the latest marvel of science, and 
now it was practised everywhere. The early examples of the art 
were costly and imperfect, obtainable only by persons of means ; 
its progress, however, had been marked by a series of rapid 
strides, and each step of progress has not only improved, but 
cheapened it ; so that now, in its highest degree of perfection, 
it was within the reach of all. Thus had this philosophical 
wonder become almost a daily necessity, and, ministering to 
our feelings and afiections, it was equally appreciated and patron- 
ized by the highest and the humblest in the land. He continued : 

There is a combination of science and art — of fine art and the 
highest taste — that secures approval for photography wherever 
it goes, and makes it one oi the most delightful occupations 
that can be followed. I think it may be viewed in various 
aspects. I take first that which suggests itself the most readily 
to the mind and heart, its social aspect. Where is the house 
you enter now that you do not find portraits of beloved friends 
and valued scenes, remembrances of every description by the 
photog^phic art ? Who is there now who has not his large 
album of cartes de visite, or his small and cherished collection ? 
A friend of mine gave me an illustration of this the other day. 
He met an old woman, and he asked her about her children. 
"Where," said he, "is Maggie, where is Betty, and where is Tom, 
and so on ?" Well, he got an account of them all. Tom was 
gone to Australia ; Maggie was married, and gone to Canada ; 
and Betty was gone to New Zealand. " But," said the old 
woman, " here they are all in my pocket." (Laughter.) " I 
will show you their husbands, and Tom's wife and oaims, and 
I have got pictures of the cottage which they have just built, 
and the place is beautiful." This is a simple picture of what 
occurs in almost every family of the present day. I say it is a 
picture of the social aspect of this art of the most agreeable 
and delightful description. (Applause.) 

The Chairman then alluded to the general improvement in 
taste, and this he attributed to a considerable extent to the 
influence of photography. No doubt such great Exhibitions as 
those of 1861 and 1862 produced powerful influence, but to this 
art must the greater effect be due, and no more striking proof 
could be given than the almost entire suppression of miniature 
painting, and the commoner form of oil painted portraits. These 
were avowedly ill-drawn, even when well painted, and at best 
unsatisfactory representations, and he had no hesitation in say- 
ing, that even an ordinary photograph of the present day, by 
virtue of its truthfulness and accuracy, stood higher as a work 
of art, and was of more real value to its possessor, than many of 
the costlv and pretentious productions of days past. Some 
persons objected to photographic portraits because they did not 
make more pleasing likenesses ; this he thought was more often 
attributed to the sitters themselves than photography, for it 
must be remembered that it was the person himself who pro- 

duced the expression that was copied on the plate. Ho thoup^ht 
this subject was likely to engage the attention of the public 
more than it had done, as he found many persons who really 
did study the pose and expression, with the view to aid the 
artist and secure a better photograph. Still, for his part, ho was 
a great advocate for truth, and if the frown was habitual on tho 
brow, he did not see why it should not be on the photograph too. 
(Cheers.) It was to be regretted that doubts still existed as to 
the ultimate permanency of the prints. Tet as so much advance 
had been made, he doubted not that science would speedily solve 
this problem, and that the certain stability of the prints would 
be one of the earliest improvements recorded. Allusion was 
then made to the usefulness of photography in fostering and 
diflusing a taste for the filnearts by reproducing, for compara- 
tively trifling sums, copies of the celebrated statues of antiquity, 
of the pictures of the best masters, of the choicest examples of 
the architecture of all lands, as well as some of the most beanti- 
ful and interesting scenes in Nature. 

After alluding to the utility of photography in cqpying objects 
in natural history, historical monuments, rare manuscripts, &c., 
he enjoined the company not to neglect the opportunity of a 
close inspection of the exquisite works before them, as it might 
be long before they again nad so favourable an occasion. 

The band now performed a variety of popular airs and a 
choral party sang quartettes. 

Mr. E. Brace (Hon. Secretary to the association) delivered 
a very interesting address, in which, idfter alluding to the rise 
and progress of the art, he contrasted it twenty years ago. when 
practised only by Claudet and Beard, to its present diffusion, 
where almost every village has its professional artist. 

He had been at some pains to collect a few statistics on the 
subject. He found by consulting the Directories, that in London 
there were 194 professional photographers ; in Liverpool 51, 
Manchester 49, Glasgow 88, Edinburgh 83, and Aberdeen 16. 
He was aware that these figures very much understated the 
real numbers, as there were many photographers whose names 
were not in the Directory, yet even these showed that there 
were nearly 400 photographers in the three principal cities of 
England and Scotland. But this did not represent in any 
degree the number of persons employed ; as, in every establish- 
ment there are several assistants. 

In one establishment in London, there were last season nearly 
100 hands engaged, and in many the number were over 50. 
He proposed to assume on an average, that there were ten 
assistants, this would show 4,000 persons employed. The wages 
earned varied considerably, according to skill and ability, but 
if each were paid £1 per week, this estimate would show that 
nearly a quarter of a million sterling was paid per annum as 
wages for photographic assistants. These figures, however, let 
it be understood, bear reference, not to the United Kingdom, 
but only to the three principal cities of England and Scotland, 
and therefore gave but a very imperfect sketch of the real 
number of persons employed in photography, or of its value as 
an industrial art. As an enormous quantity of gold and silver 
was consumed in the production of photographs, he had en- 
deavoured to get an approximate idea of the amount. He had 
put himself into communication with two of the largest hoases 
in the trade, and from the data supplied, he found that during 
1862, there were 152,216 ounces of metallic silver consumed, 
nearly 4^ tons of the precious metal. So large an amount might 
be supposed to influence the currency, fortunately, as yet, it had 
not done so. This silver was converted into upwards of 
240,000 ounces of nitrate.* He had endeavoured to form some 
idea of how many pictures could be produced by this amount of 
nitrate of silver. Hero ho entered more into the region of sur- 
mise, but he took it for granted, that, though a good deal of this 
nitrate of silver was consumed in the production of negatives, 
yet that the great proportion was employed in sensitizing tho 
paper. He thought no was also justified in assuming, that 
during the past season the bulk of this nitrate was used in tho 
production of cartes de visite. By a comparison of notes with 
an eminent photographic friend, based on the number of 
grains of nitrate of silver required to sensitize a whole sheet of 
paper, and the number of cartes de visite that could be produced 
by this whole sheet, he had come to the conclusion, making 

only, and 
>bable that 


* As Mr. Brace derived his data from two wholesale bouses 
one of these is not by any means the largest manafactarer, it is prol 
the amount is much undentated. Perhaps 600,000 ounoes of nitrate of silrer 
would he a more accurate estimate, but allowance must be made for a oon- 
siderable quantity of the precious metal that Is recovered firom cuttings and 
waste •olutions.— lEo, P.l<. 

Febbuaet 27, 1868.] 



allowance for the small proportionate amount required to pro- 
duce the negative, that each carte picture represented a grain 
of nitrate of silver consumed in its production. If, then, every 
grain of nitrate of silver represented a card picture, this amount 
of silver would show the enormous number of 105,441,129 
pictures produced during 1862 ; and further, if one shilling bo 
taken as the average paid for each of the pictures, it will be 
seen that photographers have received no loss than £5,272,064 
odd, for their productions during the past year. He also found 
irom the data supplied by these two wholesale houses that, to 
improve the tone of their pictures, and give them increased 
permanence, photographers had consumed during the year 
past 8,000 ounces of metallic gold, which, at £3 Os. Qd. per ounce, 
represented £9,075. Although the conclusions he had drawn 
could only be regarded as approximate, yet they would show 
the enormous scale upon which this art was practised. This 
would also be established by the large sums that were allowed 
by the refiners for the clippings, cuttings, and waste solutions 
of some of the principal London photographers. He found 
that sums so large as £200, £800, and even £400 had been 
paid during the year for these waste products. 

Mr. Brace then proceeded to call attention to the more re- 
Dcarkable pictures exhibited on the walls. There was first the 
large view of the Broomielaw by their President, Mr. Kibble. 
This picture was taken several years since, and the character 
it then held of being the largest photograph ever taken is still 
maintained, for no one had since taken a picture so large. The 
size of the negative was about 44 inches by 86 inches, and he 
was pleased to say it was as perfect as it was large. There were 
also many of Mr. Kibble's instantaneous views, which were most 
perfect examples of that branch of the art. There were also the 
exquisite landscapes of their townsman, Mr. Annan, which would 
bear advantageous comparison with the works of the best artists 
in that line. Attention should be given to two perfect pictures 
by a Glasgow amateur, Mr. Church, which had had prizes 
awarded to them in London for their excellence. They had 
aUo a beantifiil winter scene ; a prize picture, too, by the Earl 
of Caithness, who had shone in photography as in other branches 
of practical science. There were also excellent examples of the 
ikill of their local artists, in coloured and other portraits, parti- 
cularly the popular cartes do visite of Messrs. White, Douglas, 
Macnab, Stuart, Bowman, Alexander, and others. There is 
another department in which, considering the smoky, foggy, 
atmosphere of this city, we could never expect our artists to 
shine, and yet to Qlasgow had been awarded the palm for ex- 
cellence in solar camera pictures. On the walls they would see the 
preriuctionsof Mr. Stuart. Someof these were on exhibition now in 
London, and they had there been acknowledged to be unequalled. 
Bat sunless, smoky Glasgow has more than one artist destined 
to shine in this branch. Since Mr. Stuart's works have been 
seen and admired, Mr. Douglas has also exhibited a solar 
picture ; it is on the walls to-night for you to admire ; and if 
this be bat his first attempt, as 1 understand it is, considering 
the known skill and ability of the artist, I ask, what may we 
not hereafter expect from him ? Among the strangers, they 
had some excellent Scotch views by Roger Fenton, scenes in 
Egypt and the Holy Land by Frith, Roman views by Macpher- 
Bon, and Venetian by Ponti. 

Mr. Brace then* alluded to his own experience as an amateur ; 
he had had much pleasure in practising this fascinating art, 
bat he had too little time to devote to it. He had had his 
troubles and difficulties like all others, but whenever he got 
into a mess he had only to go to one of the professional 
brethren, who were always ready with advice and assistance. 
As an amateur, he tendered his thanks to the profession for 
their readiness always to open the stores of knowledge accu- 
mulated by their dailv experience, for the benefit of persons 
who. like himself, had little time to make experiments or mature 
improvements. He had also great pleasure in bearing testi- 
mony to the excellent feeling that animated the profesaional 
brethren. They met in the Society, read papers, and compared 
experiences, and with an utter absence of trade rivalry and 
jealousy, seemed animated only with the feeling to improve 
each other and advance the art. 

After some more music, the Chairman invited the company 
to leave their seats and examine the pictures exhibited. He 
also desired them to descend in small parties to the hall below, 
where Dr. Taylor's Photographic Diorama was fitted up. This 
exhibition, invented by Dr. Taylor, kite Professor at the Ander- 
wnian University, has already been described in the Photo- 
G&4PHIC News, Vol. VI. p. 608, andpatsm^ 

Among the views exhibited was one that created a great sen- 
sation, " The Governor's House, Calcutta," as seen with the 
crowds of natives in front, on the occasion of reading the Peace 
Proclamation. The picture is first seen in sunlight, then illu- 
minated at night with the coloured lamps on the scafiblding in 
front of the house, then the display of fireworks and rockets 
produced a most marvellous effect. A view of Bowling Bay, 
with the shipping, was very pretty, especially when seen under 
a variety of atmospheric effects ; but perhaps the most remark- 
able was a view of Holyrood, first seen in broad sunshine, then 
twilight, then moonlight, and finally a torch-light procession 
of pritists in full canonicals, bearing* the Host, completes the 
illusive and romantic scene. The exhibition of the Diorama 
was superintended by the Doctor himself, to whom the thanks 
of the Association is due for this interesting portion of the even- 
ing's entertainment. He was ably assisted by Messrs. Macnab 
and Bowman. 

After the interval allotted to the examination of the pictures, 
&c., the company re-assembled, and after being regaled with a 
service of fruit, the music playing the while, their attention 
was called to an exhibition of the electric light by Mr. J. W. 
Stone, preceded by a brief lecture by Professor Wallace, de- 
scriptive of the peculiarities of the light. After a few illastra- 
tions of its intense power, with and without the reflector, the 
most interesting photographic feature of the evening occurred, 
the attempt in the presence of the audience to take a photo- 
graph by the electric light. The necessary apparatus being all 
at hand and a plate prepared by Mr. Mactear, the electric light, 
by the aid of the reflector, was thrown on a wall covered with 
photographic pictures. Great doubt was expressed whether 
the light was intense enough to produce a negative in any 
reasonable time ; twenty seconds' exposure was tried, and in a 
very few minutes the word was passed to the Chair that the 
picture was perfectly successful. It was then proposed to try 
a more interesting object, a portrait. Another plate being pre- 
pared, Mr. Jabez Hughes was requested to sit quite steady, and 
with the audience on-looking, the portrait was duly attempted. 
Some thirty or forty seconds were given, and after a few 
minutes the gratifying intelligence came tliat the portrait was 
all right, but rather over-exposed. The dripping negative was 
speedily passed from hand to hand and declared to be a great 

The Chairman then called on Mr. Hughes as a gentleman 
formerly known as a successful practitioner amongst them, but 
now present as a guest for a few words. 

Mr. Jabez Hughes responded with a short enthusiastic 
address, comparing photography in Glasgow to what it was 
when ho first came among them, when there was only one 
besides himself practising professionally. He also compli- 
mented the Association on the high position they held among 
photographic societies, and their great success was the more 
gratifying to him as ho was one of the founders of the first 
Glasgow Photographic Society, and had had the honour of con- 
tributing the first pap^r ever read to them. 

Mr. Macteab delivered a humorous and amusing narrative 
of the many comic mishaps to which newly-fiedged photo- 
graphers are subject, which excited great amusement and 

An exhibition of photographs in the magic lantern followed, 
the slides being principally England's beautiful views in 
Paris, Canada, the United States, and particularly Niagara 

During the interval that had elapsed from taking the electric 
light negatives, some of the friends had copied them as trans- 
parencies, and these were exhibited in the lantern and formed 
an important finale to the exhibition. The unexpected appear- 
ance of these pictures on the screen caused the greatest delight, 
especially the portrait of Mr. Jabez Hughes, wluch called forth 
rounds of applause. 

It will be seen that the programme for the evening was of an 
exceedingly varied and pleasing character, and the entertain- 
ment from first to last gave universal satisfaction. 

Thus closed the most brilliant and successful mcetino^ ever 
held among the photographers of the West ot Scotland, and 
the greatest credit and honour is duo to the Glasgow Phote- 
graphic Association for providing so interesting a meeting and 
setting such an excellent example to other photographic 



[February 27, 1863. 



As I haye been requited to give the same subject before the 
Society of Arts, I shall this evening dwell upon the artistic 
section of my series, concerning such subjects as Kaulbach's 
"Reynard the Fox," and the pictures of Hogarth and Schnorr, 
more in accordance with the taste of this society— while on 
the 14th inst. I shall g^ve my entire series of scientific objects, 
as being completely suited for the members of a society that 
have always been ready to promote scientific educational appli- 


Gbolooical. — Penrhyn Slate Quarries — Silurian Formation. 
The Crater of Etna — Volcanic, Pal.»ontolooical. — Fossil 
Pterodactyle of the Solenhofen Limestone. — Rbstobations of 
Pterodactyle, by Waterhouse Hawkins — of the Wealden Epoch, 
by Professor Unger. Botanical. — Phyteleptaa Maerocarpus, or 
the Ivory Palm — Group of Japenese Fruit.* Zoological. — 
Fredericella Sultana (Folgzoa) — Sepia Officianalie, or Guttle Fish 
(Cephalopoda) — Rhizostoma Cuverii^ or Jelly Fish (Hydrozoa). 
AsTBONOMicAL. — The Moon at full. Ethnological. — ^A J apa- 
nese Family.* Osteological. — Skull of European. Micbo- 
SCOPICAL. — Pinnularia (Diatomacea) — Flea of the Hedgehog — 
Parasite of the Flea of the Hedgehog — Acaris of the Hedgehog 
— Acaris of the Sparrow — Section of Tooth of Labyrinthodon. 
Geogbaphical. — ^Views of the Falls of Niagara ffrom the nega- 
tives of Mr. England). Biogbaphical. — The Princess Alex- 


KaulbaeJCs Illustrations to ''Reynard the Fox.'* 

Goethe's poem of '* Reine he Fuchs " was thus epitomised by 
Mr. Highley. 

View 1. King Noble the Lion summons all animals, both great 
and small, to his court at the Feast of Whitsuntide. 2. Key- 
nard the Fox,con8ciousof evil doings, thinks it better to stay at 
home and enjoy his otium cum dignitate. 8. Sir Isegrim the 
Wolf, Frizepate the Poodle, Tybalt the Cat, and Fang the 
Panther, all bear witness against their neighbour Reynard, but 
Greybeard, the Badger, bis nephew, and only friend at Court, 
swears that Reynard is leading a most irreproachable life, and 
that his accusers were themselves accomplices in his former 
misdeeds. Unfortunately, Chanticleer the Cock arrives with a 
fresh grievance, and the body of his favourite daughter Grey- 
leg, who has been foully garotted unto death by Reynard. 4. 
The Cock depicts how Reynard, with sanctified mien, gained 
access to the bosom of his lamily ere he treacherously betrayed 
his trust. 5. The King sends Bruin the Bear to summons Rey- 
nard to answer for this crime. 6. Reynard, however, on the 
way, leads Bruin into a trap by raising visions of unlimited 
honey in the hollow of a tree, and makes his way home, while 
Bruin meets with an overpowering reception. 7. King Noble, 
greatly enraged at his first ambassador's mishap, sends Tybalt 
to command Reynard's attendance, trusting that Wit and 
Wisdom might accomplish what Strength failed in. 8. Tybalt 
fares no better, and Greybeard undertakes to bring him before 
the King by force — of persuasion. To him Reynard makes 
confession, of how he led Isegrim to commit a fowl murder, and 
thus take a false step in life. 9. Reynard brought to trial, un- 
able to contend against the charges brought against him by 
bird and beast, is condemned to death. 10. But, in his last 
dying speech and confession, Reynard turns the tables on his 
enemies, and by a story of buried treasure, of which he induces 
Puss, the timid hare, to swear he knows the hiding-plaCe, 
manages to gull the King, and save his own neck. 11. Having 
thus risen in royal favour, and secured the imprisonment of his 
foes, he determines to make a pilgrimage to get out of harm's 
way, and receives an earnest exhortation uom Bellyn, the 
Prelate Ram. 12.t Bellyn and Puss accompany him on the 
wa^, and inducing the latter to pay his wife a lying-in visit at his 
residence in the cave of Malepartus, he cannot resist the temp- 
tation of making a meal of his unsuspecting victim. 12. Bellyn, 
unaware of the late of his companion, is induced by Reynard to 
take back a missive to the King, which proves to be (when the 

* Continued trom p. 93. 

t Irom the negativst of Meiin. Nsgrttti and Zambra. 

wallet is opened) the head of poor Puss. King Noble in his 
wrath, sacrifices Bellyn as a peace-offering to Bruin and Ise- 
grim, whom he releases from prison instanter. 18. The Court 
holds a festival to do homage to Bruin and Isegrim, who arc 
reinstated in royal favour. 14. Reynard again induced by 
Greybeard to go to Court to clear his character, takes a tender 
farewell of his family. 16. Dame Ruckenaw, the She Ape, and 
favourite monthly nurse in the King's family, pleads Reynard's 
cause. 16. Reynard applies the fable of the Ass, the Man, and 
the Spaniel to his own case. 17. And reminds the King of how 
his father, who was in the medical profession, through his skill, 
saved the life of the King's sire. 18. And relates how his arch 
enemy, Isegrim, got himself into trouble, in the baboon's den, 
by using uncourteous language io her and her family. Id. 
Isegrim having challenged Reynard to mortal combat, Reynard 
prepares himself, both inwardly and outwardly, for the en- 
counter, under the guidance of Dame Ruckenaw. 20. In the 
contest (by means oi his tail, moistened and draggled on the 
ground), throws dust in the eyes of his enemy, till having 
blinded him, he falls upon him tooth and nail, and thus gains 
the victory over Isegrim. 21. Being victorious, all the beasts, 
of course^ hail Reynard as conqueror : some Ass recites an odo : 
lauding his mental, moral, and bodily excellencies ; and even 
the ladies look upon him with eyes of favour. 22. King Noble 
confers upon him the highest dignities of the animal kingdom. 
23. During which time Isegrim, surrounded by his family and 
friends, suffers mortal agony. 24. Reynard, overpowered with 
honours, retires into the joys of domestic life. 

" The Life of Christ," from Schnorr's " Bible Pictures," 
Hogarth's " Good and Idle Apprentices," and Hogarth's 
** Finis," concluded the series. 

Beyond the department I have specially dwelt upon this 
evening, I may say a few words upon the Educational value 
of Stereographs, but only a few words, for every one most 
have felt their value, but, unfortunately, they have never been 
published in a systematic form, so as to give them a true value 
for the purposes of scientific instruction, but if systematically 
produced, the Schoolmaster, the Provincial Lecturer, and the 
Professor of Natural History, might bring many unique spe- 
cimens, scattered through the museums of the world, within 
the ken of their pupils ; in fact, the treasures of our British 
Museum might be carried in a professor's coat pocket. Such 
productions ought to be accompanied by descriptive letter-press, 
and this leads mo to the application of photography to book 

I was one of the first — I believe the first — who applied photo- 
graphy in this direction, for, in 1852, 1 illustrated a paper in 
the "Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science," of which 
periodical I was the projector, and (at that time) proprietor, 
with an 8vo page plate, containing two enlarged photographs of 
microscopical objects, with the "imprints" exactly in counter- 
part of a lithographic, steel, or copper-plate print. 

These two subjects were printed at one operation, on a single 
Svo page of albumenized paper, in such a manner as to avoid the 
consumption of time and expense over the usual process of 
"mounting," a matter of great importance when a thousand 
copies had to be in the binder's hands on a given day. I subse- 
quently published a second book illustrated with photographic 
pktes, viz., an English edition of Dr. CJnger's beautiful work on 
the restoration of the fossil Flora and Fauna of the different 
geological epochs, bearing the title, "Ideal Views of the 
Primitive World." 

Having had some experience in this direction, I feel bound 
to state that we can never look to the present method of pro- 
ducing photographic prints, if we wish to apply the art to the 
purposes of book-illustration, for the cost of each print is too 
great for popular educational adaptation ; but there is a method 
to which I look with hope, viz., the photo-galvanographic pro- 
cess of Mr. Paul Pretsch. By this invention, the counterpart 
of wood blocks can be produced from a photographic negative ; 
and every publisher will, I think, back my assertion that thi^ 
is the right and principal direction in which experimentalists 
should work ; and I trust to see the day when Mr. raul Pretsch 's 
unwearied labours will be, as they deserve to be, crowned with 
complete success. For every bee in the great hive of science 
should sympathise with the labours of his fellow bee, while de- 
ploring that the awards and honours of the land fall too often 
to the share of the drones. In conclusion, I would say that 
every exploring expedition should be accompanied by its 
official photographer; that every national museum, observa- 
tory, and hospital should have ita appointed operator; and 

Fmruary 27, 1868.] 



then the hoped-for time may oome, when we can, in a systematic 
manner, place the records of scientific travel, the transcripts 
of Nature's treasures, and the history of the progress of lell 
disease, upon the screens of our lecture theatres, the stereo- 
graphs of our cabinets, and the pages of the books in our libraries. 

{To be ootUinued.) 


Thb usual monthly meeting of the society was held in Myddel- 
ton Han, on the evening of Thursday, February 18th ; Mr. G. 
Dawson in the chair. 

The minntes of a previous meeting having been read and 
confirmed, the following gentlemen were elected members of 
the Bocie^: — ^Messrs. Parsons, Smith, James Howe, and T. 

Some specimens of the alleged spirit photographs were 
ezanuned, and briefly discussed, the general impression being 
one of amusement at the clumsy imposture. 

Mr. Hill called the attention of members, to the advantages 
of focussing with plain glass instead of ground glass, a much 
ihuper image being obtained. 

Mr. Whabton Simpson said the method had often been 
recommended ; Professor Emerson had especially called repeated 
attention to the advantages of the method. It was necessary 
(o use a focussing glass, focussed upon the sur&ce of the glass 
by means of a scratch. The naked eye might easily be deceived 
by seeing the image through the clear, at a little distance 

Mr. Mabtik said, that Messrs. Home and Thomthwaite had 
long been in the habit of having a portion of the g^und glass 
quite clear, so as to get the most delicate portion of the image 
quite sharpe, magni^ng it with an inverting eye-piece. 

A desultory conversation on the subject followed, in which 
Mr. Simpson said an excited collodion plate was an excellent 
sobstitute for ground-glass, when that got accidentally broken. 
The Chairman remarked that nothing could be better, and it 
had the advantage of being always at hand. 

Mr. SQTTinB exhibited several fine pictures taken with Shep- 
herd b lenses, also some examples of metal printing frames, with 
&cilitieB for printing several card pictures in one frame ; and a 
Collman Sellers rolling press. 

Mr. Shadbolt exhibited a number of card portaits, some of 
vhich were by an amateur, some by Mr. Robinson, some by Mr. 
Bannister, and others by Mr. Wenderoth, of Philadelphia. Ho 
was induced to bring the latter pictures before the meeting 
again, because he feared the last time they were examined they 
•carcely received justice from being shown in the rough, 

Mr. SiMPSOK remarked, that at their best estate they were 
not very good ; they were very hard, and devoid of half tone. 
They were not a fair sample of American photography, which 
was usually very good. 

The Chairman said they were certainly hard and poor, not 
equal to some of the amateur pictures then before them. 

The specimens by Mr. Bcmnister were produced, it was ex- 
plained, from negatives on curved glass. 

Mr. Hill said that probably accounted for the distortion 
observable in the background objects. 

Mr. Shadbolt said he thought the curve was so slight, only 
one-tenth of an inch rise in the middle of the plate, that it 
would not produce any perceptible change in the lines. He 
thought Mr. Hill was deceived by the ugly ill-drawn back- 
ground. Anything more hideous he had never seen. 

The Chaumak said with respect to the curvature of the 
glass, twelve months ago Mr. Koss had tried hard to induce 
photographers to use such plates, but he (the Chairman) had 
always felt that they would not willingly use anything which 
involved much extra trouble. It was certainly a pity that 
since the distortion and astigmation introduced by the en- 
deavour to produce flat fields could be got rid of by using a 
curved glass, that photographers would not do it. 

After some farther conversation, and some routine business 
m nomination of officers to be elected next month, 

Mr. Rbjlandeb, having apologized for not being prepared 
with a proper paper, read some desultory observations on " Art- 
Photopirai^y, illustrating his remarks by some very fine photo 
graphic art studies, which were examined with much interest, 
mt which the proceedings terminated. 


In proceeding to some brief considerations of those contributions in 
Glass XIV., vhich possess especial interest, the Juir feel it important to 
state that the limits of this Report preclude the possibilltj of anj extended 
notice of even the most meritorious worlcs, and to add, tliat silence in refer- 
ence to anj contribution must not be understood as neoessarilj implying anj 
want of merit in the work, or of interest on the part of the Jurors, their 
obtJect in the following comments being chieflj to direct attention to such 
contributions as, apart from their individual merit, are possessed of features 
Interesting to the public, or to those Interested in the art, either profession- 
ally or as amateurs. 

AppAmiTVS, Ac. 

To commence with the means, before entering on results, we shall refer to 
the apparatus first, and here it is necessary to say, that the high excellence 
ci the photographic appliances in the British department was worthy of 
every commendation. 

The uniformity of this excellence was such as to present some embarrass- 
ment to the Jury, and they felt it impossible to make a distinction by award- 
ing a medal to any, whilst every contribution was worthy of honouxable men- 
tion. They have plea.%ure here, therefore, iu recording the fiitct, that it was 
rather ftrom equality of excellence, than from Inferiority in any respect, that 
medals were not awarded to apparatus in the British department of 
Class XIV. 

XJiriTSD KoroDOM. 

8033 AusTBV, W. (H. M.)~This contributor is the inventor and manufac- 
turer of improved rolling machines for closing the fibre of the paper upon 
which the photograph is printed, and giving it an ivory-like appearance ; 
also of camera-stands made of iron with universal motions, t^ether with 
various iron head-rests. The advantages claimed for iron over wood con- 
sists in its freedom firom warping or shrinking in changes of temperature, 
and in securing rigiditv and firmness without cumbersome bulk. The 
rolling presses exhibited appear to be singularly well made and efficient. 
The bed, instead of consisting, as is usual, of a plate of steel ikstened on 
wood, is of one solid piece of cast steel. The head-rests are provided with 
ball-and-socket Joints, which aflbrd great facility of adjustment. One of the 
rests for standing figures is provided with a support for the back as well as the 
head, which materially contributes to comfort and firmness whilst standing 
for a portrait The contributor deserves commendation alike for the in- 
genuity of his applications, and the excellence of workmanship in his appa- 

3043 Bland and Co. (H. M.).— This firm exhibit a variety of cameras, 
baths, shutters, vessels, Ac, which are made with an especial view to the 
changes of temperature and other trying conditions found in India and 
other tropical climates. Not simply in the designs and in the perfect season- 
ing of the raw materials is this puipose remembered, but in the mode of 
workmanship, kc, glue not being relied upon for the adhesion of the parts, 
an excellent universal camera is shown which may be used for stereoscopic 
pictures, or album portraits ; it may be employed in the field as well as in 
the glass room, being equipped with a series of frames for dry plates, as well 
as with the usual appliances for wet processes. The camera is provided 
with an arrangement for sliding the lenses inside, for the convenience of 
packing : a convenient and portable chemical chest accompanies the camera. 
The water-tight bath exhibited has the cover conveniently attached, which 
prevents the chances of mislaying ; at the bottom of the mahogany outer 
case is an opening which permits the contents of the glass bath to be ex- 
amined. An ingenious Instantaneous shutter, closing with a spring, is also 
exhibited ; and a variety of other cameras, Ac., combining many improve- 
ments with good quality and handsome design. 

Messrs. Blakd and do., as wholesale agents, exhibit the only collodion to 
which a Medal was awarded, that of Mr. Pomtivo of Bristol (3136). This 
collodion, on trial by the Jury, fully bore out the reputation It has obtained 
amongst practical photographers as extremely rapid, and giving very perfect 
delicate negatives, fkill of half tone and brilliancy. The stability of this 
collodion is a feature to which the Jurors call especial attention. At the 
period when the trial was made, the sensitive collodion had been prepared 
some months ; and as some of the members had been in the habit of using 
the same prejMuation, they were enabled, by their individual experience, to 
confirm and endorse ^e results of the trial then made as to the high 
character for sensitiveness and stability of this collodion. 

3047 BouaquiH and Co. (H. M.).— A varieU of cameras and camera-stands, 
albums, Ac. are exhibited by this firm. The camera-stands are good in 
design and workmanship. A large camera, combining a multiplicity of 
objects, being suited for copying and enlargements as well as for ordinary 
purposes, and extending from four and a half to forty inches, possesses 
many excellent qualities. The albums by this firm are superior In design 
material, and manufticture, the tint of the paper giving the best efl'ect to 
the photographs mounted therein. 

3053 Bull, J. T. and O. (U. M.).— A variety of pictorial backgrounds and 
profiles ; accessories chiefiy intended for use in the production of carte de 
visite portraits ; they demand attention firom the variety of the designs and 
from the novel application of the art of the scene-painter as an auxiliary to 
that of the photc^irapher. 

3064 Cox, F. J. (H. M.) contributes a variety of excellent apparatus, amongst 
which may be named an instantaneous shutter, which is placed between the 
anterior and posterior lenses of a portrait combination in contact with the 
central diaphragm ; a dark slide or "camera shield " which revolves and ex- 
poses alternately dilferent parts of one large plate, and permits several 
different pictures to be Uken on the same glass ; a plate containing seven- 
teen different portralU being exhibited as an illustration ; these portraits are 
glass positives of great brilliancy, and are stated to have been produced by 

• Continued from p. 68. 



[February 27, 1863. 

Vlaher's potftire collodion, and developed with a solution of proto-nitrate of 
Iron with formic acid. 

3069 Dallmeteb, J. H. (&Iedal).— The contrlbations of this exhibitor 
consist of a variety of photographic len»eii and apparatu.4. 

The lenses for the great excellence in which the Medal was awarded, con- 
sisted chieflj of double and triple achromatic combinations possessing novel 
features of great importance. The triple achromatic lens Invented by Mr 
Dallmever consists of three achromatic lenses, the front and back of which 
are positive, the central one being negative. In each of these combinations 
the combined surfaces are cement^, thus giving the same number of 
reflecting surfaces as the ordinary portrait lens. The negative central lens 
is of the exact form and power required to correct the central and eccentri- 
cal pencils, and this with full aperture. The triple lens is free from 
chromatic and spherical aberrations. The Images produced by this lens are 
quite free from distortion ; a wide angle of view, with good definition, is 
included by it for copying and architectural purposes it is especially 
valuable, giving perfectly straight lines, a flat field, and great equality of 
Illumination and definition. In the hands of the Jurors these qualities have 
been satisfactorily proved, and in the beautiful landscapes produced by this 
lens, and exhibited in the building, additional confirmation is obtained. 

Several quick-acting lenses, with flat field and fine definition, especially 
adapted for card portraits and other larger pictures have been invented by 
Mr. Dallmeyer. A double combination, especially designed for instantaneous 
stereoscopic views, and also a lens adapted for enlargements, specimens of 
which are exhibited by Mr. T. R. Williams (3182). 

The medal has been awarded for the introduction of novelties as well as 
for unsurpassed excellence of manufacture. 

Some excellent samples of apparatus, consisting of cameras. Instantaneous 
shutters, are also exhibited. A camera for carrying two stereoscopic lenses 
possesses a moveable front and diaphragm, which permits it also to be used 
with one lens for producing landscapes 7k by 4^. The use of the double 
rack and pinion for adjusting the focus by sliding the firont body of the 
camera is worthy of notice. 

3071 Divis, T S. (H. M ), contributes a photographic manipulating camera. 
It consists of a small chamber, with drapery to surround the operator, form- 
ing a dark tent ; the chamber is fitted with bath, dishes, and other requi- 
sites ; the lenses are attached to the front of the chamber, and the focus- 
sing screen Is fixed inside, the plate being withdrawn from the bath in titu, 
and exposed and developed without the operator leaving his position in the 
dark tent formed by the drapery attached to the chamber. This contrivance 
is in some respects similar to Archer's camera, and is very compact and 
convenient for operating in the field. 

3088 niRi, O. (H. M.) Cameras of very excellent quality, well seasoned 
and well made ; a portable stereoscopic camera and improved Kinnear's 
camera were both worthy of attention. Mr. Hare manoiiactares largely for 
the wholesale trade. 

3005 HiQHLET, S. (H. M.).— A variety of contributions are shown by this 
exhibitor, who received an award for the general excellence of his apparatus, 
consisting of a photo-micrographic camera for taking enlarged photographs 
of microscopic objects ; a photographer's actinometer, by which the time of 
exposure required in a given light of any class of objects, may be tested ; a 
new form of dropping bottle for nitrate of silver ; solutions, acids, kc ; an 
improved pneumatic holder; a photographer's travelling lamp to be used 
when developing, and a portable tripod developing stand. Much ingenuity 
of contrivance is displayed In all these articles. 

3097 HocKisr and Wilson (II. M.).— Apparatus and chemicals of great 
excellence are displayed by this firm, amongst which may be named an in- 
stantaneous shutter made of brass, closing with a spring ; vessels of ebonite 
for photographic purposes ; hermetically sealed tubes, or bottles for collodion, 
ether, and various other chemicals. 

The chemicals are of great purity ; the collodion, a preparation of which 
Mr. Hockin was one of the earliest manufacturers, is possessed of great in- 
tensity, and for many purposes is highly valuable. They also exhibit a 
portable tent intended for field operations. 

8009 HoPKiir and Williams (H. M.).— The contributions of this firm con- 
sist of a variety of photographic chemicals of great purity, and of which 
they are the mannfiMturers on a large scale for supplying retail dealers. The 
samples exhibited fully sustain the long-established reputation of this house 
for the care used in securing purity in their productions. 

(To be continued.) 


Dear Sir, — ^For some time past I have meditated laying 
before you one of my experiences on the much vexed question 
of Alkaline Grold Toning, and some remarks in the paper of 
your able correspondents. *' A Photographic Assistant," on the 
subject of old gold baths, makes mo think this the fitting 
opportunity to do so. 

In lieu of making a fresh bath for each batch of prints, I 
have for some months past been in the habit of continuing to 
use an old one over and over again with a result fully satisfac- 
tory to myself both as to the tone arrived at and the economy 
of the gold, having always been able to reach it with purple 
tint approaching to black without the smallest tendency to that 
dreaded arch-enemy mealiness. I have invariably found on 
first using a new bath that the prints, though of satisfactory 
tint on leaving it, receded to a sepia tint in the hyposulphate 
of soda ; but this never occurs on the second using, and it is a 
great convenience, as an amateur, to be able to work off one or 
two prints at a time by having a bath constantly ready. 

The course I pursue is to make the bath with distilled water, 
and having inserted in it a small piece of litmus paper, add in 
tmall portions at ,a time bicarbonate of soda until the blue 

colour is all but restored ; then, from time to time, if the batli 
becomes inert, I add from 6 to 8 drops of a 4-grain gold solution 
(or more if so largo a number of prints have been through as 
to nearly exhaust it), which at once sets up the action, and in 
extreme cold I have sometimes warmed slightly to save time, 
I do not find that it requires further alkalizing, or that I get 
any large precipitate of gold thrown down. I may add that I 
usually print on the albumenized paper of the London Stereo- 
scopic Company, floating two minutes in a bath made at 100 
grains to the ounce, and never allowed to fall below 90 grains, 
and thoroughly washed before toning. 

In all this I may be telling you nothing new ; and, if so, have 
to crave your pardon for troubling you ; but I have never met 
with it in print or practice ; and if you think it likely to be 
useful to others, I shall be much gratified in having contributed 
my mite to the general stock. — I am, yours obediently, 

F. Lake. 

P.S. — ^I enclose a small print as a specimen of tone. 

RothtrKam, Feb. 6, 1868. 

[The print enclosed is an architectaral subject ; the tone a 
good purple black. — Ed.] 

MoBPHiNE Dby Process. 

Deab Sis, — In reply to your correspondent's inquiries, he 
must obtain the muriate^ not oMtaUy of morphine, dissolve it in a 
little water, add it to the bath, and filter out the chloride or 
muriate of silver, when the nitrate of morphine remains in solu- 
tion, which salt is, I believe, not manufactured for sale. As to 
the exposure required in this process, all I can say is that the 
plates are very sensitive, may be requiring half as lone again 
as a wet plate. I generally varnish round the ed|;e of the plate 
before development, and do not use any coating above or 
underneath the collodion. I have only worked stereoscopic 
plates, on account of the increased expense of large ones, but I 
see no reason why an edging of varnish should not do for them 
also, especially with a non-contractile collodion; there is no 
wrinkling and loosening of the film, as in the tannin process. 
It is important not to use water containing lime, or much inor- 
ganic matter in solution; filtered fresh fallen rain water is good ; 
after excitation immerse in a vertical bath of this water, giving an 
up and down motion to the plate for fifteen seconds or so ; then, 
after an interval of a minute or two, immerse in another lot of 
water, and so on, to get rid of all the nitrate. For develop- 
ment, I far prefer iron to any other agent, and from my experi- 
ence with it on these plates, it appears to act thus: if under- 
exposed, the picture lacks detail and intensity, after one 
application of developer ; another will increase the detail, and, 
if necessary, a third dose or fourth will augment the half tones, 
and not much increase the density, which must then be gained 
by the use of pyro and silver. If, on the contrary, the plate has 
been fully exposed, the iron developer will bring up the whole 
of the detail on the first application, and a second will increase 
the density very much. I have taken many stereo negatives^ 
which were completed with two doses of iron, and a few drops 
of silver solution added on using. In making a new bath, I 
expose it to the light for a week or so, which facilitates the depo- 
sition of a black powder, which is then filtered out, and the 
solution will keep much longer in a clear state afterwards, 
although it is always good for use if filtered. — I am, dear sir, 
yours respectfully, Wm. Bartholomew. 

Famham, Surrey/, Feb. 22, 1863. 

Photogkaphio Half-Holiday. 

Deab Sib, — ^Will you kindly insert in your next Friday's 
News, that an attempt is now being made to afford all those 
who are engaged in photography the benefit of the Saturday 
half-holiday, by soliciting the various photographers in the 
city to close their respective establishments at two o'clock on 
Saturday afternoons throughout the year, commencing March 
7th (the day on which the Princess Alexandra passes through 
the city.) 

The time of closing (two o'clock^, has been chosen, as in many 
houses it would be impossible for business to be concluded, and 
negatives varnished, &c., before three o'clock, so that the latter 
may be calculated as the hour of leaving. 

I trust that all who are concerned in photography will give 
this movement their warmest support. — I remain, dear sir, yours 
truly, H. J. UtODBOLJ). 

[We very heartily commend this suggestion to employers, 

Febrcart 27, 1863.] 



and may add our conviction, that in granting the boon, it will 
not be all loss to tbem, aa their operators will doubtless work 
with renewed zest and energy in consideration of such a privi- 
lege. It would, moreover, afford to some the opportunity for 
occasionally trying a landscape, an opportunity for which those 
constantly immured in the operating room often sigh and hope 
at present in vain. — Ed.] 

Enlaboiko with a STAiraoPK Lens. 

Bear Sir, — I think your correspondent, Mr. Leary would find 
that in using the Stanhope lens for taking photographs of micro- 
scopic objects, the double combination of lenses has the effect of 
neutralizing to a considerable extent the coloured fringe which 
sarroonds the object when seen with the Stanhope lens only. 
The Dse of the Stanhope lens was only advocated by me as a 
cheap means of taking these photographs, or studying the struc- 
tare of insects and plants. If only the latter object is desired, 
we have a very cheap contrivance with the Stanhope lens, 
costing 2s. 6d., and a long deal box, with the bottom made to 
slide (in the centre of which the Stanhope lens is fixed), and 
the top fitted with a piece of ground glass, which box any car- 
penter would make of deal, for a trifle. 

I think, for enlarging from small negatives, a large double- 
IxKiied camera of deal, painted black, is certainly the cheapest, 
and perhaps the best apparatus for the purpose ; indeed, I cannot 
say that I see any great improvement upon the method of en- 
largement, which I have used for years, and a description of 
which will be found in the first volume of the News. I think 
we %\a\\ never get a really satisfactory enlargement of a por- 
trait antil we get a film on the glass that will bear magnifying 
to the required size without showing the structure ; all the en- 
larged photographs that I have seen look as if the sitter were 
pitted with the small-pox, which does not improve the appear- 

I hare noticed some remarks in recent numbers of the News, 
on the use of "Ammonia nitrate of silver in alcohol," for albu- 
menized paper. I have found the formula, mentioned in vol. 
i. page 141, to answer well with some albumenized paper, but 
in many cases, it has dissolved the albumen ; perhaps fioating 
for a very short time would succeed, as the solution penetrates 
the paper almost immediately, or using more silver, only, in that 
c»e, I think the paper must be used immediately after sensi- 
tizing, as even with ten grains to the ounce it soon begins to 
change.— Believe me, my dear sir, yours very truly, 

' Thomas Babbett. 


Photoobaphs nr Pbiktinq Ink. — A correspondence has re- 
cently taken place in the Timea, which Illustrates how amusingly 
informed oven the intelligent portions of the outside world 
remain as to progress and capabibties of photography. First a 
paragraph appeared announcing an " Important Discovery in 
Photography. This, however, merely turned out to be Mr. 
Pouncey's process, the alleged discovery being the production of 
photographs in printing ink, and was stated as follows : — " This 
ink is mixed witn certain chemicals, and spread completely over 
the paper intended to be submitted to the action of the rays of 
jight through a * negative ; ' and the secret consists in rendering 
it 80 sensitive that an indelible photograph maybe fixed on the 
paper, leaving the other portions so free as to be easily washed 
off. The time required for exposure is comparatively short, 
an'l the advantage is, besides that of permanence, the fact of 
the subject being fixed, developed, and, as it were, completed 
vithoat the various manipulations required under the old 
^TBt«m. The superfiuous ink is removed by spirits in ten 
minutes or a quarter of an hour, displaying a picture for delicacy 
of tone, beautifid gradation of light and shade, and minuteness 
of detail fully equal to anything heretofore obtained in photo- 
-Taphic printing." A letter from Mr. Osborne followed, correct- 
ing the erroneous notion that the application of printing ink 
vas a new discovery, and briefly detailing the history of its ap- 
plication, first, in 1869, by M. Asser ; next by himself, and sub- 
sequently by Col. James : all of whom not only produced photo- 
grapliB in printing ink, but also transferred them to stone for 
^production by a printing press. He adds : — "That Mr. Founcey 
luay have a special method of his own I do not doubt, nor do I 
^i^h to take from him any of the merit to which he is entitled ; 
hot to the statement that the results he has obtained are perfect, 

or excellent, I must demur, if we are to judge by the specimens 
exhibited by him at a recent meeting of the Photographic 
Society, and by the manner in which they were received by the 
members present." Mr. Paul Pretsch next writes claiming tlie 
invention as early as 1854. There is just this distinction to be 
made, however, between the latter gentleman's ingenious me- 
thods and those before referred to : — ^The former refer to pro- 
ducing from a negative an image on paper in printing ink ; the 
latter to the production, by the aid of a negative, of a plate or 
block from which to print in tho ordinary way. In fact, Mr. 
Pretsch incidentally indicates the diflerence in his communica- 
tion : he claims, simply, reproducing photograplis in printing 
ink ; the other claims are for producing them direct from the 

Stebeoqbaphs of the Mook. — A singular question as to 
certain photographs of the moon recently published in a work 
entitled " Our Satellite," by Dr. Le Vengeur d'Orsan, has been 
raised by the Athenceum, in which a possible case of disgraceful 
piracy is involved. The Athenaum^ in a recent number, 
says : — " Looking at one of Mr. Do la Rue's photographs of 
the moon, we were struck with its minute resemblance to one 
recently published by Dr. D'Orsan-— even to the appearance of 
a casusd flaw in the glass. Whereupon we asked the question 
— When was Dr. D'Orsan's negative taken ? In reply we have 
a letter from J. B. Morgan, the Doctor's Secretary, from which 
we quote this passage: — 'Dr. D'Orsan always treated such 
covertly scurrilous personal attacks with dignified indifierence, 
and would also meet those recently made with contempt, did 
not the interests of his publisher render the publication of an 
authorised contradiction of the recent mis-statcmcnts a matter 
of necessity.' Unhappily, the Doctor's Secretary forgets to 
answer the question put. As we are not told when Dr. 
D'Orsan's negative was taken, we are. unable to say which of 
the two lunar photographs before us was the original." In a 
subsequent number, a letter from Messrs. Smith and Beck 
appears, in which they distinctly charge Dr. D'Orsan with 
piracy from a stereoscopic transparency by Mr. De la Rue, 
published by them. " The proofs of this statement," they say, 
"are as follows : — Not only are the photographs exactly similar 
as regards both lunation and libration, but the very flaws in the 
collodion film of the original negative are reproduced in Dr. 
D'Orsan's prints. One of the most prominent of these flaws is 
situated in a small plane to the N.W. of Tycho, between 
Orontius and Sasseridcs. It appears as a white speck on the 
collodion film of the original negative, and is reproduced as a 
black marking in the positive print published in the stereo- 
scopic slide. It is reproduced again in both photographs of Dr. 
D'Orsan ; thus proving, not only the source from which he has 
obtained the photographs, but that both his published photo- 
graphs, although professing to be taken at difierent lunations, 
are from one and the same photograph. In one of them the 
outlying parts around Tycho have been carefully expunged. 
There are at least half-a-dozen flaws reproduced, but the above- 
mentioned is, we think, sufficient." In reply to this, Mr. 
Bennett, the publisher of Dr. D'Orsan's work, states that this 
gentleman is willing to show to any scientific gentleman, his 
original negatives, and the date of their reproduction, proving 
their prioritv to those of Mr. De la Rue. He adds, that " to 
distinguish between minute flaws in the negative, and hitherto 
undiscovered " flaws," so to speak, on the furfaco of tho moon, 
would require a most accurate and critical series of observations." 
For the present, the matter remains there. The (juarrel is a 
very pretty one as it stands. Since the above was m type, Mr. 
De la Rue has written a voluminous letter with illustrations, to 
the AthauEum, in which he very satisfactorily shows that Dr. 
D'Orsan's published photographs are simply unauthorized copies 
of his own. Mr. Bennett, Dr. D'Orsan's publisher, has also 
written to state, that, having applied in vain to that gentleman 
for dates, and a sight of his negatives, he has come to the con- 
clusion, that it is not in Dr. D'Orsan's power to produce 
evidence to overthrow the grave charges made, aud that 
until such evidence is forthcoming, the publication of " Our 
Satellite," will be discontinued. 

Lbctuees on PHOToaBAPnT.— We find, from a Berkshire 
paper, that a lecture on photography was recently delivered at 
the Working Men's Institution at riewbury, by Mr. E. T. Brooks 
a professional photographer in that town. We think that much 
might be done to place correct notions of our art in the public 
mind, by popular lectures of this kind, and remove fallacious 
notions. The subject could always be made interesting. 



[February 27, 1863. 

Photoobafhio Exhibition. — We mast remind our readen 
that the Exhibition closes on the 2nd of March, and that it is 
now open in the evenings. 

South London Photographic Society. — We are requested 
to inform the members of this Society that the address of the 
secretary, Mr. Alfred Harman, is now, 7, Gunnersbury Villas, 
Harder's Road, Peckham, S.E. Mr. Harman has recently dis- 
solved all connection with his late partner, Mr. Dages, and is 
now engaged in business at the above address. 

Bullock's Mounting Machine. — This is a cleverly con- 
trived aid to the mounting of card portraits. A raised plate, 
the exact size of the print, is fixed in the centre of a piece of 
mahogany. At each end is a hand or " gripper " resting on a 
spring ; these hold the print in its place whilst it is pasted. 
The card is then laid upon it, the edge touching certain guides 
which give exactly the right margin on the card. The points 
are then slipped off the print, the card pressed down, and the 
operation is complete, rerhaps this seems more complicated in 
description than it is in fact ; and we are assured that a great 
saving of time and increase in the neatness of the mounting is 
obtained by the use of this little contrivance. 

Sutton's Patent Albumenized Paper. — We are informed 
that the manipulatory difficulties attending the production of 
this new paper are now nearly, if not entirely, removed, and 
that Messrs. Lampray, Tibbitts and Co., will be prepared 
shortlv to supply it to the public. We have seen some proofs 
on this paper produced in an early stage of the experiments 
when the modus operandi was in a comparatively crude state, 
which were highly satisfactory. The surface of the paper being 
peculiarly delicate and grainless. The advantages claimed for 
this paper are, mainly, that it has an unusually fine surface, that 
it produces a better tone, and greater detail, especially in very 
deep shadows ; that it is free from mealiness, and that really 
bad prints are almost impossible. We understand that shortly 
a fine collection of prints on this patent paper, the production 
of different distinguished artists, will be ready for inspection at 
the establishment of the manufacturers. Some of the prints 
are on tinted paper, producing a very pleasing effect. 

%a (DjQfms^jOfiibtndts* 

%* Several columns of Advertisements are compelled to stand 
over for want of space. 

Photographic News Alilanac, and Year-Book of Photo- 
graphy. — ^This work is now reprinted, and is ready for 


Photo. A.— Th« strealdnefls In the direction of the dip maj arine from several 
causes. A veiy common and generallr efflcient remedj is the addition (rfa 
little acid. It will sometimes arise from the accumulation of ether and 
alcohol in the hath, and in that case, removing these hr evaporation is 
necessarj. It will sometimes occur firom the presence of organic matter 
in the bath, in that case, a simple remedy, generallj efficient, is the addi- 
tion of a little bicarbonate of soda. Just sufficient to cause a slight precipitate, 
which is not redissolved on agitation. Then place the bath in the sun for 
an hour or two, and afterwards filter, and if necessarj, acidify. A strong 
bath generally favours rigour, but increases the tendency to stains. 

S. Chester. — The line to which you refer means simply what it says : " dis- 
tilled water 1000 grains ;" that is, 2 ounces and 40 minims of distilled 
water ; but we phrased it in the words of M. Jeanrenaud. 

B. T. W. — The specimens are very creditable for an amateur with few oppor- 
tunities. You will obtain a better idea at your chances as an operator and 
of the remuneration, by answering some of the many advertisements 
for assistants which constantly appear in our columns, than we can give 
yon. 2. Chloride of lime is often used for cleaning or removing discolour- 
ation of engravings ; but we cannot tell whether it will remove the stains 
to which you refer. 

J. R. H.— The rapid discolouration of the silver bath often proceeds fh>m 
some peculiarity of the albumenized paper ; but we have not met with a 
case which resisted attempts to clear by citric acid, kaolin, ke. We can 
only recommend you to malce the bath neutral, or slightly alkaline, and 
then add solution of citric acid until a precipitate takes place ; this will 
most likely clear it Sunning the bath after it has been rendered alkaliue, 
will also clear it When using common water yon should not add any acid 
or you may dissolve some of the insoluble salts which helped to keep the 
bath clear. 

F. L. E.— There are several methods of photographic engraving by the aid 
of bitumen. You will find a summarised history of several on page 71, 
vol. i., of the Photoohapbio News ; on page 247|of the same volume you 
will find particulars of the original process of M. Niecephore Niepce ; on 
pages 1^ and 168, of our second volume, you will find a process by M. 
Bertchold. The most detailed account of the process of M. Niepce de St 
Victor and M. Lemaitre, that we know, is given in Monckhoven's Traili 
Oeneral tte Photographie, of which a new edition has Just been published. 

JcsTiTiA.— A photograph published or sold before the passing of the New Copy- 
right Act is not protected, and you have no remedy against the piracy. 2. The 
defect in the pictures received is mealineit. Many remedies have appeared 

in our pages, many of which are at times usefttl ; but sometimes the drfect 
seems to defy all remedy. Read the various arUdes we have published on 
the laibtiect The defect is much more common with thin than witu 
TigoroQs negativee. There are no especial instructions to be observed m 
making the acetate hath, beyond following the formula, and keeping the 
solution a few days before using it 8 You have light too evenly aUnmnd 
the fitter; more side light and lea front light is desinblep this wiU gire 
more vigour and roundness to your figures. „ - ^ * 

J. BuaoBsa.— Your letter did not contain the sample of paP«^«l£Yr^ ^ 
Albumenized paper prepared with flresh eggs, and 24 grains of chlo r ide off 
ammonium will doubtless make a good paper, but will reqoireavery strong 
silver bath. We should prefer half the quantity of chloride. 

H. A.--Ammonia-nitrate, when successfully worked, gives very rich aeg> 
tones : but there is no fault to be found with the tones of the cards 
enclosed. 2. A newly iodized collodion, especially if it contain cadmlom, 
generally has a tendency to give veiled negatives. It sometimes happens 
that the veil does interfere with the quality of the print if the relations 
between Ughts and shadows are properly preserved ; but it retards the 
prinUng very much. 3. As a general principle a bath for landscape pur- 
poses will bear more acid than one for portrait negatives. If your tannin 
plates have a tendency to fog, the bath should have more acid. 4. The 
Photoobaphio Ykae-Book is reprinted. The Photographic SxhibiUon 
closes on the second of March. . . _._ , ^ , ^^ 

A CoKSTAHT Rbaoee.— If albumenizod paper be quite dry when plsced in the 
printing-fnme, it ought not to cockle. It is probable that the back of the 
frame is damp in such case. 2. A piece of felt is a good thing to place upon 
the print in the frame. 3. When the free nitrate solution collects on the plate 
in streams during exposure, it indicates that the plate had not been su±- 
ciently long in the bath ; that the collodion is of a very repellant character, 
and may be remedied by the addition of a drop or two of distilled water, or 
that the bath is very old. We do not like redipping in the bath as it often 
causes fog. 4. The imperfect surface to which you refer is too generallv de- 
scribed to enable us to help you. If we saw a specimen we could perhaps 
give some advice. 6. The cause of varnish cracking has been the subject 
of much discussion ; it is generallv beUeved that damp is the primary 
cause. 6. We prefer the lenses of the best English makers to any French 

B. G.— It entirely depends on the size of a dish, whether one made entirelj 

of gutta-percha, or one of wood lined with gutta-percha, will be cheaper. 

If very large, the latter will probably cost less and be more usefuL 2. To 

precipitate silver from hypo solutions, use liver of sulphur. 
No Name.— We received an envelope lh)m some of our correspondents, 

posted in the West Central district in which the letter had been omitted. 

The envelope was unsealed as well as empty, with a note on it from the 

local postmaster saying it was received so. This being the case, we do not 

know whether the letter had never been put in, or lost out, only that we 

have nothing to answer. 
An article on " Qlass Rooms,** with a Diagram of Mr. Blunder's studio, 

together with several other articles and " Critical Notices " are compelled 

to stand over for want of space. 
Several Correspondents in our next 

Mx. A. IiAsn, Uungerford, Berkshire, 

Photograph of the " Meet** at the Marouis of AyletbUT's. 
Msssu. 0. A. Du Val akd Co., Exchange Street, itaachester. 
Photograph of Robert Maclure, Esq. 
S. J. Stem, Esq. 
Lord Edgerton, of Tattoo. 
Robert QladstonCi Esq. 
John Piatt, Esq. 
WiUiam Roberts, Esc^ 
Nathaniel Eckersley, jSsq. 
Edmund Ashworth, Esq. 
Hugh Mason, Esq. 
Abel H. Heywood, Esq. 
Colonel Wilson Patten, M.F. 
Lord Derby. 
J. W. Maclure, Esq. 
Thomas Ashton, Esq. 
Rev. J. Wylde. 
Sir J. P. K. ShutUeworth. 
Rev. E. Hornby. 
Two Photographs of Rev. E. Birch, Chaplain to H. R. H. Pilnee 

of Wales. 
Photograph of G. E. Ashworth, Esq. 
R. H. Hutchinson, Esq. 
Dr. Molesworth. 
Richard Ansdell, A.R.A. 
Ma. Frkdbkiok L. Slbdoh, Deihy House, Edge Hill, Ltveipool, 

Three Portraits of Rev. Thomas Moore, St Stephen's Ghoreh* 
Mb. William Dowhbt, 9, Eldon Square, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

Photograph of John Bright, Esq., M.P. 
Mb. Jobs Stuabt, 120, Buchanan Street Glasgow, 
Photograph of Rev. James Maenaught 
Mb. William Gbobob Hblsbt, Crosby Green, West Derby, Liverpool, 
Photograph of ValDaraiso. 

„ Professor Samuelson. 

„ Robinson Crusoe's Cave, Juan Fernandez 

„ The Ruins of Tia-Huanaco. 

Vignette Portrait of Rev. J. Stevens. 
Mb. Pbteb Skeolax, 12, Promenade Villas, Cheltenham, 
Photograph of Rev. Gordon Calthorpe. 
Portrait of Rev. Alfired Barry. 
„ Rev. George Roberts. 
Mb. Chablbs Monsov, 12, Bridge Street, Northampton, 

Photograph Group of H. R. H. Prince of Wales, Earl Spencer, Ac. 
Mb. EnwABD Smith, 8, Old Bond Street, Bath, 
Portrait of Mr. Edwin Sturge. 
„ Dr. Marks. 
Mb. Jambs G. Tuxkt, 03, Princes Street, Edinburgh, 
Portrait of the Hon. Theresa Yelverton. 








Vol. Vn. No. 235.— JtfarcA 6, 1 


ProceedlnRi of 


. Bj SIcpbcn P. Leeds Hi 

Ttis AppliculDD or PbMvgnpbf la ibc Mi>(l< Lularn Be 

OonMlij Cmuldered. Br Sunut[ nigUrJ, I.a.S.. f .0. 

Cepper-FUU FilaUng k^ Pfivtognphj 

— Bepurt of Um jurj .. 

PhotoinFtu UegliteRd dortitg Um Week « 

Fboh the freqnent inqniiies whicli reach ub, asking for 
sdrice And information relative to the building of the glaas- 
hoose, and lighting of the figure, we are led to believe that 
few anbjcctg are more interesting, or less understood, amongst 
photognphera. Whilst it is difficult eithcc to deal with 
Each ft qnestion in the abstract, or prescribe rules of uui- 
>er^ application, we can occasiooallj give illustrations of 
specific cases, and suggest general principles. 

We do not know of anj photographer who has produced 
more artistic pictores than Mr. Itejlander. One of the first 
reflections which strike us, on looking over a collection of 
these photographs, is the unusual command over the light- 
iog of the model which the artist posaesses : almost everj 
Tariety of lighting is adopted in turn, to serve some specific 
pnrpocB, and always successfully. To the education of an 
artist, Hr. Rejlander has added years of practice aa a 
photographer, not simply in manufacturing conventional 
portraits, but in producing art studies, in which every 
possibleeffect of lighting is in turn necessary. Mr. Itdlander 
tUM recently erected a new studio in London, a brief clescrip- 
tioQ of which cannot fail to be interesting to our readers, 
not necessarily as a model to be imitated, but as illustrating 
the principles of lighting, which may be adopted or modi- 
fied as circuniflUnces may render necessary. We should 
state at the outset that the chief aim in the present studio is 
to uBom a mode of lighting similar to that used bv painters, 
so that the photographic studies obtained may be strictly 
ATailable for painters, the same conditions of light and 
shkdow existing in the photograph, which are required in 
the painting. That the same light will often be valuable 
for portraiture, and general photography, we see no reason 
to doubt ; the only misgiving we have on the subject, being 
in relation to the amount of light, which we fear would 
scvcely be found sufficient for convenient working in dull 
Here is a sketch of the erection. 











1 f 

II ' 1 

It is bnilt of corrugated iron ; and the total length is 
thirty feet. The portion devoted to the sitter is ten feet 
long and eleren feet wide. The remaining twenty feet 
tarring in near the door, and becoming narrower, so that, 
at the extreme end, where the dark room is, the width is 
s.^ven feet. The light is obtained solely from the while 
».pacei a, h, c. d, «,/^in the diagram, the light falling from 

the north-west. The door a consist* of a plate of glass, 
seven feet high by three f?et wide. The window adjoining, 
h. consists of another plate of glass, seven feet high by five 
feet wide; this joins another plate, c, in tho roof, which 
is five feet wide and three feet deep. These three are of 
white plate glass, and constitute the chief source of light. 
On the opposite sida there is no glass at all. but the interior 
is painted white to secure reflected lights. The minor 
lights, d, e, and f, will generally be covered with blinds, 
their object being to secure not direct light, but diffused 
light, and thoa aid the reflections. 

It will be seen that the sitter is lighted from the side 
and side top: front light, and direct vertical light being 
entirely avoided. The absence of sash ban is in Mr, 
Rejiander's opinion a great advantage to the sitter and to 
the picture. The effect of these bars on the eye having a 
painful sensation, interfering with natural eipression, and 
spoiling tho beauty of the eye in the picture. The camera 
is in comparative darkness, enabling the operator to focus 
without the aid of a dark cloth over his head. The eye of 
tho model also looks into this darkness, by which is gained 
the double advantage of comfort to the sitter and expansion 
of the pupilof the eye, giving it more depth and expression. 
Nothing IS more offensive in a photographic portrait than 
the light unmeaning-looking eye, which often results from 
the sitter looking towards the light, in which case the pnpil 
contracte ; and, if the irides be blue or grey, giving at 
once a weak, fishy, washed-out effect to eyes, whicn, in the 
original, probably look dark and bright, and beaming with 

We may here subjoin adiagram, showing the longitadinal 
section of a glass room proposed some time ago by Mr. 
SuttoD, to which Hr, Bejla&der's is very i' " ~ 





The total lengtii here is si^posed to bo tbirty-sii feet, of 
which twelve feet. A, B, C. constitute the glass room 
proper. A, li. on each side, is opaque, and B, C, on each 
side, glass, from top to bottom. This, with the small 
portion, c to d, at the front of the glass room, and adjoin- 
ing the narrow passage, is all the gloss tiiu building will 
contain, the remainder being a long, dark passage, •• in 



[March 6, 1863. 

Mr. Rejlander's atadio. The end, A, at which the back- 
ground will be placed, mnst be south, bo that the light 
reaches the sitter from the north. The windows, facing 
east and west, must be furnished with blinds, one of which, 
according to circumstances, will always be down, just 
allowing sufficient light to pass through, to serve as re- 
flected light. 

The front top window, (2, it is recommended, should be 
made to open and fall back upon the roof of the passage, 
so as to let in air and more light in fine weather. The 
chief objection to this also is that existing in Mr. Rejlander's 
room, namely, that in dull weather, and amid the smoky 
atmosphere of large towns, such a room would often be 
found to be too dark for practical purposes of portraiture, 
BO that it is desirable to have facilities lor getting in more 
light when necessary. In Mr. Sutton's design we conceive 
it would be an advantage, instead of continuing the opaque 
roof of the glass room over the entire space, a, b^ c, to let it 
be opaque merely over a, 6, the glass then commencing and 
sloping to the roof of the dark passage, forming a line from 
bU> d. This would give more light without serious sacri 
fice in other respects. 

In both these designs it will readily be seen that excellent 
principles of lighting are involved, which are well worthy 
of consideration. Not the least of the benefits to be secured 
consists in cleanness of the shadows, and consequent bril- 
liancy without much intensifying, as there is scarcely any 
chance of that bane of iron development — deposit on the 
shadows from diffused light entering the camera. For 
further details on the subject of erecting glass-houses and 
lighting the sitter, we refer our readers to an article in the 
Year-Book of Photookapht for 1863, which is just re- 



The number of reproductions in this exhibition is not large 
With the exception of three or four very fine things by Mr. 
Annan, and a few others we have noticed before, the copies 
of Turner's paintings by Mr. Thurston Thompson are the 
only reproductions worthy of mention in the exhibition. 
These are, as a series, perhaps, the most perfect copies of oil 
paintings which have ever been produoea by the aid of pho- 
tography. It is a somewhat singular fact that pictures, the 
great charms of which consist in their eorgeous colouring and 
wondrous aerial perspective, rather than in sharply defined 
drawing, should, in the photographic monochrome, bo accu- 
rately render the feeling and characteristic style of the 
master ; yet, it is a fact, that in no copies of paintings we 
have before seen, is the photograph more satisfactory, or the 
original painting more ably translated into monochrome. 
Here is " Spithead " (241), which will rival any engraving 

Possible of the same subject, as a picture, whilst, as a study of 
'urner, not the most admirably drawn copy by hand can 
compare with it. " Venice " is a picture consisting of little 
more than sunlight and atmospnere, which seems to robe 
every object in a fairy-like veil; it is one pre-eminently 
difficult from which to produce an effective photograph ; yet 
in the copy before us tnere is the perfect suggestion of the 
original, which it enables us to bring most vividly before 
the mind's eye. " Carthage " is one of the most glorious 
pictures of the series, and a perfect study of atmosphere and 
composition. Mr. Thompson has conquered all the diffi- 
culties which might readily have been supposed insurmount- 
able in photographing these pictures ; the glowing colours, 
the indefinite drawing, the neavy impasting and peculiar 
handling, have all yielded to the skill, taste, and ex- 
perience brought to bear in copying them ; and it is a 
matter of congratulation for the public, that probably 
the onlv opportunity which will occur — the removal from 
one gallery to another — was seized for obtaining such 
invaluable transcripts. We are glad to be able to state 
that this serieB will shortly be publiBhed, and afford every 

admirer of Turner, and every student of art or of photo- 
graphy, the facility of obtaining some of the most valuable 
contributions which photography has yet made to art. Mr. 
Thompson exhibits some other copies of pictures, and fe^r 
photographs of b<u rdiefa^ in terra-cotta we believe, by Clo- 
dion. There is also a copy of a marble bust by Uiraxn 
Powers, " Proserpine" (254), which is as perfect a specimea 
of delicacy, roundness, and satisfactory rendering of texture 
as we have ever seen. 

The London Stereoscopic Company exhibit a fine collec- 
tion of their admiral photographs of objects in the Inter- 
national Exhibition, which we have noticed before, and 
which all the world knows by this time to be almost as per- 
fect as photographs can be. 

Mr. Stephen Thompson exhibits some photographs of 
sculpture, amongst which we may name copies of Foley's 
Egeria, both the bust and complete statue, as possessing 
considerable force and delicacy ; a little more reflected light 
in the deep shadows would, we think, have more accurately 
rendered the texture of marble. 

Amongst instantaneous photographs, claiming especial 
pre-eminence as being unsurpassed for beauty, ana un- 
equalled for size, are the pictures of Col. Stuart Wortley, 
consisting chiefly of scenes in Italy, and possess, in almost 
every instance, clouds of most wondrous beauty, in combina- 
tion with sea and foreground. The svreep and dash of 
the waves, the smoke of Vesuvius in the distance, mingled 
with the grand masses of cloud, are all very beautiful and 
effective. The modes of producing these pictures was re- 
cently very fully and lucidly described in our pages. A 
strongly bromized collodion ; a nitrate bath containing a 
fall dose of nitric acid ; an iron developer with formic acid ; 
a ^6 by 5, or 8} by 6} triple lens with full aperture, for 
pictures on 10 by o or 12 by 10 plates ; intensifying after 
the plates are dry with mercury and an iodide, followed by 
pyrogallic acid and silver. These give, in all photographic 
respects, such softness, detail, clearness, brilliancy, &c., as 
much perfection as the pictures possess in an artistic sense. 
Col. Stuart Wortley also exhibits a few very perfect tannin 
pictures, which leave nothing to be desired ; one of these 
nas also had an instantaneous, or very rapid exposure. 

Mr. Blanchard's stereographs are the only other instan- 
taneous pictures on paper exhibited. Mr. Wilson does not 
contribute at all this year. Mr. Blanchard*s pictures con- 
sist of instantaneous views of London and the Thames ; 
busy, bustlinff, street scenes; and combinations of water,, 
shipping, and magnificent clouds. It is unnecessary to 
dwell further on these pictures than to state that in their 
especial line we have not seen them surpassed, and rarely 

There is a Rood display of instantaneous transparencies 
this year. Mr. Breese has two tables, each with eight 
stereoscopes, containing his exquisite transparent slides, 
with rare moonlight and sunset effects, and breaking waves, 
which, for absolute instantaneity, we have rarely seen 
equalled. Mr. Fry has a table with very fine transparencies, 
some of which ace equal to those of Breese, but do not 
receive so much justice from being exhibited in inferior 
stereoscopes. Mr. Blanchard exhibits some of his charming 
pictures as transparencies ; but these, like those just men- 
tioned, suffer from the stereoscopes in which they are exhi- 
bited. Some of the same slides shown in a column stereo- 
scope, exhibited, we believe, by Mr. Hare, are seen to much 
greater advantage. Messrs. Ferrier and Soulier exhibit a 
number of instantaneous and other transparencies of most 
exquisite quality. 

A numberof tne very fine photographic enamels of M. Lafon 
de Camarsac are exhibited. Some very good photographs 
on porcelain, or enamel glass, are exhibited by Mr. Port- 
bury. These, with the cnarming photographs on silk, by 
Mr. Cooper, are the only departures from the usual routine 
as to the basiB of the picture. 

The room devoted to pictures by French photographers, 
contains many valuable illustrations of processes, amongst 

Mabch 6, 1863.] 



which we may name Corbin*B dry oollodionized paper pro- 
cess ; Foitevin'R and Fargier*8 carbon procesftes ; Poitevin's 
photolithographic process ; Negress pboto-engraviDg pro- 
cess, ko. The specimens of the latter are accompanied by 
some of the plates, and are not only interesting as illustra- 
tions of processes, but yery excellent as results. M. Lemer- 
cier exhibits some very perfect photolithographs by Poitevin's 
process. These are so good, and possess so much of half-tone, 
that we should have been very glad to know something 
more about them, especially how many stones were employed 
in producing the charming view of Alpine scenery. M. 
Charavet's specimens of carbon prints, by Fargier's process, 
hang beside the silver prints from the same negative, are 
exceedingly satisfactory. It is true, they lack a little oif the 
brilliancy and transparency of the silver print, but they are, 
nerertheless, very excellent, aa are also M. Lafon de Gamar- 
sac's specimens of the same process. The specimens of 
enlarging by M. Bertcsh are exceedingly good : the detail is 
amazing, but either from the fault of the original lens, or 
that used in enlarging, the amount of distortion is very 

We are here reminded that we omitted to notice in the 
proper place, a frame of carbon prints by Cecil Walker and 
Sod, from being mis-classed under the head of collodion in 
the catalogue. These, contain several specimens, which are 
Tery little, indeed, inferior to silver prints, and afford hope of 
the eventual possibility of obtaining prints entirely per- 
maneDt without sacrificing delicacy or beauty. 

A few specimens of apparatus are exhibited, but not such 
as call for especial notice. The exhibition is now closed, 
and there is, we fear, one drawback to its generally satisfactory 
character : it has not paid, and the sales have been small. 
The dull season, the out of the way position of the gallery, 
ftnd a variety of other causes, have tended to bring about 
this result, which is, however, much to be regretted. The 
exhibition haa been an exceedingly good one, and, on the 
whole, well manaj^d, and, except financially, has, we believe, 
given general satisfaction. 


Those who are in the habit of experimenting in the prepa- 
ration of collodion will, probably, like to try the following 
fonnula communicated by M. Jeanrenaud to the Moniteur 
de la Photographie. To counterbalance the drawback of 
complexity which seems to characterize it, is the strong 
n-commendation of the author, who possesses a high repu- 
tation. It is stated to give delicate results, to be very rapid 
and durable, improving rather than deteriorating with age. 
Here is the formula : — 

Soluble cotton 
Pure ether ... 
Alcohol sp. gr. 830 
Iodide of cadmium... 

8 parts 





Dissolve and add to 35 ounces of collodion 25 of pure bro- 
mine. To 3 ounces of the collodion then add 12 drops of 
itrong liquid ammonia. A deposit is thrown down which 
may be re-dissolved by adding a few dfops of glacial 
acetic acid. The three ounces are then added to the 
remainder of 35 ounces, and the whole left to settle for a 
fortnight. If it retain a straw colour, it is fit for use ; if it 
be colourless, add a few drops of bromine. 

M. Jeanrenaud also gives a formula for dry collodion as 
follows : — 

Take ordinary collodion, and add to it 6 per cent, of a solu- 
tion of ether saturated with yellow amber ; the sensitizing bath 
coosistg of from 7 to 8 per cent, of nitrate of silver, and 2 per 
ctnt. of glacial acetic acid ; the plate is then washed in four or 
five waters. The development may be effected either by the 
ordinary bath of sulphate of iron, or with pyrogallic acid. When 
the {dates are large, it is necessary to fix the film around the 
edges by means of some varnish, either with alcohol or chloro- 
&nn. M. Jeanrenaud found plates so prepared as sensitive, after 

the lapse of a month, as when first fixed. The time required is 
about double that of the wet process, and for landscapes varies 
from three to seven minutes, according to tlie light and IJio 



1. Struck, on the one hand, with the danger incurred by 
photographers of being poisoned by the daily use of cyanide 
0^ potassium as a fixing agent, one of the most violent 
poisons that modern chemistry has produced ; and desiring, 
on the other hand, to escape trom the serious inconveniences 
presented by hyposulphUe of soda of sulphurizing the proofs 
m the course of time, and of precipitating sulphur upon 
the slightest contact with any acid, I have searched among 
the chemical salts to find one which, without having pro- 
perties injurious to the health, possessed the useful qualities 
in photography, as fixing agents, of the hyposulphite and 
cyanide above mentioned. I nave been more successful than 
I anticipated, for I have found a salt which accomplishes the 
object in view in the most complete and satisfactory manner: 
this salt is the sulphocyankydrate of ammonia, which hitherto 
has not been manufactured, nor for which has any use been 
suggested. This salt must be employed in the following 
manner : — To fix direct negatives and direct positives upon 
glass, a solution is made of the strength of 30 per cent, in 
pure water, and when the proof has been washed, a quantity 
of the solution is poured over it sufficient to cover it. The 
salts of silver unacted upon by light disappear from the 
proof as by magic, which assumes an opaline aspect, and 
upon being again covered with the solution, the proof is 
washed and remains perfectly fixed. 

To fix positives on paper we employ a weaker solution of 
the strength of 12 per cent. only. The proofs being washed 
upon removal from the toning oath, are immersed in a dish 
containing the solution of 12 per cent., and allowed to remain 
in it five or six minutes, and then removed to a dish con- 
taining clear water, llie water becomes thick ; the proofs 
thus washed are again placed in a second bath of the solu- 
tion of 12 per cent, and left in it for two or or three minutes, 
then withdrawn and submitted to a methodical washing as 
when hyposulphite of soda is employed. 

2. Every photographer who has employed sulphate of 
protoxide of iron as a developing agent, is well aware how 
quickly this salt is decomposed by contact with air. They 
have also experienced the inconveniences arising from its 
developing the picture unequally, of spotting and foR^ing, 
without it being possible to foresee such results. I nave 
sought for a salt of iron, which, while it possessed all the 
developing properties of the sulphate, was exempt from its 
defects, and I nave found that the double suiphate of iron 
and ammonia possess all the useful properties of the 
simple sulphate without having any of its objectionable 
qualities ; it is unchangeable in the air, it develops the 
photographic image completely, and what is still moro 
important, it requires a shorter exposure in the camera. 

it is employed in the following manner. I dissolve 5 
drachms of the salt in 100 drachms of water, and add to the 
solution 20 drachms of dilute acetic acid at 8^ and 10 
drachms of alcohol at 36°. The solution is employed in the 
usual manner.* 

Upon this communication M. Davanne makes the follow- 
ing observations. 

I have this morning tested in my laboratory the two sub- 
stances which M. Meynier proposes to employ in photo- 

Ihe double sulphate of protoxide of iron and ammonia, 
dissolved in the proportion of 5 drachms of sulphate to 100 
drachms of water, 20 drachms of pyroligneous acid and 10 
drachms of alcohol, developed negatives with perfect detail 
and uniformity. The time of exposure was only twenty 

* TVc hare recently made trial of this double salt, see paragraph on last 
page.— £o. P.N. 



[March 6, 1868. 

seconds for a portrait of medium size made with an objective 
of 4 inches diameter : nevertheless, the proof came out well, 
full of detail in the shades ; and if there he not, as I am, how- 
ever, tempted to believe there is, acceleration in the time of 
exposure, I can say that this developer acts as rapidly as 
the ordinary solution of sulphate of iron in the best con- 
ditions. It has an advantage over the latter in not being 
decomposed under the influence of the atmosphere, the 
double sulphate of iron and ammonia being much more 
stable than the ordinary sulphate, and, therefore, admits of a 
more precise formula. 

The sulphooyanhydrate of ammonia has also been tested 
as a fixing agent : — Firstly, for negatives, employed in a 
saturated solution, it was sufficient to pour it upon the nega- 
tive to perceive the layer of iodide of silver disappear as 
rapidly as when we employ for the same purpose a solution 
of cyanide of potassium of the strength of 3 per cent. ; but 
it presents the advantages over the cyanide of not being 
poisonous, of not exhaling the cyanhydric odour, and if the 
negative has been badly washed and still retains salt of iron, 
instead of the greenish blue film which is precipitated on 
contact with the cyanide of potassium, sometimes straining 
the pictures, we only see the liquids take a red blood colour 
which disappears upon being simply washed. 

I have also experimented with the sulphooyanhydrate of 
ammonia for fixing positive proofs ; this substance is an 
energetic solvent of the salts of silver, and I feared to see that 
it would act like the cyanide of potassium in corroding 
the proof; but such was not the result, this fixing agent 
respected the half tones as much as the hyposulphite of soda 
does, and appeared to act like it in the different phases of 
the fixing ; the proof must, however, be toned deeper than 
usual, because it more readily returns to its red colour. This 
first experiment at fixing, made hurriedly, under unfavour- 
able conditions upon positives which had been some time 
printed, has, nevertheless, sufficed to show that we can 
succeed with it, and I think that by studying it carefully, 
we may obtain as good results as with hyposulphite of soda, 
over which the sulphooyanhydrate of ammonia presents the 
advantage of not giving spots while fixing, and especially of 
not giving free sulphur, which seem a guarantee of per- 
manency for photographic positives. — Bulletin de la Sociite 



At the last meeting of the Photographical Society I pre- 
sented to the notice of the members some tannin plates, 
which were prepared in the latter part of April last, strictly 
according to Mr. Kussell's process — with the exception that 
the plates were coated with albumen, diluted with 3 parts of 
water to 1 part of albumen — and which were taken by me 
to Mexico, and exposed there in the camera, during the 
months of August and September, and brought back to this 
city, and developed during the present month. These 
plates presented such a novel appearance upon being de- 
veloped, that I deemed them worthy of exhibition, in the 
hopes that the mystery of their strange appearance might 
be explained. 

Throughout the surface of the plates, there appeared ring- 
like spots, some not more than one-tenth of an inch in 
diameter, while others were about half an inch in diameter. 
These spots were nearly clear after development. At first 
I was inclined to attribute the defect to the developer, but 
the otherwise perfect character of the negative at once 
refuted any such theory. That the plates were perfectly 
prepared, is proved by tne fact that some of them were tried 
previous to my departure, and were found to be free from 
blemish, and to work well. Also that one of them was 
exposed in Mazatlan, and developed on the same day, and 
was perfectly clear and clean. Some of those which re- 
mained undeveloped were placed in the hands of some of the 
members of the Society, and under their treatment pre- 

sented the same appearance; in one case, rather more so, 
than those which were exhibited by me. 

I have arrived at the conclusion that a decomposition of 
the coating of the plates takes place after exposure to light, 
and that when the development is delayed for too long 
a time, the decomposition will have progressed far enough 
to ruin the negative. The plates should, therefore, be 
developed as soon after exposure as can be conveniently- 
done. The time that can be allowed to elapse between 
exposure and development, without deterioration of the 
plates, depends upon so many contingencies, such as power 
or force of light, quality and condition of plate and tem- 
perature, and dryness, &c., &c., that no fixed rule can be 
fiven for it ; but I think that not more than ten to fourteen 
ays should ever be allowed to elapse ; although I have 
known plates kept successfully six weeks before develop- 

I have deduced the above conclusion from the facts, that 
the plates when first prepared and tried proved good ; that 
the plate, which was exposed, and soon after developed in 
Mazatlan, also proved good; while those in which the 
development was delayed for a long time, were all spotted. 

Two rules may be safely followed — in fact they should be, 
via.: — 

1st. That the plates, when exposed in the camera, shoal d 
be entirely free from moisture. 

2nd. That after exposure no more time should elapse than 
is unavoidable previous to development. 

I am apprehensive that the moisture of the climate may 
have dampened the plates at the time of exposure. 

Why the decomposition should have taken this peculiar 
form, instead of pervading the entire surface of the plate, 
and what is its primary cause, are subjects I am now 
investigating, and should my experiments lead to anything 
conclusive, you shall have the I'esults. 

I shall leave for Mexico in a few days, and shall take a 
good supply of tannin plates with me, and shall watch this 
matter with very close attention. There is difficulty in the 
way, somewhere, and, if possible, I will ferret it out. 

In the hope that these few hints may lead others in the 
right direction, and perhaps elicit an expression of their 
views upon this, so important a subject, I leave the matter 
with a promise to refer to it at my earliest opportunity. — 
American Journal. 


When will the world become wiser on the subject of photo- 
graphy ? Perhaps of all arts the photogi'aphic has been the 
one most misunderstood, and the one on which the largest 

Sortion of ignorant criticism has been written. In its earlier 
ays, portrait-painters took fright at the facility it possessed 
of affording a really truthful representation of life, and, 
fearing their own art would suffer, did all in their power to 
decry the latest-bom of science, and abused it as a mechanical 
method of producing a map of the face, having no power of 
giving a life-like presentment of the human face divine. 
The beautiful results exhibited by our best professors have, 
in some measure, removed this erroneous impression from 
the mind of the public, and the press has tardny given way 
in this matter to the voice of the many; but it is still 
curious to notice the rabid manner in which some of the 
writers of criticism in the daily papers oppose the introduction 
of fine art into photography : they still speak of the camera 
as an unthinking machine, forgetting that the machine, as 
the brush of the painter, is guided by the will of the operator. 
As a specimen of this kind of criticism, one may mention 
the review of our present Exhibition by the Daily News, 
The writer says — " If there is a development of the photo 
graphic art more offensive than any other, it is that in which 
the aim is to miike a subject^picture by 'arranging,' as the 
phrase is, so many properties and living lay figures as a 
picturesque composition. There is one particularly conceited 
attempt of this kind (166, ' Bringing Home the May') by 

March 6, 1863.] 



Mr. H. P. Robinson, to which a yerse of Spenser is appended. 
It b a large photograph, with women and children dressed 
up in conntry clothes ; bnt the Hay, intended to be as 
beautiful as the real flower, is a ridiculous-looking stuff, 
more like sponge than hawthom-blossom." Any of our 
readen who haye seen this elaborate composition, which 
occupied the thoughts of the artist for many months, will 
see tne absurdity of the paragraph we haye extracted. The 
latter part of it is particularly funny. We haye good reason 
for knowing that tne " May " photographed in the picture 
was not an artificial ''property," as the writer eyidently 
thought, but some of the finest in Warwickshire (a county 
celebrated for its hawthorn), gathered in an unusually good 

Bat, after all, we must not expect too much firom a 
writer of this kind^-one who probably has not time to 
think, but allows his brain to become, like his own idea of 
a camera, a mere machine, and runs off his " copy " mechani- 
cally, to fill a certain amount of space. But it is different 
with a writer who professes to haye an intimate knowledge 
of photography, and who has written on the subject for 
many years. In our last number we printed a paper read 
before the Photographic Society of Scotland (a Society 
distinguished for its appreciation of art-photography), by 
Mr. Sutton, in which he deliberately states, " The first chalk- 
drawings of a schoolboy upon a wall are, in my opinion, 
more admirable, from the human interest which they possess, 
than the finest yiew of inanimate natural objects upon the 
ground glass of a camera obscura." 

This, we take it, is rank heresy. We are not writing with 
the object of confuting Mr. Sutton's strange expression of 
his taste. We think we should only be insulting the intel- 
ligence of our readers, did we point out and attempt to 
proye logically that a fine yiew, as seen in a camera is much 
more beautiful than a schoolboy's caricatures. Our object 
is to express our deep regp^t that the higher branches of our 
cbarming art should be so misunderstood and abused by a 
gentleman who has earned the respect and esteem of all 
photographers by his many yaluabte inyentions for facili- 
tating the practice of the art-science. Mr. Sutton confesses 
that his opinions often change ; let us hope that they will 
experience yet one more variation in favour of the art he 
now writes so vigorously against, and that they will then 
remain permanent. — Photographic Journal. 


bt saxuxl hiohlst, f.cms., ac.* 


Mr. GflABLSS Jokes, as an old member of the Society, ex- 
preoed the deep interest he felt in the subject which had been 
so ably brought before them this evening, and the pleasure 
with which he had listened to Mr. Highley's paper ; and he 
congratulated the meeting upon the very practical m anner in 
which that gentleman had treated the subject. Since the 
year 1869, he (Mr. Jones) had devoted a great deal of atten- 
tion to photography in connection with the lantern, and the 
members would probably recollect that on two occasions, at Uie 
Society's conversazioni, he had exhibited a series of photo- 
graphic transparencies in the lantern, showing its capabilities 
as an educational instrument. Amongst other subjects of a 
popular character, he had recently photographed the engrav- 
ings given in the Illustrated London Newt^ representing various 
incidents connected with the distress in Lancashire, and he 
should feel obliged to Mr. Highley if he would be kind enough 
to include a few of those photographs in the illustrations with 
which he was about to favour the meeting. 

Mr. HiOHLBT said he should be most happy to do so. 

The Chaibman then suggested that he thought it would be 
more convenient that the illustrations should now be shown, 

* Concluded from page 105. 

and any further discussion upon the paper would take plaoe 

Mr. HiOHLEY then exhibited, on a large screen, an extensive 
series of lantern views of scientific subjects, illustrative of the 
appUcation of photography to the representation of geological, 
botanical, zoological, microscopical, astronomical, geographical, 
ethnological, biographical, and pathological subjects ; and after- 
wards examples of the representations of the artistic works 
of Kaulbach, Schnorr, and Hogarth ; together with groups of 
sculpture, as well as some spedmens fUmished by Mr. Charles 

The Chaibhak said it was now his duty to recall the atten- 
tion of the meeting to the subject which had been so ably 
brought forward in the paper, and to invite discussion upon it. 
After the illustrations they had just seen, he thought they 
would be bettor able to appreciate the paper which Mr. Highley 
had read. 

Mr. Peabsall thought the medical profession and society at 
large would be greatly benefited by the application of photo- 
graphy to the illustration of the various stages of the diseases 
of the human frame. He had frequently been called upon to 
make sketches of the progress of disease, but it was impossible 
for an artist to follow the rapid changes which sometimes took 
place in cases of a complicated character. In this respect, 
therefore, photography was of the greatest value. Its import- 
ance to the paladontologist was also manifested in the illustra- 
tions given of the restorations of extinct animals. With re- 
gard to the illustrations of the distress in Lancashire, he 
thought it was a remarkable proof of the perfection to which 
the art of wood engraving had oeen brought, that tiie subjects 
exhibited this evening bear the severe test of the high magnify- 
ing power to which they had been subjected in the lantern. 

Mr. W. Hawes thought so interesting a paper as this ought 
not to pass over without a few more observations than had 
already been made upon it ; for he thought very few would 
have had an idea of the importance of this subject in an educa- 
tional point of view, had thev not seen the illustrations which 
had been shown, and undoubtedly they would not have been in 
a position to discuss the merits of the paper, or to appreciate 
the views enunciated in it, without first seeing the illustrations 
by which it had been accompanied. When they considered 
that photography itself, as an art, was scarcely a dozen years 
old— that it was only just previous to the Exhibition of 1861 
that it was first practically applied — ^it was a striking illustration 
of the marvellous rapidity with which knowledge of all kinds 
was made available, and how soon it became popular and was 
turned to really useful account. It was only by the untiring 
ndustry of comparatively few persons, who had devoted them- 
selves to the study and development of this new art, that it 
could have been brought to such pefection as to allow of the 
production of such beautiful specimens as had been exhibited 
this evening. He thought their educational value could hardly 
be over estimated, and that those. present were much indebted 
to Mr. Hig